anthro final notes
anthro final notes ANTHROP2202
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verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
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verified elite notetaker
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verified elite notetaker
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This 23 page Study Guide was uploaded by Melissa Griest on Thursday February 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANTHROP2202 at Ohio State University taught by Erin Kane in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 143 views. For similar materials see Cultural Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 02/19/15
Culture the Individual and the Childhood a The importance of the individual i Individual is largely ignored in anthropology ii However individuals are important 1 Agents of change Individuals of a society are the ones who will begin to advocate for change such as change in economic systems education systems and political systems a EX Gandhi 2 Source of cultural information iii Crosscultural variation realm of psychological anthropologists b Cultural Variation i Interplay between culture and personality 1 Kardiner a Primary institutions shape personality b Secondary institutions shaped by basic personality of culture c Psychological Anthropology i Asks four main questions 1 To what extent do all human beings develop psychologically in the same way 2 If there are differences what are they and what may account for them 3 How do people in different societies conceive of individuals and their psychological development 4 How can understanding individuals or psychological processes help us understand culture and cultural change ii Psychological universals 1 Donald Brown a Create taxonomies Make binary contrasts Order phenomena Use logical operators Plan for the future f Understand what the world is about Concept of self or person Recognize individuals Try to discern intentions Empathize with others Communicate and recognize a basic set of emotions a Happy sad anger fear surprise disgust contempt iii Early research for development 1 Margaret Mead a Boas s Student i Is adolescent difficulty the result of culture or physiological changes b Adolescence not necessarily a period of turmoil and rebelliousness doesn t have to be a miserable period of time 2 Bronislaw Malinowski a Structuralism culture functions to meet needs on individuals b All young boys do not show hostility towards their fathers 3 Piaget s stages of development a Sensorimotor b Preoperational c Concreteoperational d Formaloperational DPno0quot Q P PP N e Conservation happens at different times crossculturally i Quantities remain the same even if their container shape or apparent size changes iv How can we tell what is universal 1 All people are not WEIRD a WhiteWestem Educated Industrialized Rich Democratic i Psychological measures developed in Western Cultures ii Measure things which are important to American and European psychologists relevance elsewhere b Show signs of using conservation outside of psychological tests i Children quickly acquire conservation if taught v Universals regarding childhood 1 Long period of dependence 2 Rapid learning a Quick changes in behavior and ideas b Learning from parents and nonparental figures 3 Personality traits from interaction between genetics environment and culture vi Childhood development and upbringing l Socialization a Development of patterns of behavior attitudes and values in children that conform to cultural expectations b Similar to enculturation 2 Variation in adherence to cultural norms 3 Variation in what adults expect of children a Why does this differ i Parent s belief system 1 Ideas about what kind of children they want to raise 2 How children should be treated 3 Often unconscious ii Adaptational explanations 1 Society produces personalities it needs 2 Maladaptive a Child soldiers iii Genetic and psychological in uences l Inherent differences between populations 2 Diet stress toxins can in uence 4 Crosscultural variations in childrearing a Parental responsiveness i Time spent holding baby ii Time before responding to baby s cry iii Feeding on demand iv Sleeping arrangements v Western societies avoid dependent and clingy kids 1 Raise our children to become independent b Parentchd play i Rare in nonwestern societies 1 Creates emotional distance 2 More siblings c Parental acceptance and rejection of children i Hard to study don t want to in uence parents to reject or disown children ii Overall l Rejection hostile and aggressive 2 Acceptance loving and trusting d Compliance or assertiveness i Adaptation to economics of society ii Agricultural and pastoral societies 1 Emphasize responsibility and obedience iii Foraging societies 1 Emphasize selfreliance and individual assertiveness e Attitudes towards aggression i Some societies actively encourage aggression ii Others expect nonviolence and timidity iii War societies iv Initiation v More aggressive children more aggressive adults vi Related to economic system 1 Pastoralists more willing to openly express aggression 2 Farmers less willing f Task assignment i Western societies few tasks that do not affect family survival ii Many non western cultures expectation is that children help with all kinds of chores iii Babysitting linked to nurturing behavior g Schooling i Affects performance on cognitive tests ii May not always be useful iii Issues with test materials vii Concepts of self 1 Different in western vs nonwestern a Individualism vs collectivism i Western emphasis on autonomy ii Nonwestern emphasis on relationships with others b More dimensions i Connections to ecological environment Sex Biology Reproduction 1 Sex a Sex is biologically determined i Males XY ii Females XX b Sexual dimorphism the phenotypic difference between males and females of the same species can be in uenced to a degree by culture c Life s goal to reproduce and have offspring i Males and females invest differently in each potential offspring ii Females devote a lot of time effort and energy to each offspring 1 Egg pregnancy raising baby iii Males generally do not devote as much time 1 Only give sperm d Differential investment i Females and males want different things out of their mates 1 Females want Best Possible Male a Genetics b Potential to provide 2 Males want as many females as possible sperm production is unlimited Reproductive Strategies i Females choose males ii Males compete for access to females 1 One consequence sexual dimorphism Female reproductive strategies i Females want to mate with highest quality males 1 Males are more ashy a Green head on Mallards bright red Mr Cardinal 2 Drab females 3 Male s genitalia is ashy obvious ii Females of some species signal their ovulation iii Humans hide their ovulation Male reproductive strategies i Be the most competitive male 1 Male weaponry body size canines etc ii Be the highest male in dominance hierarchy 1 In some species there is relationship between male dominance and reproductive success iii Be a sneaky male that more dominant males ignore iv Be a ashy amp attractive even to the point of handicap for ex no camou age v Be a kind friendly male Mating systems i Polygamous vs Monogamous mating ii Relationship between testicle size and mating system number of other males in the group 1 Sperm competition 2 Larger testicles polygamous We have culture i Appeal to nature 1 Natural things are more attractive 2 Humans filter our biology through culture Reproductive strategies crossculturally i Men 1 Polygyny is common 2 Variable relationships with kids ii Women 1 Female choice 2 Networks of women friends and family help with childcare iii People weren t meant to me monogamous it isn t natural 1 Human cultures encompass an array of reproductive strategies Male and female biological Man and woman how one presents themselves culturally Masculine and feminine describes attributes i A woman can be described as masculine Gender is a social construct i Society and culture create gender roles ii Differences in behavior between men and women are functions of cultural expectations Even sex is more complicated i Standard male and female bodies ii Bodies differ from standard male or female 1 1 in 100 births iii Sex chromosomal disorder 1 Intersex individuals a Features of both males and females 2 Klinefelter s syndrome a XXY chromosomes 3 Turner s Syndrome a Chromosomal condition absence of part or entire sex chromosome that affects development in females I Gender Across Cultures a Can get complicated i Sex 1 ChromosomeGenetic makeup 2 Genitalia ii Gender 1 Do you identify as man woman or something else iii Gender Expression 1 How do you express your gender externally iv Orientation 1 Who you are physically emotionally andor sexually attracted to b Binary gender i Not universal ii Cultures worldwide build in roles for different gender expressions 1 People who do not meet gender roles for their biological sex 2 Ex third gender biologically men identify and dress as women 3 Specific role for these people in a given culture c Gender in Indigenous North America i Gender crossing as a culturally definedsanctioned role ii Concept of two spirit 1 Masculine men 2 Feminine women 3 Masculine women 4 Feminine men 1 Third Gender in India i Hijra of India 1 Identify as a third gender or transgendered individuals 2 Often eunuchs 3 Spiritual role ii Marginalized 1 Very little respect and power 2 In India strict caste system they are low 3 Common for Hijra to be involved in sex trade high rate of HIVAIDS e Third gender in Thailand i Ladyboys ii Perform extreme femininity 1 Entertainment prostitution iii Variable degrees of acceptance I Marriage a Terms to remember i Kin group social group based on recognized kin family relationships ii Consanguine people related by birth iii Affine people related by marriage iv Nuclear family married couple and their children V Extended family group of related nuclear families vi Household people who live in the same place and share assets and responsibilities Marriage some form of marriage exists in all cultures i Has a variety of functions Marriage is universal i Reliance on malefemale bonding to provide for family and children ii Gender division of labor iii Prolonged dependency of kids iv Forms social bonds and relationships for childcare v Defines rights and obligations vi Creates new alliances and relationships Defining marriage i Union between a man and a woman traditionally ii Children born to the woman are recognized as offspring of both parents iii Implications 1 One man one woman 2 Goal is procreation 3 Nuclear family 4 Cultural recognition Broader definition of marriage i Same sex marriages ii Plural marriage polygamy one husband multiple wives iii No sexual relationships between participants 1 Ex Nuns married to God and to the church iv Nonnuclear families Who can you marry i Exogamous rules 1 Cannot marry a member of your own social group or category 2 Related to incest taboos ii Endogamous rules 1 Must marry someone of your own social group or category a Within castes ethnic groups etc iii Incest taboo l Widens scale of economic and political cooperation 2 Family disruption hypothesis a Incest leads to intrafamilial sexual rivalry and competition 3 Inbreeding avoidance biological reasoning for the taboo a Higher probability of inheriting homozygous recessive harmful alleles 4 Childhood familiarity a Close association throughout childhood leads to little sexual desire when grown up 5 This taboo on incest in seen in pretty much every culture iv Cousin marriage 1 Parallel cousins mating discouraged a Children of parents same sex siblings i Mom s sister s kids 2 Cross cousins mating encouraged a Children of parents opposite sex siblings i Mom s brother s kids Dolans 3 In some places marriage to parallel cousins isn t ok but marriage to cross cousins is encourages 4 Example Chippewa practiced crosscousin marriage and joking a Encouraged to make dirty jokes with cross cousins and have risque relationship with them b Much more formal relationship with parallel cousins What if you are widowed i Levirate marriage 1 Man obliged to marry deceased brother s wife ii Sororate marriage 1 Woman obliged to marry deceased sisters husband iii Sometimes this extends to cousins if the deceased had no siblings How many people do you marry i Monogamy ii Polygyny 1 Common especially where there is a postpartum sex taboo a Not supposed to have sex with a woman for a period of time after she gave birth for example not until her child walks iii Polyandry 1 One woman marries multiple men iv Group marriage Where do you live i Patrilocal couples live with or near parents of the husband 70 ii Matrilocal couples live with or near the wife s parents 13 iii The other 17 l Ambilocal residence optional between either wife or husband s kin 2 Bilocal couples move back amp forth between the households of both sets of parents 3 Neolocal couples live apart from both parents independent household 4 Avunculocal couples live with the maternal uncle of the husband Marriage alliances i Relationships created or solidified between families or kin groups by intermarriage 1 Arranged marriages Economics of marriage i Bride service 1 Husband must spend time working for wife s family ii Exchange of females 1 Sister of female relative of groom is exchanged for the bride a Common in societies where women are especially important for subsistence b When women perform a lot of work for a family i Hunting and gathering iii Gift exchange iv Dowry l Wife s family provides gifts to husband s family gossip girl v Bride price 1 Husband andor family provide gifts to the wife s family Divorce i Nearly universal l Varies in terms of difficulty 2 Rare in smaller scale societies Halloween Lecture Zombies I a Zombies and Voudon i Origins in Voudon religion 1 Practiced originally in west Africa ii Brought to North America with slaves iii Voudon are spirits and gods 1 Legba Mawu masculine and feminine iv Creation is divine all parts of creation are therefore divine l Fetishes bundles of dolls goodies etc v Emphasis on ancestor worship 1 Dead still exist on our plane and interact with the living always present vi Priestess typically has female priests b Zombies and Zora Neale Hurston i Franz Boas s student ii DrugVoodoo potion from somewhere in Africa iii Passed down from generation to generation iv People can perform physical acts like walk and move around but cannot formulate thought deathlike state c Zombies and Wade Davis i Ethnobotanist 1 How do cultures use plants ii Discovered compounds used to induce nzambi ism d Zombies and the US i Argument that zombies play a role in our culture 1 Slow zombies vs fast zombies 2 Zombies and disease Vampires a Vampires Chinese Origins i Jiangshi stiff corpse 1 White Jiangshi 2 Black Jiangshi 3 Jumping Jiangshi 4 Flying J iangshi ii Qing dynasty era iii Result of l Resurrection 2 Premature or improper burial 3 Lack of burial after funeral iv Terrified of their re ection v Scared of a rooster s call b Vampires Slavic Origins i Vlad III lived in Romania in 1400s 1 Held hostage by the Ottoman empire 2 Inherited the throne had to quell unrest 3 Instability in Romania 4 Impaled living rivals on spikes nailed turbans to Ottomans heads ii Vlad as Nationalistic hero Or sadistic weak leader c Vampires Archaeological Evidence i Bodies in Easter Europe discovered with stakes through heart ii Head removed buried in weird places 1 Found to be suffering from consumption tuberculosis iii All sorts of ways to bury a suspected vampire to keep them from rising again d Porphyria vampirism and werewolves i Congenital erythropoetic porphyria Deficiency in an enzyme which deals with synthesis of blood cells Very rare 200 diagnosed cases 3 Avoid sunlight a Skin blisters and scares 4 Gums recede teeth become more prominent 5 Cant be treated with blood but people sometimes ingest blood Ni More on Kinship I Kinship is the most basic principle of organizing individuals into social groups roles and categories a A group of people who conceive themselves to be relatives b The people obligated to help you 11 Biological vs Fictive Kinship a Fictive people who are not biologically related but behave as if they were relatives 111 How does kinship vary by culture a Ways of tracing kinship ties b Normative expectations of relationships c Classification of relatives d Which relationships are most important IV How many kinds of kinships are there a Only a few different variations b One important variable patterns of martial residence V Diagramming Kinship a Circle woman b Triangle man c Relationship have offspring VI Descent groups unilineal a Kin groups are affiliated through one sex only i Patrilineal 1 Children belong to kin group of father descent passed by males 2 Most common descent system a Example Kapauku Papuans in New Guinea Males from one patrilineage stay in the same village Bring wives back to the village to live in or near their father s houses Men in village are all related Members of a patrilineage are close Law and order maintained by leaders of sublineages a Crimes between sublineages punished against everyone in that sublineage ii Matrilineal 1 Children belong to kin group of mother descent passed by females 2 Less common 3 Men usually maintain cultural authority 4 Matrilocality a Daughters stay at home after marriage and bring their husbands home b Men are the ones with authority c Men usually don t move very far stay in the same village iii Ambilineal l Kin groups are associated with men or women 2 Some affiliate through fathers some with mothers 3 Descent can be passed down by males or females iv Double descent 1 Individuals associate for some purposes with their matriline and other purposes for patriline 9995 b Variations i Lineages 1 Members trace descent from a common ancestor with known links ii Clans 1 Members trace descent from a common ancestor without links to that ancestor 2 Often linked with an animal or other signifier of group identity a Sometimes you cannot eat your clan s totem b Think of totem pole Eagle clan for example i Cannot eat eagle iii Bilateral Kinship l Relatives of mother and father of equal importance a Most people in the US follow this 2 Egocentered a Only sibling share same kin group 3 Kindred a Bilateral relatives who you can call on for some purpose b Wedding funeral safety network VII Names not always helpful a Not all cultures use names to link families i Days of the week ii Circumstances of birth b Even in cultures with family names not all people with the same name out as kin VIII Classifying relatives a Generation b Relative age c Lineal kin vs collateral kin i Direct lines vs people who descend from a common ancestor but not in a direct line d Gender e Consanguinal vs affinal kin i Blood relative vs relative by marriage f Side of the family IX Naming Family a There are 6 major systems of kinship classification i What do you call individuals with a particular relationship to you ii Resistant to change iii Systems named for the first culture the system was seenstudied in b Most Americans use Eskimo Kinship Terminology i Cousins all share the same term distinct from siblings ii Uncles share same term distinct from father iii Aunts share same term distinct from mother iv Generally found where there is a bilateral kinship system 1 Egocentered nuclear family is most important c Hawaiian Kinship Terminology i All relatives of the same sex in the same generation are given the same term 1 All relatives of your generation are brothers or sisters 2 All relatives of your parents generation are mothers or fathers ii Tend not to have unilineal descent have large extended families and variable residence patterns d Iroquois kinship terminology i Father and father s brothers share same term 1 Offspring parallel cousins brother and sister ii Mother and mother s sisters have same term 1 Offspring parallel cousins brother and sister iii Mother s brother and father s sister have distinct terms 1 Offspring cross cousins cousins iv Associated with unilineal descent 1 In cultures that encourage marriage with cross cousins and discourage marriage with parallel cousins e Omaha Kinship system i Father and father s brother mother and mother s sister have same term father and mother respectively 1 Parallel cousins siblings ii Father s sister and her offspring have distinct terms cross cousins iii Mother mother s sister mother s brother s female descendants mother iv Children of mother are brother and sister V Mother s brother and male offspring have same term vi Usually emphasizes patrilineal Patrilocal societies vii Emphasizes relationship with father and his brother 1 Patrilocality you probably have a close relationship with father s brother viii Links female members of your mother s side of the family 1 All members of a different patriline ix Emphasizes that you are more closely linked to your FATHER s side of the family f Crow kinship i Reverse of the Omaha kinship system ii Emphasizes matrineal kinship relationship with mother and her sister iii Links male members of your fathers side of the family all members of a different patriline iv Emphasizes that your are more closely linked to your mother s side of the family g Sudanese kinship systems i Distinct descriptive term for each relative 1 Patrilineal in cultures which are politically complex stratified and specialized Associations Cultures group together 0 By family or kin 0 For the purpose of maintaining land 0 Also for other purposes Associations are 0 Formal structure 0 Exclude some people 0 Members have a common interest or purpose 0 Members have a sense of pride and belonging Example OSU 0 Formal structure take classes have buckID pay tuition was accepted orientation 0 Not everyone is accepted some people excluded based on academics etc 0 Common interest or purpose is to learn and get an education earning a degree 0 Sense of pride and belonging buckeye pride traditions alumni sporting events wearing OSU gear Other examples service organizations sororities and fraternities Participating in associations 0 Achieved qualities I Skills acquired over lifetime 0 Being good at football 0 Ascribed qualities I Qualities determined at birth 0 Sex race etc Either universally or variably ascribed Nonvoluntary Associations 0 Based on ascribed characteristics 0 More common in unstratified societies generally related to age andor sex 0 Age Sets one of the most common A group of people of similar age and sex who move through life stages together Often rituals and ceremonies to mark transition between life stages 0 Manhood Elderhood Can crosscut kinship ties stronger relationship with agesets than with siblings Example The Xavante 0 Live in Brazil horticulture hunting and gathering 0 History of resistance against colonialism 0 Now involved in disputes over land conversion of forest to pasture 0 Highly mobile 0 Community treks last several months Age sets are an important organizing structure for both men and women 0 Xavante age sets men 0 Boys join a bachelor age set between age of 7 and 12 I Initiation every 5 years you are linked with those men for your whole life I Learn rituals skills hunting weaponmaking 0 After 5 years as a bachelor initiated to a young man I Each young man marries a girl chosen by his family I No political authority no real responsibility 0 After a few more years the age set becomes mature men I Several stages of mature men oldest have more authority than the youngest I Mature men s council leaders of the community 0 Xavante age sets women 0 Xavante girls informally join an ageset at around the same time that boys do I No initiation I No ritual instruction I No participation in village 0 Does not function as association Unisex Associations 0 O Associations for one sex Usually male Men s associations Reinforce male superiority in that culture Offer a womanfree space Associated with initiation society Women s associations Rare in noncommercial societies More common in commercialized economies but tend to be voluntary 0 Consolidate economic power Secret Unisex Societies Mande cultures of West Africa 0 Sierra Leone Liberia Cote d Ivoire Guinea Communities have secular and sacred leaders 0 Secular leaders deal with political activities 0 Sacred leaders deal with ritual and religious activities I Most adults join a Secret society but initiations and activities are secret and segregated from secular life I Poro and Sande 0 Poro men s group 0 Initiates engage in mock battle with forest demon who kills them and eats them 0 Reborn initiated I Learn crafts hunting rituals 0 Sande women s group 0 Initiates are circumcised receive scarification 0 Learn rituals 0 Responsible for moral behavior of community I Important process of enculturation Women s Economic Associations 0 Women are often cornerstones of local and small scale economies I But men generally have authority and political power 0 Women group together to consolidate power I Act as voice for women who might be overlooked 0 Increase independence and opportunities for women 0 Microfinance groups Voluntary associations 0 Most common in stratified and complex societies I Provide people with varying interests a group of people with 0 Ethnic associations military associations alumni associations etc Gangs as associations 0 Formal structure exclude some people members have a common interestpurpose members have a sense of belonging Politics I Political system a Social system of polities and government i Polities cities district etc b Generally the larger the population i The more formalized the leadership ii The more complex the political organization c Tend to be specific to a territorial group i Villages states cities d Maintain social control i Conformity ii Maintain harmony and cooperation II How do people derive political power a Social power and prestige i Ability to make others follow your lead and will b Authority i Provides legitimacy c Derived from i Status ii Kinship iii Job iv Wealth V Age vi Sex etc III Social Inequality and Politics a Access to equal or unequal i Economic resources 1 Resources a culture values ii Prestige 1 Respect and honor iii Power 1 Ability to make other people to things b Egalitarian society i Little differences in access to resources power or prestige c Ranked i Formal differences in social status but relatively equal access to resources d Stratified i Social and economic inequality IV Political Integration a To what degree is political authority concentrated or centralized b What is the largest territorial group with political organization c Four main forms of political organizations i Organize interactions between and within societies secular nonkinship based ii Categorized by traditional organization 1 Bands a Largest political unit is the local community b Small groups generally composed of related individuals i 20100 people Generally nomadic foragers Tend to be egalitarian Least complex political organizational structure f Ways to deal with con ict within itself and with other small bands 2 Tribes a Local communities act independently but clans lineages or associations 990 can integrate into a larger unit i Tribe should not be used interchangeably with a unit like the Iroquois tribe b Entire society cannot act as a unit i Smaller localized units ii Temporarily unified c Egalitarian horticulturists or pastoralists d 12 thousand people e Shared identity based on descent i Unilineal groups ii Segmentary lineage system 1 Local segments of a lineage link together genealogically politically and geographically 2 Disputes involve whole lineage segments unite in opposition against other lineages and societies 3 Temporary not coming together for good f Agesets i Encompass people from more than one community l Interlocality solidarity ii Example Karimojong of Uganda 1 Adults often leave usual settlement to travel with herds 2 Agesets are the organizing principle 3 Political leaders are informal but generally they are from the oldest ageset typically male 3 Chiefdoms a rotb0993 Formalized structure integrating communities into political units i Council often with a chief Often contain multiple chiefdoms integrated into a larger unit with a head Larger populations more densely populated Ranked societies chiefs elites vs commoners Horticulture and agriculturists Chief s position is often determined by hereditary Most chiefs don t have power to make people obey them i Instead have prestige respect and religious significance which leads people to obey 4 States today nearly all societies are organized into states a b c V Things to remember Autonomous political unit Encompass many communities Centralized government i Power to tax ii Draft citizens iii Laws Complex centralized political unit State monopolizes physical force i Military police Multisociety states i Encompass a variety of societies in one culture ii Often the result of conquest where a state imposes a centralized government on independent organizations 1 Independence movements against colonial governments iii Political unity in the face of a multiethnic society 1 People from a bunch of different cultures put in one state under the same political rule Not all societies fit into a category perfectly Living societies are generally subjected to states i Bands tribes chiefdoms are subsumed into larger political organizations Inequality in human history is relatively recent a Simplified continuum b c d I Religion a Universal across cultures b Attitudes beliefs and practices relating to supernatural power i Powers considered inhuman not subject to laws of nature What is considered supernatural changes C i Over time ii Between cultures II Evidence for early religionsritual a Evidence of complex burials i Red ochre ii Jewelry owers iii Neanderthals and humans 60 thousand years ago b Art i Cave paintings ii Venus figures 111 Why religion a Some aspect of religion is found in all societies b What accounts for variation IV The need to understand a EB Tylor i Speculation about reasons for dreams trances and death b Animism i Dual existence for all things 1 Physical thing and a soul V Reversion to childhood feelings a Freud i Early humans lived in groups dominated by tyrannical man who kept women for himself ii Mature sons driven out then joined together and ate the father iii Guilt and remorse expressed by prohibiting killing of a totem animal father substitute iv Ritualized cannibalism b Freud was clearly crazy BUT i Events in childhood can be important for development of religious beliefs ii As an adult if things are complicated reverting to something that comforted you as a child VI Anxiety and uncertainty a Malinowski i People in all societies are faced with scary things ii Death is neither real nor final iii Framework for value and understanding the world b Research supports the idea that religion lowers stress c Religious belief and economic development inequality etc VII Need for community a Durkheim i Religion affirms place in society ii Enhances community b Totems and religious items not sacred in and of themselves i Symbolic of unknown aspects VIII Mechanism for cooperation a Religion creates solidarity b Solidarity enhances cooperation even at the cost to an individual c Rituals and ceremony create religion d Supernatural beings as police i Can see all ii Can in ict punishment iii True devotion hard to fake IX Functions of religion a In most cultures religion does several things b Give meaning to the world i Cosmology system of beliefs that deals with fundamental questions in religious and social order c Gain a sense of control over the unknown d Reinforce or modify social order X Revitalization movements a Reform society with the help of a prophet b EX Handsome Lake i Iroquois of 1800s around New York ii Spirits warned him in a vision copy Europeans iii Helped adapt to EuroAmerican norms c Less successful example Heaven s Gate XI Belief systems a Animism i Spirits and souls real self and supernatural self ii Spirits inhabit many objects iii Interact with people b Theism i Belief in one or many sentient or personified supernatural forces c Other less personified forces XII Rituals a Patterned acts shared by members of particular community i Can be secular or religious b Affirm social and religious belief c Incorporate important symbols to the culture d Rites of passage e Rites of intensification i Performed in times of crisis XIII Religious Organizations a Concept of a cult b Individualized cults i Individuals have personal relationships with one or more supernatural powers who are guardians and protectors 1 Vision quest where spiritual power comes to individuals in a vision c Shamanistic Cult i There are individuals with relationships with the supernatural that ordinary people lack ii Socially valued powers healing planting etc d Communal Cult i Members of a group gather periodically to perform rituals ii Elders often have special roles iii Ancestral worship 1 Worship of ancestors by descent group iv Totemism l Spiritual relationship with particular natural objects e Ecclesiastical Cult i Highly organized with a full time priesthood and religious bureaucracy ii Rituals benefit believers or whole society iii Generally in complex societies iv Redistribution of resources to support bureaucracy f Cargo cult i Natives of Tanna Island in Vanuatu ii Feb 15 celebrate John Frum 1 Black GI from US composite figure iii In the 1940s Vanuatu occupied by American soldiers l Cargo dropped from planes 2 Soldiers brought goods associated with ancestors iv After the war ended l Islanders built planes runways and towers to bring more cargo 2 Prophets foretelling return of cargo XIV Religions are complex a Can lack strict boundaries i Syncretism combining seemingly contradictory beliefs ii Ways to incorporate traditions into religion b Vary in terms of fundamentalism i Different degrees of following religious structure ii Ex Reform vs orthodox Jew XV Religion in other aspects of life a Secular states i Keep religious activities peripheral to political economic activities b Religious states i Religion embedded in politics and economics XVI Interaction with supernatural world a Sacrifice i Offerings made to spirits or gods to achieve particular results ii Success depends on quality of the offering b Prayer i Individual attempts to converse directly with a spirit or god ii Success depends on the god not the individual c Through intermediaries i Shamans ii Priests d Through incarnations of gods goddesses and spirits i Kumari of Nepal Dalai Lama of Tibet ii Mask spirits Ivory Coast e Magic i Use of mechanical techniques to produce supernatural outcomes ii Success depends on the magical abilities of the person working magic iii Witchcraft sorcery divination iv Does magic really work 1 Anthropologists have recorded deaths that people in a culture attribute to witchcraft or sorcery Individuals become depressed or stop eating disease risk Individuals die of terror strokeheart attack Diseases are attributed to sorcery Individuals are already marginalized a Accusations of sorcery can be powerful and cause problems 9159 Art I Human action modifying the utilitarian nature of something to enhance aesthetic qualities II What constitutes good art is culturally dependent III Art and Aesthetics a Art human action modifying the utilitarian nature of something to enhance aesthetic qualities b Aesthetics qualities making objects actions or language more beautiful or pleasing IV How do we interpret art a Art is highly symbolic i Surface structure 1 Imagery used to produce art itself ii Deep structure b Underlying meaning not portrayed explicitly in the work c Individuals and cultures interpret art in different ways d Environment may affect the interpretation V Social Functions of art a A way for artists to express their individuality b Public display of ethnic or group affiliation c Indicator of social status or rank ex Totem poles W African masks etc d Reinforce or teach cultural or religious beliefs VI Who creates art a Stratified societies have people who can specialize as artists i But other people can participate in the creation of art too b Unstratified societies i Art is seen as a hobby ii Art carried out by all people of a certain category VII Where and how art is displayed a In nonwestern societies art is more communal i Not museum pieces b Often the production of the entire community c Role in social and cultural life can be more important than interpretation VIII Displaying art in the west a Permanent areas where art is distinguished from nonart i Museums parks etc b Art associated with individual artists IX Displaying traditional art of other cultures a Does art belong to the culture it is made in or the world b Should art of other cultures taken during colonial exploitation be returned c How can we protect vulnerable art X Why is there variation between cultures a Things available in the environment b Social structure c Art and mobility i Hunting and gathering populations have more mobile forms of art 1 Song dance oral tradition 2 Decorative useful objects form and ornamentation XI Interpreting other cultures art a What would be on a museum label about this piece of art XII Displaying nonwestern art a Why are there differences b Sally Price i Nonwestern art tends to lack name of artists 1 Name of westerner who acquired it ii Describes where art came from iii How it was constructed iv What it was used for v Assumption of timelessness vi Art we consider most important requires the least explanation XIII Art expressed in a variety of ways a Body art i Cultural universal ii Enhance attractiveness or draw attention to attractive features 1 Paudung women iii Indicate social status and rank age 1 Scarification b Visual art i Material tangible objects ii Part of the material culture of a people iii Can serve religious and secular purposes iv Often longterm use V Form 1 Style and function vi Ornamentation 1 Design added to the physical form of an object c Performance art i Music percussion song dance theatre drama XIV Art and nature a The same objects will have different importance uses and forms based on cultural beliefs XV Trends in visual art John Fisher a Art of stratified societies i Integrates unlike elements ii Integrates unlike elements iii Leaves little empty space iv Asymmetric design V Enclosed figures b Art of egalitarian societies i Repetition of simple elements ii Lots of empty space iii Symmetrical design iv Unenclosed figures c Interpret the art in its cultural context why might this be d John Fisher i Art historian ii Connected artistic features with social functions of a culture iii Art expresses social fantasy 1 When society is stable artists represent that which is secure and pleasurable iv Design elements are abstract representations of people in society V A way to see shifts in social organization XVI Music across cultures a Song style varies with cultural complexity i Wordiness enunciation increase with complexity ii Smaller scale societies use more nonwords in singing b Stratification and singing i Informal leadership all sing the same thing ii Rank societies leader starts song but others join and overwhelm iii Stratified societies clear leading and answering differential vocal parts c Regular rhythm and rhythm s acquired reward value i Strong correlation between rhythm and method of carrying infants 1 Carried in sling pouch or shawl have recurring beats in song 2 In a cradle or cradleboard have irregular or free rhythm ii Tones and stress 1 Wider tone ranges in societies where infants stressed before age of 2 2 Also tend to have a firmer beat d Polyphony and female participation in food gathering i Two or more melodies sung at the same time ii Where women are responsible for more than half the food songs likely contain higher melodies sung by women e Women tend to have harsher voices XVII Folklore a Stories myths tales riddles superstitions etc of a cultural group b Generally transmitted through oral tradition i Often through song dance and plays c Recurring themes in folklore i Catastrophe slaying of monsters incest sibling rivalry castration hero myths stories of creation tricksters d Derive different meaning from same themes e Emerging folktales i Folklore created by any social group that has shared experiences 1 Urban legend 2 Internet folklore a Slender man b Created on Something Awful in 2009 c Stabbings in Waukesha 1 Applying Anthropology a Many anthropologists work outside academy b Make anthropological knowledge useful i Gather info for people to use to set policy or implement change c Ethics in applied anthropology i Anthropologists are often working in the developing world 1 Populations are often disadvantaged ii It is not enough to care about people you work with you have to think about what is truly beneficial 1 Basic research must inform any changed you try to implement 2 You must know what the consequences will be must be backed my research 3 Will this truly help people d Ethical guidelines i Include targeted community in any policy formation ii Don t recommend or take action that harms the interest of the community iii If proposed work violates the ethics of anthropology you must try to change these practices or withdraw e What should anthropologists do i Better for them to stay out of ethically iffy situations ii Or should they advocate for disadvantaged populations 11 Anthropology and business a Observe a company b Utilize documents social networks c Assess organizational culture i Rigid hierarchy ii Egalitarian structure d EX General Motors GM i Wanted to shift from emphasis on individual productivity authoritarian leadership to collaboration ii Provided tools assessments etc iii Saw that they fit this new ideal Global Problem 1 Geological eras marked by a Extinctions b Changes in soil composition 11 Currently a Period of mass extinction b Changes in the soil layer primarily due to humans III Humans and our environment a Humans have always managed our environment i Evidence that the Amazon has orchard groves from 10000 years ago ii Evidence that Native Americans were doing controlled burns to keep prairies intact b But management has been on a local scale c Global climate change is global and has farreaching effects IV Evidence for the Anthropocene a We are in a time of humandriven climate change i Humans are changing our environment in a way no other organism has been able to b The earth s climate has always been changing i Human evolution is a reaction to a changing climate c But it has not changed so drastically so rapidly V Climate change and animal life a Natural selection can only work on existing variation in a population i Variation to cope with changing climates just doesn t exist ii The climate is changing so rapidly there will likely not be time for that genetic variation to mutate into existence VI Organisms response a Hybridization i Pizzly bears polar and grizzly b Extinction due to climate change i Amphibian crisis c Extinction due to human interaction i Elephants ii Great apes VII From the Holocene to the Anthropocene a We are in a time of mass extinction i Generally tied to climate change b Mass extinctions are normal i 95 of all organisms to ever be on earth have gone extinct c But generally changes happen over a longer timescale i Our rapid climatechange is happening too quickly for many organisms to adapt to d Human population growth will only exacerbate this e Infant mortality decreases while fertility remains about the same f Unbalanced resource distribution VIII Emergence of a global economy a Over the past 50 years the process of globalization has linked economies IX Population growth a In the last 50 years 25 billion 7 billion b Relatively stable in developed world but growing rapidly in developing world X Consequences of population growth a Urbanization i Massive movements from rural areas to urban centers ii Development of megacities iii Creation of huge slums 1 Poor sanitation shelter 2 High levels of violence b Globalization i Process of integrating the world economically socially politically and culturally into a single world system or community XI Wallerstein s World Symptoms a Context of capitalist world economy i Individuals invest capital for profit ii Means of production controlled by a few iii Individuals sell their labor iv Pay received worth less than the value of what they produce b Divide the world based on role in this capitalist world system XII Core countries a Greatest control over world economy b Monopolize most profitable production c Greater mechanization higher education greater access to resources d Through trade and force control economies of noncore countries XIII Semiperipheral countries a Industrialized countries that export products but do not control the world market b Rarely export high profit to Core countries XIV Peripheral countries a Rely primarily on human labor for production b Industrialization controlled by core countries c Produce the majority of the natural resources d Peripheral countries and the resource curse i The resource curse 1 Countries with abundant natural resources worse off ii Less competitivediverse economy iii Exchange rate iv Global commodities rates v Government mismanagement or corruption vi Exploitation by military 1 Ex Congo and Coltan XV Poverty a Peripheral countries i Local laborers cant afford to buy the products they produce b Core countries i Rural areas once devoted to agriculture and mining now depleted 1 Increase in poverty ii Laborers cant afford products with undervalued labor
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