New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Test 3 Guide Microbiology 2300 O'Mayas

by: Kazendi Simon

Test 3 Guide Microbiology 2300 O'Mayas BIOL 2300

Marketplace > Georgia State University > Biology > BIOL 2300 > Test 3 Guide Microbiology 2300 O Mayas
Kazendi Simon
GPA 3.8

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes are good for anyone taking Microbiology; the information is concise and easy to understand.
Hanan Lea El-Mayas (P)
Study Guide
50 ?





Popular in Biology

This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kazendi Simon on Wednesday April 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 2300 at Georgia State University taught by Hanan Lea El-Mayas (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see MICROBIOLOGY & PUBLIC HEALTH in Biology at Georgia State University.


Reviews for Test 3 Guide Microbiology 2300 O'Mayas


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 04/20/16
Micro Biology Mock Test Guide Matching Questions 1. The enterotoxins are produced by Clostridium difficle, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp.,  Vibrio cholerae, and certain serotypes of E. coli.A  2. The neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium tetani are examples of virulence factors. 3. The necrotizing enzymes produced by Clostridium perfringens and Streptococcus  pyogenes are examples of virulence factors. 4. Kinases are exoenzymes that dissolve clots 5.  Coagulases  are exoenzymes that cause clot formation  6. Endotoxin is a virulence factor that is found in (and released from) the cell walls of  Gram­negative bacteria. 7.   The molecules on the surfaces of host cells that pathogens are able to recognize and  attach to are known as receptors or adhesins. 8. Molecules on the surfaces of pathogens that are able to recognize and bind to molecules  on the surfaces of host cells are known as ligands or integrins. 9. Hyaluronidase is also known as “spreading factor.” 10. Leukocidins are toxins that destroy white blood cell The Truth of the Matter 1. Bacterial capsules protect bacteria from being phagocytized by leukocytes. 2. Rickettsias and chlamydias are examples of obligate intracellular pathogens. 3. It is thought that the waxes in the cell walls of Mycobacterium tuberculosis protect this  pathogen from digestion within phagocytes 4. Although most people use the terms “infection” and “infectious disease” synonymously,  microbiologists define infection as colonization by a pathogen.  5. Avirulent strains do not cause disease. Why you Always Lying 1. A headache is a classic example of a sign of a disease. 2. In order to cause disease, all bacterial pathogens must first attach to some tissue in the  body. 3. Babesia spp., Ehrlichia spp., and Plasmodium spp. are examples of intraerythrocytic  pathogens. 4. The exoenzyme that causes toxic shock syndrome is called erthyrogenic toxin. 5. The neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium tetani cause a  spastic, rigid type of paralysis. Help me understand. Why? 1. How are microbes able to resist immunologic clearance? Give at least one example of each  mechanism.  Encapsulation a. Bacteria have capsules around their membranes, which sometimes interfere with  opsonization by inactivating C3b and antibodies. i. Ex. Streptococcus Pneumoniae produces capsules that enable this  mechanic  Fc Receptors a. Proteins found on bacteria, which bind the Fc regions of the antibodies to the  bacterial surface, interfering with opsonization. Bacterial cells coat themselves  with antibody molecules with the Fab region projecting outward, instead of the Fc region. (Phagocytic cells cannot recognize this region) i. Ex. Staph. Aureus makes Fc receptors to counter IgA  IgA Protease a. This enzyme on bacteria cleaves IgA, rendering it useless. i. Ex. Neisseria Gonorrhoeae produces this enzyme  Antigenic Variation a. Pathogens routinely alter the structure of their surface antigens, so antibodies  cannot recognize them. i. Ex. Neisseria Gonorrhoeae varies the antigenic structures on its pili  Mimicking Host Molecules a. Pathogens sometimes cover themselves with similar molecules to those normally  found in the host. The immune system will not attach its “own body”. i. Ex. Streptococcus Pyogenes have a capsule made of hyaluronic acid,  which is found in human tissues 2. What are the three general types of exotoxins?  List examples of each type.  A­B Toxins ­ Composed of two subunits, A & B. The A subunit is the toxic, or active  part: the B subunit binds to the target cell.  Clostridium botulinum: Botulism (Disease); botulinum toxin (Name of toxin)  Flaccid paralysis {Characteristic}  Blocks transmission of nerve signals to the muscles by preventing the release  of acetylcholine.   Superantigens – Overidde the specificity of the T­cell response. (Force them to act on a  whim)  Staphyococcus aureas [Specific strain]: Foodborne intoxication (Disease);  staphylococcal enterotoxins (Name of Toxin)  Inducing vomiting and nausea {Characteristics}  Not well understood with respect to how the ingested toxins lead to the  characteristic symptoms of foodborne intoxications.   Membrane – Damaging Toxins: Disrupt plasma membranes  Clostridum perfringens: Gas gangrene (Disease); α­toxin (Name of Toxin)   Causing tissue damage. {Characteristic}  Removes the polar head group on phospholipids in the membrane; thus  destroying the membrane integrity.   Forms in which the Exotoxins operate.  Enterotoxins: Cause symptoms associated with intestinal disturbance, such as  diarrhea and vomiting.   Neurotoxins: Damage the nervous system. Causing symptoms such as paralysis.  Cytotoxins: Damage a variety of different cell types, either by interfering with  essential cellular mechanisms or by lysing cells. 3. Name three routes by which exogenous pathogens can infect a person. List 5 examples that  use each route. So that’s what that means! 1. Avirulent: microbe lacks the ability to cause disease 2. Opportunist: able to produce disease in a host with impaired defenses 3. Colonization: establish microbial growth on a body surface 4. Pathogen/Virulence: disease­causing organism The Truth of the Matter  1. The most successful parasites are the ones that live in harmony with their hosts.  2. A disease is an infection that impairs the normal state of health.  3. High concentrations of some bacteria are necessary for successful invasion because only  at high density are their virulence genes expressed.  4. During incubation and convalescence a person may still spread infectious organisms.  Why you Always Lying 1. Infection always leads to disease.  2. Obligate intracellular parasites may be grown in special synthetic media  3. The infectious dose of most pathogens is about equal.  4. A strong attachment of a microorganism to a host cell automatically leads to disease. 5. Only Gram­positive bacteria produce exotoxins.  Skin and Wound Infections 1. The normal habitat of Clostridium tetani is in soil and dust  2. Wound infections may result in delayed healing, abscess formation and extension of  bacteria or their products into surrounding tissues or bloodstream. 3. {Which of the following?} Streptococcus pyogenes has been associated with the flesh­ eating organism.   4. A localized collection of pus in a wound is termed abscess. 5. Factor(s) not found in abscesses is/are blood vessels. 6. Tetanus prevents the release of neurotransmitters from inhibitory neurons. 7. Tetanus antitoxin is antibody against the toxin. 8. The toxin implicated in C. perfringens toxicity is alpha­toxin phospholipase. 9. E fective treatment of gas gangrene primarily involves the surgical removal of dead and  infected tissues. 10. {Which of the following?} P. aeruginosa produces a greenish pigment that may appear  in infected wounds. 11. Diphtheroids are part of the normal flora of the skin, are responsible for body odor and  include P. acnes. 12. {Which of the following?} Malassezia spp. normal skin flora is small yeast. 13. The growth of P. acnes within hair follicles, in many individuals, leads to acne. 14. The principal species of Staphylococcus found on the skin is epidermidis. 15. The bacteria that appear to maintain balance between the members of the normal flora  and play a vital role in limiting colonization by pathogens are staphylococci. 16. The member of the normal flora sometimes considered responsible for tinea versicolor  is Malassezia spp. 17. {Which?} Carbuncles is deemed the most serious staphylococcal skin infection. 18. A protein associated with a more virulent form of Staphylococcus is coagulase. 19. The protein produced by S. aureus that interferes with phagocytosis is protein A. 20. The preferred habitat of S. aureus is the nasal chamber. 21. {Which of the following?} Coagulase may aid Staphylococcus in resisting phagocytosis. 22. {Which of the following?}Alpha toxin is the virulence factor used by Staphylococcus  puts holes in host cells. 23. S. aureus clumping factor causes bacteria to clump together in plasma. 24. Approximately 90% of S. aureus strains are resistant to penicillin. 25. The S. aureus product that causes scalded skin syndrome is/are exfoliation toxin. 26. A frequent complication of scalded skin syndrome is a secondary infection caused  by Pseudomonas spp. 27. In addition to S. aureus, impetigo may also involve S. pyogenes 28. {In which of the following does?}During Rocky Mountain spotted fever a rash start on  the palms and soles and progress toward the trunk. 29. The major vector of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in the western U.S. is Dermacentor  andersoni. 30. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is an example of a(n) zoonosis. 31. After being bitten by an infected tick, transfer of the rickettsial organism occurs within 4­ 10 hours. 32. {Which of the following?}Rickettsia rickettsi is an obligate intracellular parasite. 33. The causative agent of Lyme disease is Borrelia burgdorferi. 34. The unique characteristic of Lyme disease is erythema migrans. 35. The stage of Lyme disease that is characterized by arthritis is the third. 36. The most important vector of Lyme disease in the eastern U.S. is Ixodes scapularis. 37. {Which of the following} Spirochete pertains to Borrelia burgdorferi. 38. The preferred host of Ixodes scapularis is the white­footed mouse. 39. The growth stage of the vector that is mainly responsible for transmitting Lyme disease is the nymph stage. 40. Many childhood diseases caused by viral infections of the upper respiratory tract can  usually be diagnosed by inspection of the rash. 41. A common viral rash of childhood with the popular name chicken pox is also known as   varicella. 42. The varicella virus is a member of herpes virus family. 43. Reactivation of chickenpox is called shingles and herpes zoster. 44. The childhood disease that damages the body defenses and is frequently complicated by  secondary infections involving, primarily, Gram­positive cocci is measles . 45. The rubeola virus contains single­stranded RNA. 46. Rubella, rubeola and varicella­zoster are all only acquired via the respiratory route. 47. An important diagnostic sign of measles is Koplik's spots. 48. The MMR vaccine is used to protect against measles, mumps, rubella. 49. The most serious consequence of rubella is birth defects . 50. Rubella is a member of togavirus family. 51. Warts are caused by papillomavirus. 52. The skin­invading molds belong to the genera pidermophyton, Microsporum, and  Trichophyton. Hypothetically Speaking…  Situation  A three year old developed a series of blister like lesions around her nose and mouth.  The lesions remained localized to the area and began to scab over the next couple of days.  However the parents grew concerned when the second child developed the same kind of lesions. Characteristics of Disease:   Numerous gram positive cocci in chain and numerous pus cells  Culture shows large number of group A beta hemolytic streptococci and a few Staph  aureus What’s the Diagnosis Doctor?  Impetigo  Situation: Your patient has a subacute bacterial endocarditis caused by a number of the viridans  group of Streptococci.  Issue: Where is organism located on or in my body? What’s the Diagnosis Doctor?  Your skin Nothing but Truth. 1. The very low humidity of the desert would lead to rapid evaporation of sweat and sebum  from an individual's skin.  Bacteria need these secretions for a nutrient source.  Without  them, bacteria would be found in much lower numbers on the skin of a person in the desert  than the skin of the person in the tropics. 2. Diphtheroids are responsible for body odor.  3. Coagulase­positive S. aureus is often involved in disease.  4. Borrelia burgdorferi is a spirochete with a number of axial filaments.  5. Varicella is a member of the herpes family of viruses and produces a latent infection.  6. Humans are the only reservoir for varicella­zoster.  7. Complications of measles may include pneumonia and encephalitis.  8. Chickenpox and measles are both acquired by the respiratory route.  9. The MMR vaccine is used to protect against measles, mumps, and rubella.   10. Diseases caused by fungi are called mycoses.  11. The skin­invading molds are collectively called dermatophytes.   Situational Problem Solving Situation: A public health official was asked to speak about immunizations during a civic group  luncheon.  One parent asked if rubella was still a problem.  In answering the question, the official cautioned women planning to have another child to have their present children immunized  against rubella.  Why did the official make this statement to the group?   Why Me Doctor?  Rubella is spread by direct contact with nasal or throat secretions of infected individuals.  Rubella can also be transmitted by breathing in droplets that are sprayed into the air when an infected person sneezes, coughs or talks. This can cause the death of the fetus, or it  may cause CRS. Even though it is a mild childhood illness CRS causes many birth  defects. Is it Possible?  Rubella is passed very easily between children, so the official was trying to protect the  child that would soon be born from this infection that might be brought in by its siblings  after it was born. [True]  Rubella is spread very easily by respiratory secretions and is largely asymptomatic.   However, it can cause birth defects/stillbirth in pregnant women.  Women with other  children would want to prevent these children from acquiring the virus before attempting  to conceive a new child in order to protect the fetus. [False]  The official is getting kickbacks and bribes from the companies making the vaccines, and he's trying to pad his pockets by getting as many people immunized as possible,  regardless of whether they need it or not. [False]  Rubella infections often lead to very serious and potentially fatal complications.  While a  woman is pregnant, she may not be able to take care of a sick child as easily.  The  vaccine will prevent the child already in the family from falling ill and potentially dying  due to these possible complications. [True] Situation: When Lyme disease was first being investigated, the observation that frequently only 1 person in a household was infected was a clue leading to the discovery that the disease was  spread by arthropod bites.  Why was this so?  


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.