Exam 3 Study Guide
Exam 3 Study Guide HS 2813
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaela Brewington on Wednesday April 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HS 2813 at Mississippi State University taught by Angel Fason in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 71 views. For similar materials see Child Development in Human Development at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 04/20/16
HS 2813 Child Development Exam 3 Study Guide Be able to define social development. o A process in which children become integrated into the larger social community and become differentiated as adults. Be familiar with Erikson’s stages. Which one is critical during the preschool years? Be familiar with both sides of this conflict. o Stages: Birth-18 months: TRUST VS MISTRUST 18 months-3 years: AUTONOMY VS SHAME/DOUBT 3-6 years: INITIATIVE VS GUILT o Initiative vs. guilt: Initiative: Eagerness to try new things Join activities with peers Play permits trying out new skills Act out highly visible occupations Guilt Overly strict superego/ conscience Related to excessive threats/criticism/punishment from adults Be able to discuss children’s self-concept. o Awareness of oneself as a separate and unique individual o Dynamic and changes over time 4 accomplishments: Self-awareness Self-recognition Self-definition Self-esteem Be able to discuss self-regulation and self-regulation strategies. o Self-regulation is the ability to control one’s emotion, behaviors, and feelings Myelination is complete by age 2 which may contribute to ability to regulate responses o Strategies: Social referencing: looking at adult/ parent figures for emotional information. Active engagement: distracting themselves Effortful control: ability to stop an action that is already underway. Self-soothing behaviors: self-manipulating, verbal, or physical venting behaviors. Language Be familiar with the influences on children’s ability to self-regulate. o Regulation is needed to learn and solve problems. o Regulation is needed to meet social goals. 1 Be able to describe how well children can understand emotions in early childhood. o As preschoolers that can judge causes of emotions, predict actions based on emotions, and help relieve others feelings. o Parenting strongly influences emotional competence o Self-regulation improves o More self-conscious emotions (shame, guilt) as self-concept develops o Empathy, sympathy and prosocial behaviors increase. Be familiar with the terms empathy and sympathy. o Empathy: The ability to understand and share the feelings of someone else. o Sympathy: Feelings of pity for someone else’s misfortune. Be familiar with the different types of play and be able to answer questions about each type. o Early forms of play: Nonsocial: Unoccupied, onlooker behavior Parallel play: Plays near children and with similar toys, but does not try to play with them. Social Interaction: Associative play: o Engage in separate activities but exchange toys and comment on one another’s play Cooperative play: o Children that play with each other, toward a common goal. Be familiar with what early childhood friendships look like. What does the research in the text say about friendships? o Friendship is described as someone who likes you, plays with you and shares toys with you. o Friendships change frequently in early childhood. How can parents help children develop positive peer relationships? o Direct: Arrange informal peer activities Guidance on how to act towards others o Indirect: Secure attachment Emotionally expressive, supportive communication Be able to describe the overall 3-step process of gender development that occurs during childhood o Step 1: Label sex (their own and others) o Step 2: Begin to define categories of gender in terms of behaviors and actions 2 o Step 3: Begin to incorporate gender information into identity Be familiar with the study described in class on early gender development – what information does it provide about when children start to develop gender preferences? o Research presenting visual images of vehicles and dolls 12 months: both sex’s look equally at both objects 18 months: boys look at cars longer and girls look at dolls longer Be able to define gender typing o Process of associating objects, activities, roles and traits with one sex or the other. Provide some examples of gender typing in early childhood o Boys play with blocks/ girl’s color and dance. o Boys like blue and green/ girls like pink and purple. Be able to define gender roles. o Beliefs and expectations about what is appropriate behavior for males and females. Be familiar with the term gender constancy. o Be familiar with the story of David Reimer – what does his story tell us about the nature of gender role development? o That despite any physical changes made to the body, the biological gender-role identification is inherited. (Genetic mechanisms=hormones) Be able to discuss the three theories of gender role development: social learning theory, cognitive developmental theory, and gender schema theory o Social Learning Theory: Gender typing behavior leads to gender identity o Cognitive Development Theory: Self-perceptions (gender constancy) comes before behavior o Gender Schema: Combines social learning and cognitive developmental theories Be able to define gender identity. What does it mean to have an androgynous gender identity? o An image of oneself as feminine or masculine o Androgyny: viewing self as high on both masculine and feminine spectrum Be familiar with information on moral development and definitions associated with moral development. o Understanding society’s rules o Ability to distinguish right and wrong o Developing a set of values o Morality: Ability to distinguish right from wrong o Moral development: Process by which human beings learn to monitor their own actions Deciding whether a tempting behavior is appropriate or inappropriate o Moral affect: 3 Internalization of moral values from adult role models Feeling associated with guilty or clear conscience o Moral Reasoning: Thinking processes for deciding what is or is not moral behavior o Preconventional Morality: Lawrence Kohlberg’s first stage of morality Children perceive right and wrong in terms of what the behavior will do for them. Explaining reasons for rules and fosters moral development o Conventional Morality: Kohlberg’s second stage Develop self-control and learn to get along with others Focus on simplistic perceptions of goodness and badness Desire to please others Try to follow rules of family and community Begin to adopt ethical standards of important models Attachment, love, and respect trigger internalization of values. o Post conventional morality o Kohlberg’s third stage Older children and adults develop internal conscience Conscience hinges on internalized principals and values that guide behavior Focus on being responsible part of cooperative society Be able to discuss the different perspectives on moral development and answer questions about each. o Psychoanalytic: FREUD: Superego and guilt TODAY: Induction, empathy-based guilt o Social learning: Modeling moral behavior o Behaviorist: Rewards and punishments o Cognitive-Development: Children as active thinkers about social rules Be familiar with the four types of parenting styles. Be able to distinguish between them and recognize features of each. o Authoritative: Parents: Controlling and warm Child-centered Accept that the child has a point of view Children: Self-reliant 4 Self-controls Displays curiosity o Authoritarian: Parents: Controlling with less warmth Stress obedience Discourage negotiation Children: Low social competence/ low self esteem May withdraw from social interactions Low curiosity Low outward direction o Permissive: Parents: Not controlling, but warm Believe children will learn on their own Either over indulge nor are they inattentive Children: Immature Difficulty controlling impulses Difficulty gaining independence Disobedient and rebellious Which parenting style is the most effective? Be able to name reasons why it is most effective. o Authoritative Warm, involved parents Child far more likely to involve parents Let children know they are smart individuals, which fosters self- esteem Supportive Be able to list and describe the four types of child maltreatment. o Physical abuse o Sexual abuse o Neglect o Emotional abuse Be able to discuss why the meaning of the title “Ordinary Magic”. Be familiar with terms from the article. o “Resilience does not require extraordinary resources in most cases, but instead is the result of what might be called ‘Ordinary Magic’.” Be able to answer questions about Raising Cain video that we watched in class. How does this relate to gender development? o They categorization of boys in school and the expectations for girls vs. boys in the classroom, their play, etc. Please note that other questions from notes or discussion may be included on the test as well. This is strictly a guide to help you organize your studying! 5 6
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