COMM 214 Final Exam Study Guide
COMM 214 Final Exam Study Guide Comm 214
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Carly Notetaker on Wednesday April 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Comm 214 at College of Charleston taught by Dr. Milner in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Communications in Journalism and Mass Communications at College of Charleston.
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Date Created: 04/20/16
COMM 214: MEDIA IN THE DIGITAL AGE FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE HISTORY Written Era o Manuscript – a book or document written by hand (scrolls, cave walls, etc.) o Codex – the technology of the book (cover, independent pages, back) Print Era o The Printing Press 1450’s Johannes Gutenberg A machine for printing text or pictures from type or plates Gave ability to quickly duplicate materials and greatly increased literacy o Yellow Journalism – an exaggerated form of journalism, most stories fabricated, led to the development of ‘muckraking’ (investigative journalism) o Dime Novels/Pulp Fiction – an inexpensive form of media, looked down upon by many Broadcast (Electronic) Era o Phonograph – created by Thomas Edison, originally intended for business rather than music o Gramophone – created by Berliner, used flat disks rather than cylinders o Kinetoscope – motion-picture device, using a single peephole o Vitascope – a film projector, made the screen bigger viewed by more people o Nickelodeons - 5¢ movies, lower-class Digital Era o Digitalization o Hypertext – beyond text, a software system that links topics on the screen to related info & graphics INDUSTRY Commercialism o 1934 Communications Act legalized the commercialization of our mass media networks did NOT allow monopolistic practices Fair competition and journalistic integrity Conglomeration o 1996 Telecommunications Act erased limitations on monopolies o Oligopoly – a small state of competition in which a market is shared by a small number of producers & sellers Branding o Making your product distinct, assigning an image to it Product Placement o A practice in which companies gain exposure for their products by paying for them to be featured in movies & TV programs Net Neutrality o Principle that Internet service provider and the gov. should treat all data equally o NOT discriminating or charging differently by user, content, or site Intellectual Property o Copyright – the exclusive legal right given to the originator to print, publish, film, or record material & the ability to authorize others to do the same o Public Domain – the state of belonging or being available to the public as a whole (not subject to copyright) LITERACY Multimodality (the combining of several modes of communication) o Rivalry – the competition between multiple modes of media o Complimentary – two different forms of media work together to compliment one another (ex: The Walking Dead comes in the form of a comic book as well as a TV show) o Convergence – multiple modes of media coming together to form one (e-book, watching TV on a laptop) Digital Divide o The division between those who have ready access to computers & the Internet and those who do not AGENCY Media Studies o Social Scientific Approaches – measure & predict o Humanities Approaches – describe & interpret Media Effect Perspective (Media Content): BAYM o Direct vs. Minimal Effects o Agenda Setting – ability of media to set the public agenda and determine what is worth public attention o Cultivation – spend time ‘living in television world’, more likely to believe that the world is more violent rather than becoming more violent o Hegemony – power wielded through ideology, getting people to buy into different ideologies to keep certain groups down (women, blacks, youth etc.) or to raise & benefit others Ideology: a system of ideas & ideals Normalization: maintains ‘order’ on society False Consciousness: the decisions we make are majorly influenced by what we ‘should’ do (our decisions are already made for us by society) Cultural Contradictions: ways within the system to work against the system o Uses & Gratifications – using media for social & psychological pleasure, people take what they want from media narratives Technological Influence Perspectives (Media Form): o Technological Determinism – blaming technology for today’s problems o Social Construction of Technology – blaming society for today’s problems o Utopianism – technology is doing more good than harm o Dystopianism- technology is doing more harm than good o Moral Panic – ‘technology scares’, concerns of societal decline due to new technologies, extreme dystopianism Addiction: a strong & harmful need to have or do something Narcissism: to become utterly obsessed and enthralled with oneself Anonymity: the condition of being anonymous o Domestication – when something becomes more normal, accepted, & familiar CULTURE Popular Culture Consensus Narratives o Mass media aren’t only psychologically engaging but also socially engaging Participatory Media o Produsage – user led content creation o Audiences vs. Publics Audience – often viewed as more passive, consumers Public – active groups, ‘collectives’, the Internet has allowed for more of a public than before (collaborators, critics, producers) o Collective Intelligence - Everyone shares their knowledge on specific topics, mobilize individual skills, enhances each other’s knowledge Civic Engagement o Active participation in community events Media Networks o Centralized – One-to-Many Communication o Decentralized – One-to-One Communication o Distributed – Many-to-Many Communication
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