Psychology Final Study Guide
o Phonotactics: Infants not only learn the individual sounds of their language but also start to learn about how those sounds go together, something called phonotactics.
o Statistical learning: Even 9months old notice which syllables go together through a process they called statistical learning
o Segmentation: Infants discover words, or segment, the fluent stream of speech.
o Infantdirected speech: a kind of exaggerated musical speech more colloquially known as baby talk. Don't forget about the age old question of uninstitutionalized
o Precanonical: cute sounds: coo, oo’s, ahh’s
o Canonical: somewhere around 6 months the lips become involved, “blah”, “gah”, “ma”
o Babbling: repeating these canonical forms over and over again. Parents swear that their child just said mama or papa but not really
o Advanced forms: around 1018 months children begin using advanced forms and start producing a word salad that sounds remarkably like speech. o Intermodal preference procedure: An experiment used by psychologist Peter Jusczyk in which a child might see a picture of mommy and daddy and then hear the words in order for the child to know what those words mean and relate We also discuss several other topics like econ3303 class notes
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o Frequency: concept that the more situations and contexts in which a child hears a word, the more likely the child is to learn it
o Overgeneralize: for example, calling a dog a cat; getting confused o Undergeneralize: for example, not calling Garfield a cat
o Hart and Risley: studies conducted by them sadly seem to indicate that children’s environment can differ quite dramatically on the frequency of words they hear.
o Social cues:
o Autistic: autistic children who have difficulty following eye gaze also have corresponding difficulties with language.
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o Heuristics: what an unfamiliar word is likely to mean; after learning a few words children might start to focus on shape when it comes time to learn new words
o Extension: For example, knowing that the word “blick” extends to other objects of similar shape
o Shape bias: makes it difficult for children to learn color words or more abstract words, which aren’t learned until later
o Morphology: words and parts of words that clue you into the part of speech and possible meaning of word
o Syntax: the children must use the order of words to figure out who did what to whom
o Telegraphic speech: twoyears old speech consisting of just one or two words and none of the word fluff such as “the”, “has been”, or “that” o Berko Gleason’s Wug test: a test that indicates that by age 3, children
know a great deal about how words work and how they can work together to express new meanings.
o IQ: A test that is calculated by dividing a children’s mental age with their chronological age and then multiplying by 100. If your mental age is higher than your chronological age you are above average with a score above 100.
o Mental age: the set of questions that children at each age could answer, so if you answer the same questions a 12year old you would have a mental age of 12
o Spearman’s g: being a good dancer or musician and also being analytical, creative and practical. (General intelligence)
o Analytical skills involve coming up with the single right answer and is the thing most often highlighted by IQ tests. This is sometimes called crystallized intelligence and tends to become better with age; the more you learn, the more you come to understand how the world works. “Geek smarts” We also discuss several other topics like anciple
o Creative skills involve dealing with novelty, finding a novel solution to an old problem or modifying an old solution to fit a new problem or domain. This is sometimes called the fluid intelligence because it tends to be Don't forget about the age old question of fren 3200 class notes
strongest when young and can actually be hurt by expertise. Artist in his or her field “art smarts”
o Practical or contextual skills involve fitting in to the actual real world. Puts analytical and creative skills to practical use. “street smarts”
o Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences: theory based on the kinds of abilities that gifted children develop and is backed up by studies of the kinds of abilities that people seem to lose following brain damage.
o Kinesthetic: dancers, acrobats, athletes
o Interpersonal: deep understanding of self and an ability to be introspective o Naturalistic: understanding of the natural world
o Existential: understanding of deep philosophical/spiritual concepts o WISC: for ages 616 years, comparable to IQ scores but in addition of vocabulary tasks, some of the tasks include nonverbal performance measures (such as puzzles).
o Standfordbinet: test born with the IQ in order to standardize scores o Bayley’s infant test: made for infants 0 to 3 years and can be best thought of as a screener for potential problems. (examines if the child is behaving well for example)
o Flynn effect: increase in scores, lower scores are getting better due to better access of education
o Big 5 personality traits (OCEAN): Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness and Neuroticism
o Cued recall: evidence that infants can remember events
o Saving effect: learning a previously forgotten piece of information more quickly than if you had never been taught it before
o Primacy/recency effect:
o Infantile amnesia: tendency to forget events that happened before the age of 1 or 2 years.
o Metacognition: children have to know that they might forget something in the first place (thinking about thinking)
o Rehearsal: repeating items over and over
o Clusters: chunks of items which makes their recall more efficient 3
o Elaboration: expanding on a topic as a way of making the memory stronger. The more you know the easier it is to remember any specific fact about that thing.
o Stereotypes: the more you know about typical things, the less likely you are to pay attention when things are atypical.
o False memories: we get eyewitnesses who will claim they saw or experienced some details and whole events that in reality never happened o Gist: rather than remembering absolutely everything about an event or a thing, we tend to use our existing knowledge to fill in the details o Autobiographical: memory for past events
o Decoding: connection between individual words and meaning o Whole word recognition:
o Automatic processes: as children develop automatic processes such as wholeword recognition, spelling, and mathfact retrieval, they can devote more brain power to the aspects that are not automatic
o Onetoone principle: children ages 34 will say numbers for each object but are quite creative with the order.
o Cardinality principle: they understand that the last number is the number of objects (around 45 years)
o Stable order principle: they have difficulty understanding the importance if the final number in a count
o Fact retrieval: even if they get arithmetic facts, they still struggle a great deal with word problems and making the connections across different problems.
o Confirmation bias:
o Anchoring bias:
o Availability/fluency effect:
o Loss aversion/sunk cost effect:
o Selfserving bias (fundamental attribution error):
Chapter 12.3, 12.5:
o Classical conditioning:
o Operant conditioning: Discovered and perfected by the psychologist B. F. Skinner, he suggested that children are supremely sensitive to the consequences of their behavior.
o Reinforcement: if the consequences are good, that behavior is reinforced and will increase in frequency
o Punishment: if the consequences are bad, the behavior is punished and will decrease in frequency
o Negative reinforcement: the child is asked to do something he or she doesn’t want to do, then the child whines or argues that he or she shouldn’t have to do it, the parents are rewarding the children’s whining by taking away something aversive (negative reinforcement)
o Observational learning:
o Reverse psychology:
o Selfcontrol: ability to rise above immediate pleasures and not give in to impulse
o Delayed gratification task: (known as the marshmallow task) o Marshmallow task: Mischel gave 4 to 6year olds a dingle treat and told them that if they could wait for 15 minutes, they could get another treat, The older children were able to wait longer than the younger children. o Mindset:
o Grit: selfcontrol lets you stick with tough things, exercise even when you want to stay in bed, finish homework even when something great is on TV etc.
o Onlooker: sixmonth olds are onlooker to play, nonsocial play because at this stage children do not join in.
o Associative: starts around 15 months old, children are clearly playing together but not working together.
o Cooperative: by age 2 children not only play together but also work together to structure their play. Without both participants it would work o Sociodramatic play: with imagination comes sociodramatic or pretend play o Birth order effects: firstborn children and only children tend to be more adult and achievement oriented (smarter, more mature and better leaders), laterborn children tend to be more innovative and sociable (popular)
o Sibling rivalry: instead of being the lone source of attention, they now must compete for attention and other resources.
o Popular: kids who everyone wants to befriend
o Neglected: children who stand on the outside looking in, wanting to join but essentially being ignored by the rest of the children
o Rejected: rejected usually for being different
o Controversial: bot accepted by some and rejected by others o Types of groups and crowds: a group of 46 friends is called a clique, a crowd is a group of friends all sharing similar interests and they tend to fall into recognizable categories: jocks, geeks, glee club members, skaters etc. o Preventing prejudice: finding new solutions and cooperation can bring people together and make prejudice disappear.
o Diffusion of responsibility:
o Kitty Genovese:
o Shock study:
o Asch conformity effects:
o Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological systems theory: suggests that there are both direct and indirect effects on children from a wide range of sources o Microsystem: everything that comes in direct contact with children and has direct measurable effects on children and their development. (ex. Parents) o Mesosystem: when the child isn’t around the people in the microsystem keep interacting with each other, their interactions outside direct interactions with the child still have effects
o Exosystem: people and things that aren’t in direct contact with the child but have and effect on the mesosystem (ex. Parent’s workplace, parent’s friends or extended family)
o Macrosystem: cultural ideals and laws that set the field of play for all these interactions
o WEIRD effects: (WEIRD: western, educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic)
o TV effects: examples: test scores go down, socialization goes down, and violence goes up.
o Mean world beliefs: it seems that watching violent shows contributes to mean world beliefs and is strongly correlated with aggression. o Selfesteem: a person’s feeling about his or her own selfworth o Social comparison: children see for themselves that others are better than the, they start to find their areas of strength and feel bad about themselves in other areas
o Psychotic disorders: