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Psychology 120 Final Study Guide

by: valerie zaid

Psychology 120 Final Study Guide PSY 120: Elementary Psychology- Hybrid

valerie zaid

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Complete study guide for the final based on the information that's on the book.
PSY 120: Elementary Psychology- Hybrid
Dr. George Hollich
Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by valerie zaid on Wednesday April 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 120: Elementary Psychology- Hybrid at Purdue University taught by Dr. George Hollich in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 239 views.

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Date Created: 04/20/16
Psychology Final Study Guide Chapter 7: o Phonology: o Phonotactics: Infants not only learn the individual sounds of their language  but also start to learn about how those sounds go together, something called  phonotactics. o Statistical learning: Even 9­months old notice which syllables go together  through a process they called statistical learning  o Segmentation: Infants discover words, or segment, the fluent stream of  speech. o Semantics:  o Grammar: o Infant­directed speech: a kind of exaggerated musical speech more  colloquially known as baby talk. o Precanonical: cute sounds: coo, oo’s, ahh’s o Canonical: somewhere around 6 months the lips become involved, “blah”,  “gah”, “ma” o Babbling: repeating these canonical forms over and over again. Parents  swear that their child just said mama or papa but not really o Advanced forms: around 10­18 months children begin using advanced  forms and start producing a word salad that sounds remarkably like speech.  o Intermodal preference procedure: An experiment used by psychologist  Peter Jusczyk in which a child might see a picture of mommy and daddy and then hear the words in order for the child to know what those words mean  and relate o Frequency: concept that the more situations and contexts in which a child  hears a word, the more likely the child is to learn it o Overgeneralize: for example, calling a dog a cat; getting confused  o Undergeneralize: for example, not calling Garfield a cat o Hart and Risley: studies conducted by them sadly seem to indicate that  children’s environment can differ quite dramatically on the frequency of  words they hear.  o Social cues:  o Autistic: autistic children who have difficulty following eye gaze also have  corresponding difficulties with language.  o Heuristics: what an unfamiliar word is likely to mean; after learning a few  words children might start to focus on shape when it comes time to learn  new words  o Extension: For example, knowing that the word “blick” extends to other  objects of similar shape  o Shape bias: makes it difficult for children to learn color words or more  abstract words, which aren’t learned until later  o Morphology: words and parts of words that clue you into the part of speech  and possible meaning of word o Syntax: the children must use the order of words to figure out who did what  to whom o Telegraphic speech: two­years old speech consisting of just one or two  words and none of the word fluff such as “the”, “has been”, or “that” o Berko Gleason’s Wug test: a test that indicates that by age 3, children  know a great deal about how words work and how they can work together to express new meanings.  Chapter 9: o IQ: A test that is calculated by dividing a children’s mental age with their  chronological age and then multiplying by 100. If your mental age is higher  than your chronological age you are above average with a score above 100.  o Mental age: the set of questions that children at each age could answer, so if you answer the same questions a 12­year old you would have a mental age  of 12  o Spearman’s g: being a good dancer or musician and also being analytical,  creative and practical. (General intelligence) o Analytical skills involve coming up with the single right answer and is the  thing most often highlighted by IQ tests.  This is sometimes called  crystallized intelligence and tends to become better with age; the more you  learn, the more you come to understand how the world works. “Geek  smarts” o Creative skills involve dealing with novelty, finding a novel solution to an  old problem or modifying an old solution to fit a new problem or domain.  This is sometimes called the fluid intelligence because it tends to be  2 strongest when young and can actually be hurt by expertise. Artist in his or  her field “art smarts” o Practical or contextual skills involve fitting in to the actual real world. Puts analytical and creative skills to practical use. “street smarts” o Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences: theory based on the kinds of  abilities that gifted children develop and is backed up by studies of the kinds of abilities that people seem to lose following brain damage.  o Kinesthetic: dancers, acrobats, athletes  o Interpersonal: deep understanding of self and an ability to be introspective  o Naturalistic: understanding of the natural world o Existential: understanding of deep philosophical/spiritual concepts  o WISC: for ages 6­16 years, comparable to IQ scores but in addition of  vocabulary tasks, some of the tasks include nonverbal performance measures (such as puzzles). o Standford­binet: test born with the IQ in order to standardize scores o Bayley’s infant test: made for infants 0 to 3 years and can be best thought  of as a screener for potential problems. (examines if the child is behaving  well for example) o Flynn effect: increase in scores, lower scores are getting better due to better  access of education  o Big 5 personality traits (OCEAN): Openness, Conscientiousness,  Extraversion, Agreeableness and Neuroticism Chapter 10: o Cued recall: evidence that infants can remember events  o Saving effect: learning a previously forgotten piece of information more  quickly than if you had never been taught it before  o Primacy/recency effect: o Infantile amnesia: tendency to forget events that happened before the age of 1 or 2 years.  o Meta­cognition: children have to know that they might forget something in  the first place (thinking about thinking) o Rehearsal: repeating items over and over  o Clusters: chunks of items which makes their recall more efficient  3 o Elaboration: expanding on a topic as a way of making the memory  stronger. The more you know the easier it is to remember any specific fact  about that thing.  o Stereotypes: the more you know about typical things, the less likely you are to pay attention when things are atypical.  o False memories: we get eyewitnesses who will claim they saw or  experienced some details and whole events that in reality never happened o Gist: rather than remembering absolutely everything about an event or a  thing, we tend to use our existing knowledge to fill in the details  o Autobiographical: memory for past events o Decoding: connection between individual words and meaning  o Whole word recognition:  o Automatic processes: as children develop automatic processes such as  whole­word recognition, spelling, and math­fact retrieval, they can devote  more brain power to the aspects that are not automatic  o One­to­one principle: children ages 3­4 will say numbers for each object  but are quite creative with the order.  o Cardinality principle: they understand that the last number is the number  of objects (around 4­5 years) o Stable order principle: they have difficulty understanding the importance if the final number in a count o Fact retrieval: even if they get arithmetic facts, they still struggle a great  deal with word problems and making the connections across different  problems.  o Confirmation bias:  o Anchoring bias:  o Availability/fluency effect: o Loss aversion/sunk cost effect: o Self­serving bias (fundamental attribution error):  Chapter 12.3, 12.5:  o Classical conditioning:  o CS/US/UR/CR: 4 o Operant conditioning: Discovered and perfected by the psychologist B. F.  Skinner, he suggested that children are supremely sensitive to the  consequences of their behavior.  o Reinforcement: if the consequences are good, that behavior is reinforced  and will increase in frequency o Punishment: if the consequences are bad, the behavior is punished and will  decrease in frequency o Negative reinforcement: the child is asked to do something he or she  doesn’t want to do, then the child whines or argues that he or she shouldn’t  have to do it, the parents are rewarding the children’s whining by taking  away something aversive (negative reinforcement)  o Observational learning:  o Reverse psychology:  o Self­control: ability to rise above immediate pleasures and not give in to  impulse o Delayed gratification task: (known as the marshmallow task) o Marshmallow task: Mischel gave 4­ to 6­year olds a dingle treat and told  them that if they could wait for 15 minutes, they could get another treat, The  older children were able to wait longer than the younger children.  o Mind­set: o Grit: self­control lets you stick with tough things, exercise even when you  want to stay in bed, finish homework even when something great is on TV  etc.  Chapter 14: o Onlooker: six­month olds are onlooker to play, nonsocial play because at  this stage children do not join in.  o Associative: starts around 15 months old, children are clearly playing  together but not working together. o Cooperative: by age 2 children not only play together but also work  together to structure their play. Without both participants it would work  o Sociodramatic play: with imagination comes sociodramatic or pretend play o Birth order effects: firstborn children and only children tend to be more  adult and achievement oriented (smarter, more mature and better leaders),  later­born children tend to be more innovative and sociable (popular) 5 o Sibling rivalry: instead of being the lone source of attention, they now must compete for attention and other resources.  o Popular: kids who everyone wants to befriend o Neglected: children who stand on the outside looking in, wanting to join but essentially being ignored by the rest of the children o Rejected: rejected usually for being different o Controversial: bot accepted by some and rejected by others o Types of groups and crowds: a group of 4­6 friends is called a clique, a  crowd is a group of friends all sharing similar interests and they tend to fall  into recognizable categories: jocks, geeks, glee club members, skaters etc. o Preventing prejudice: finding new solutions and cooperation can bring  people together and make prejudice disappear.  o Diffusion of responsibility:  o Kitty Genovese: o Shock study: o Asch conformity effects: Chapter 15: o Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological systems theory: suggests that there are both  direct and indirect effects on children from a wide range of sources o Microsystem: everything that comes in direct contact with children and has  direct measurable effects on children and their development. (ex. Parents) o Mesosystem: when the child isn’t around the people in the microsystem  keep interacting with each other, their interactions outside direct interactions with the child still have effects o Exosystem: people and things that aren’t in direct contact with the child but  have and effect on the mesosystem (ex. Parent’s workplace, parent’s friends  or extended family) o Macrosystem: cultural ideals and laws that set the field of play for all these  interactions o WEIRD effects: (WEIRD: western, educated, industrialized, rich, and  democratic) o TV effects: examples: test scores go down, socialization goes down, and  violence goes up.  6 o Mean world beliefs: it seems that watching violent shows contributes to  mean world beliefs and is strongly correlated with aggression.  o Self­esteem: a person’s feeling about his or her own self­worth o Social comparison: children see for themselves that others are better than  the, they start to find their areas of strength and feel bad about themselves in  other areas o Neurodevelopmental:  o Mood: o Anxiety: o Psychotic disorders: o Schizophrenia: o OCD: o PTSD: o Phobias: o Bipolar: o Depression: 7


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