History 105 Weller CCQ's
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Michael Hummel on Thursday February 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to History 105 Weller at Washington State University taught by Professor Weller in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 567 views. For similar materials see History 105 Weller Roots of Contemporary Issues in History at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 02/19/15
I I D U O J 4 quotU a quotm rwa some recs drum 6 Back then during the Golden Age of Islamic Civilization Europe was like The History of Islam according to American East DVD HIST 105305 2015 RC Weller 77 7 77 a highly cultured and advanced people a bunch of barbarians barbequing plague victims 7 The period known as The Crusades were brought on because A the Muslim Turks attacked and threatened Western Christian l Muhammed 77 7 A was a cool dude B was called The Honest by his homeys C used to kick back and meditate and one day an angel appeared to him with a new revelation called Islam39 39 7 7 7 Civilizatlon 7 all Ol llle allove39 B only one and lwo above39 B the Europeans believed that God had promised the Holy Land to em 2 Islam means submission to God the God of W 7 e Europeans said no ways to Islam A Abraham D all of the above E only one and two above B Moses 39 6515 8 It was especially living in Jerusalem who got royally reamed out all of the above E only one and two above by Christian armies fighting to take back the Holy Land for the Pope 7 A Jews 3 According to Muhammed s prophecy Christians A God would free everybody from slavery dudes babes rich 5 MUSllms poor black white whatever D all of the above only one and two above I 9 Under Salah aidDin there39s like this time of 7 A slaughter with Jews and Christians getting royally reamed out by Muslim armies in revenge for what they did peace with Jews Christians and Muslims all kicking it together everybody was equal B 0th of the above 4 So 77 and Islam began to spread throughout Arabia and it kept on d t Id39rdllth 39 t Chquot th wN thAf quot t Zprea mg 0 11 1a an a e way 0 ma en across or rica o both of the abovequot pain 39 A greed 10 Jerusalem 395 like a holy place for 51011103 A just the Jews and Christians Tee 70m B just the Muslims D all of the above E only one and two above 8a three religions 7 7 i all Fthe bl r r 5 At the start of Islamic Civilization Muslims were like top dog when it 0 a eve El only one and two above so pretty 3 on the buzz hit the West I l Missing from the history is SClence llt erature A the Byzantine Persian and Ethiopian wars involving Arabia B the Mongol devastion of the Islamic Middle East C the rise of the Ottoman Safavid and Mughal Muslim empires in came to art poetry a Music e Middle East and India all of the above E only one and two above 12 The Europeans came back even stronger and r A gave the land the Palestinians were living on to the Jews and that became the new Israel B there was like constant fighting between the Israelis and Arabs over Jerusalem once the Euro honkies split 39cause both the Israeli and Arab radicals wanna have it all th of the above 13 When the Americans come to check out what all the fuss is about they A discover oil B prop up these greedy dictators who sell only to them to keep the pumps happening don39t help the Arabs only Israel which pisses the Arabs off 9 all of the above E only one and two above 14 So then you get like A the Israelis and Palestinians fighting over Jerusalem and blowing each other up the world just watching and playing it all like some kinda game oth of the above 15 The reason the Middle East is a freaking mess is 39cause l A the British French and Americans won t come to their rescue ere ain39t no more cool dudes C both of the above The Islamic Golden Age in Global Historical PerspeCtiVe HIST 105305 RC1 2012 RC Weller CCQ l Five stages of transmission of scholarship from the ancient 00 the Islamic to the Western European and back to the Islamic world and beyond 1 The transmission of ancient scholarship to the Islamic world Mesopotamia 8 Egypt 8 China 399 Athens 9 Alexandria Persia and India 399 Syria to Muslims 3000 BCE 750 CE 2 Islamic development of the ancient scholarship 750950 CE 3 Transmission of the developed Islamic scholarship to WEStern Europe and Mongol China 975 1600 CE 4r Western development of science and scholarship in the Renaissance and Scienti c Revolution 1500 1 970 5 Translations of limited Latin and Italian material back into Turkish to supplement existing Arabic Persian and Turkish works 1700 l 970 CC 2 Greek social political and scienti c thinkers arose within a broader global historical context called the Axial Age which included Zoroaster 8K scienti cphilosophical developments in Persia 5 Confucius amp scientific philosophical developments in China Buddha 8 philosophical schools in India the Hebrew prophets amp p ilosophical schools in Israel Zall of the above I only one two 8 three above CCQ 3 Greek science and scholarship were transmitted to both the Eastern and Western Christian worlds via especially the Greekaspeaking world centered in 777 which arose out of Alexander the Great s empire Athens Greece 7 Damascus Syria gAlexandria Egypt Antioch Syria jerusalem Israel CCQ 4 Syriacspeaking Christians engaged Greek scholarship translating many works on mathematics astronomy medicine and philosophy into Syriac and using them in their training centers 739 or F at rst V13 acted with Greek scholar ShlP 1 Greek CCQ 5 Muslim scholars inter engage the Origina until eventually beginning to sources themselves Hebrew Jewish sources A Syriac Christian sources Greek Christian sources all of the above only one and two above transmission which appears to have run CC 6 There was a channel of 7 Q k to the Islamic world via the from Alexandria Egypt to India and bac interactions of Arab and Indian traders across especially the 7 3 Mediterranean Sea routes Red Sea routes L Indian Ocean routes all of the above only one and two above WRQ 21 17 It is important to distinguish between the terms lslam Islamic Muslim39 Christian Iew Arab and Arabic39 because our subject concerns a population A multireligious B multilingual C multicultural 9 all of the above E only two and three above CCQ 397 Concerning Muslim leaders and their contributions to scienti c learning and interreligious dialogue match the following 1 AleMa mun 8135833 CE 2 AlMansur 754775 and Harun al Rashid 786809 3 AlMahdi 775785 Commissioned translations of scientific philosophical and other scholarly works into Arabic Founder of the renowned l lduouse of Wisdom at Baghdad and promoter of interreligious dialogue Engaged in open public dialogue with Timothy I the head of ti Church of the East at Baghdad CCQ 8 The climate created by algMa mun at Baghdad s House of Wisdom39 can be compared with that which appeared in the courts of other great leaders in world history especially if 7 Genghis Khan and his Mongol court 12061227 F Akbar in Mughal India 15561605 both of the above CCQ 9 Baghdad between the eighth and tenth centuries should be spoken of in the same breath as the golden age of Athens during the time of Pericles in the fifth century BCE Alexandria of the Ptolemies from the third to first centuries BCE Renaissance Florence of the Medici family in the fteenth century all of the above only one and two above CCQ 10 Baghdad39s renowned House of Wisdom39 was a magnet for scholars and intellectuals who came from all over the empire and worked in academies and public libraries associated with the palace some Christian some Muslim and some Jews or F CCQ 1 1 Scholars were dispatched across the empire to locate as many 63mm texts as Possible the first international scienti c venture in history T r F WRQ 21 31 By the year 1000 7 7 7 natural philosophy and mathematical science had been rendered into usable Arabic versions A only about one quarter of the B approximately half the early the entire D all of the above E only one and two above I 1 i 93934 WRQ 21 20 Translators worked in many different places at various times anxiety of motivations incl 2 u 7 7 MS aghdad Merv 39 corpus of Greek medicine CCQ 12 The Arab Islamic Empire was the largest e i pit 0W UP to that Paint in history spanning from China to Europe 0rd CCQ 13 Because of the practice of annual pilgrimage to Mecca if there was an invention that was discovered in Sai arkand it could be within the 391 year that it would be known in Cordoba CCQ 14 The lslamic Empirels meteoric growth had left its new le rs with staggering engineering and logistical problems to contend with 7 or F CCQ 15 The scientific process was born in the process of lslamic scholars questioning and challenging the Greek writings they were studying or F WRQ 21 34 With the passing centuries Islam saw increasing concern among religious scholars about the legitimacy of what were referred to as the foreign or rational sciences as opposed to the traditional or lslamic disciplines r B F WRQ 3 1 1 The revival of learning in Western Europe A began as an attempt to master and exploit traditional Latin sources was transformed before the end of the twelfth century by the infusion of new books containing new ideas freshly translated from Greek and Arabic originals C radically altered the intellectual life of the West all ofthe above E only one and two above CCQ 6 The main sources of inspiration for the European Renaissance were Western Europe itself Latin amp Greek h Byzantine heritage Greek LArabic Muslim contributions Arabic Eall of the above honly one and two above CCQ 17 The primary means through which the transfer of classical learning came from Islam into Europe was translation of Arabic texts into Latin academic and interreligious dialogue official court embassies and exchanges the Crusades the Muslim conquest of Constantinople in 1453 CCQ 18 It was primarily at the cosmopolitan centers of 7 that the transfer of Greek and Arabic scholarship to the Latin West took place A Toledo Spain A the Mediterranean island of Sicily just below Italy Fraxinetum amp Montpellier France all of the above only one and two above CCQ I9 Indicative of the Islamic impact on Western Europe there are several hundred words in Western European languages including English derived from Arabic or F WRQ 21 49 In retrospect the stunning aspect of alShatir s achievement in astronomy which was to produce lunar and planetary models employing double epi cycles is that mathematically identical counterparts of his models turned up some two hundred years later in 7 7 one of Copernicus s famous astronomical texts De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium written in northern Poland in 1543 B one of Kepler s famous astronomical texts Astronomia Nova written in Germany in 1609 C one of Galileo s famous astronomical texts Sidereus Nuncius written in Italy in 1610 D All of the above E Only one and two above WRQ 21 46 The fact that alBattani was still being cited in Latin translation in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries by testifies to the quality and importance of his astronomical work A Copernicus B Kepler C Other European astronomers and scientists All of the above E Only one and two above WRQ 2 1 52 Concerning the work of Hunayn ibn Ishaq in medicine A Two of his books became standard introductory texts in medieval Latin translation his book on the eye and vision and his Introduction to Medicine B He corrected the translation of Dioscorides great pharmaceutical guide De materia Medica a treatise on herbs and herbal i remedies that was influential not only in Islam but also in Byzantium and Western Eumpe 0th of the above WRQ 21 53 AlRazi ca 854ca 925 known in the West as Rhazes wrote a general textbook on medicine The Book of Medicine for al Mansur the latter an Iranian prince which became very popular and circulated widely in Islam and also in Europe in Latin translation A T B F WRQ 2 1 55 So influential was the medical encyclopedia of Ibn Sina 9804241037 Avicenna in the West that it 7 7 7 A was translated into Latin by Gerard of Cremona in the twelfth century A quot B was printed live times in the first fifty years of the printing press C served as a textbook in European medical schools as late as the seventeenth century All of the above E Only one and two above WRQ 21 68 Thousands of Arabic Persian and Turkish manuscripts related to the history of Islamic science remain in libraries from Europe to the Middle East unexamined T B F CCQ 20 Turkish Ottoman rulers in Istanbul began in the early 1700s to translate Western scientific works into Turkish to help advance scholarship within the Middle Eastern Muslim world on I WRQ 22 21 Which of the following are true concerning the greatest achievements in history and of human civilization A Many great achievements which are commonly attributed to only one geoncultural domain often owe a great debt to those from others B Some of the greatest achievements have been collective efforts C each great achievement builds directly or indirectly off of earlier advancements Include this option All of the above E Only two and three above CCQ 21 Because of the continual borrowing and interdependence between religions and cultures throughout world history 7 H none of them have grounds for claiming religious dominance or superiority amidst the contending claims of the world religions to humankind39s social cultural Political 8 economic heritage i there are solid grounds for Promoting mutual respect appreciation and even cooperation between them all religions and cultures should be considered the same with no genuine differences lying beneath or between them i all of the above A only one and two above Ii All relationships of trust and respect are premised among WRQ2253 r H r if other things on reciprocity and that includes a recognition 0 A the achievements of others B our debts to them C our own advanced standing all of the above E only one and two above CCQ 1 Five stages of transmission of scholarship from the ancient to the Islamic to the Western European and back to the Islamic world and beyond 1 The transmission of ancient scholarship to the Islamic world Mesopotamia 8 Egypt 8 China 9 Athens 9 Alexandria Persia and India 9 Syria to Muslims 3000 BCE 750 CE 2 Islamic development of the ancient scholarship 750950 CE 3 Transmission of the developed Islamic scholarship to Western Europe and Mongol China 975 1600 CE 4 Western development of science and scholarship in the Renaissance and Scienti c Revolution 1500 1970 5 Translations of limited Latin and Italian material back into Turkish to supplement existing Arabic Persian and Turkish works 1700 1970 WRQ 2 2 22 The author of Way Forward suggests that we should think in terms of H 7 A competing and separate civilizations nly one human civilization comprised of multiple gets cultural domains that contain subscultures C both of the above i The Legacy of the Crusades in Western Islamic Relations HIST 105305 2012 2014 RC Weller w DVD material DVD 1 In the l l h century what was the great problem which neither the Western European Church nor State could resolve E r The collapse of the European banking system The constant invasions by Vikings and Magyars The constant warring between the lords 0T Europe The dispute over succession to the imperial throne m The continuing push of Islam into Europe DVD 2 The Church sponso peace movement which finally resolved Europe39s great problem T o DVDQ39he idea which Pope Urban 11 came up with was 7 7 2lt holy war chivalry competitions ecumenical general church councils separation of church and state the replacement of feudalism with capitalism ed the Council of Peace in Claremont DVD 4 When Pope Urban ll address France in 1095 the solution he proposed to the constant internal warring of feudal lord against feudal lord which threatened Europe was 7 7 to harness the agression in Europe for the good of Christianity the rescue of Jerusalem from its Muslim rulers through The Cr usades X both of the above DVD 5 In order to appeal to the knights Jerusalem was depicted as a loving faitthl mother a kidnapped child a mistreated horse a young woman in distress g a brother calling for help DVD 6 Enflamed by visions of an entirely Christian Europe participants in the First Crusade became anti Byzantine anti Islamic g antiajewish The Legacy ofthe Crusades in Western islamic Relations 2012 2014 20 5 RC thlcr DVD 7 On their way to the Holy Land the Crusaders grew to be European towns E loved and respected for the way they protected and supported Ahmed and feared for how they plundered and wreaked havoc on DVD 8 The very first Peasants Crusade was an astonishing success 6 receiving official sanction and praise from the Church in Europe T or 9 In the eyewitness report of the siege of Antioch 7 y the shrieks of countless people rose making a t throughout the city every street on every side was filled with corpses so that nobody could endure to be there because of the stench no one could walk along the narrow paths of the city 1 except over the bodies of the dead X all of the above errifying noise only one and two above 10 According to Frankish eyewitnesses Radulph of Caen Albert of Aix in the taking of Ma ara 7 the Crusaders boiled adult Muslims up for soup and skewered Muslim children on spits grilling them over open fires and eating them E the eating of Turks and Saracens Muslims was considered worse than eating dogs 3 both of the above DVD 11 The starvation humiliation and death which the Christian knights endured on the official First Crusade were viewed as a sign of God s displeasure causing them to suddenly return home to Europe i a test of faith which made their conviction and determination to conquer the Holy Land only deepen as a result antiProtestant antiwar The Legagv qfthe Cru DV 3 7 ne Crusader Raymond of Aguilers in recording the eventual slaughter o 39 Jerusalem39s inhabitants by the Crusaders said MS L some of our men and this was more merciful cut off the heads of their enemies 1 others tortured them long by casting them into the flames piles of heads hands and feet were to be seen in the streets of the city 1 men rode in blood up to their knees and bridle reins DVD 13 Raymond of Aguilers said that the slaughter which the Crusaders inflicted upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem was r 7 g a despicable and tragic violation of God s heart and will 1 a just and splendid judgment of God F proof of European Christian superiority idle greatest victory Christian Europe had ever known DVD 14 According to Karen Armstrong within five months of their siege by Christmas time the Crusaders had denounced their act and restored the city so that there was hardly a trace of the slaughter which had occurred at Jerusalem Lturned a thriving populous city into a stinking channel house leaving a terrible stench of death in the air DVD 15 While the slaughter continued outside in the streets some of the Crusaders went with tears streaming down their faces to 7 7 at the most sacred Christian site in Jerusalem The Church of the Holy Sepulchre allegedly containing the tomb from which Jesus had risen confess their sin and renounce the violence and bloodshed 7 worship and give thanks sodas in Westerni Jslamic Relations 2012 2014 2015 RC Weller 16 When the Muslim ruler Salah adpDin recaptured Jerusalem he 1 and their women and had all the Christian men slaughtere children sold into slavery guaranteed peace for everyone allowing 7 continue living and worshiping in Jerusalem the Christians to eithr or return home to Europe both of the above 17 During the period of the Crusades Christians and Muslims warre with ceaseless bloodshed and ghting C onsiderable periods of peace punctuated 120 Muslim Crusader treaties mentioned in the sources d against one another continuous this era of holy war 39wi 18 Examples of efforts at peacemaking and peaceful exchanges between Western Christians and ME Muslims during or in later relation to the Crusades include Mark all that apply 5 the missionary efforts via peaceful religious dialogue of St Francis of Assisi amp his 1 2 companions in 1219 i the interactions of the Muslim chronicler Usama with a retired Crusader fluent in Arabic in Antioch f the intervention of the Knights Templars to protect Usama fro a recently arrived fanatic Frank during his prayers at alAqsa mosq in Jerusalem 5 the interactions of Emperor Frederick ll of Sicily with alKami and other Muslim leaders of Egypt and Palestine i the Reconciliation March of small groups of Christians acros the Crusader routes from 1995 99 requesting forgiveness from Muslim and Jewish peoples along the way 939 In the year of Arghun s death which was 1291 CE the last Crusader stronghold of Acre fell and with it the hopes ofa useful alliance in Pal and Syria between 7 7 7 and Crusaders the Armenian Christians the Georgian Christians amp the Mongols all of the above only one and two above 20 Other important historical circumstances occurring in the Islamic Middle East during the Crusading period included W The 1138 Charter of Protection granted by Abbasid Caliph to Church of the East Patriarch indicating ongoing good relations between Muslims and Eastern Christians The 1141 Buddhist Christian Karakitai catastrophe assaulting Islam in Central Asia The Mongol attack on the Muslim world in Central Asia in 1219 culminating in the sack of Baghdad in 1258 and the end of the Abbasid Caliphate K all of the above only one and two above 21 The impact of the Crusades on the economy culture and politics of the Middle East and Islamic world during the crusader period late I 1th to 14 39 centuries was Win i farreaching and long lasting relatively limited and shortlived DVD 22 Which of the fellowing was NOT an impact of the Crusades on Europe E The unification of Europeans in a common cause The emergence of a common European identity The stirring up of trade The establishment of new systems of tax The increase of the wealth of the church The discovery of Arabic Islamic science estine l DVD 23 According to Karen Armstrong the Crusades were a complete disaster for Western Christianity were the first cooperative act of the new Europe as she fought he way out of barbarisrn and became a major world power left behind a legacy of hatred and antagonism between the Western Christian and Islamic worlds Y all of the above only one and two above 74 The Crusades have continued to inspire or serve as a reference for Western Christian conquest of the Middle East and other parts of the world throughout history as seen in MS 1 the conquest of the Americas the Crusades against the Ottoman Turks in the early modern era the later takeover of the Middle East by British French and US powers from the time of Napoleon down to WWII 4 the 113 War on Terror and War in Iraq39 25 In late 191h c Britain there was a particularly wide range of references to the Crusades in all kinds of contexts from church windows to the House of Lords from pride in one39s ancestors to visits to the Holy Land E from children39s literature to reenactments not only on the stage but in real life as military men fancied themselves and their campaigns in the role of holy warriors holy wars 1 all of the above only one and two above and after which have created intense interest in the Crusades and the conflict between Christianity and Islam and the West in the Middle Ages World War II E the Cold War i 2001 all of the above 26 It is especially the events of only one and two above MS 4 Motives in the Arab Muslim conquestsincluded B religiouspoliticalunity D the desire for personal power A religious zeal C the desire for land E the desire for fame 8t glory the desire for spoils of war amp riches of trade Is 518111 amp the was Fr m lSliil39ms Rise to the Crusadess 5504100 HIST 105305 RC1 2015 e R Charles Weller r r 1 The outside powers C O tEHding for control of Arabia included A the Greek Christian Byzantine Empire 77 B Zoroastrian Sasanid Persia C Christian Monophysite Ethiopia 7 I 9ft above 7 5 Some important social teachings of Muhammed and Islam Include WhICh 0f 390 r 7 E only one and two above the following MS A rea t with kindness your parents and kindred and who first conquered 7 39 orphans and those in need 2 Historically it was H V A the ChriSti H Byzantium Zoroastrian Persians and Christian Ethiopians 2 the Arabs gLAmbja Speak fair to the people Practise regular charity B 1 the Arabs 8t Arabia 2 the Christian Byzantines Zoroastrian Persians and ChriStian Ethiopians e best thing to do for orphans is what is for their good emain steadfast in religion and make no divisions among those who follow the religion of Adam Noah Abraham Moses amp esus 3 Match the following historians with their views of Islam s Rise In relation to the religion of Islam Muhammed and the Qur39an claim that r 1 Catholic historian Karen Armstrong y 2 Western historian SF Starr 3 l The early Middle East Christian Leader of Phenek 6903 quotThe same religion has He established for you as that which He enjoined on i MS 2 From its very inception the new monotheist faith to which dam Noah OAblaham Moses Jesus Muhammad s prophesies gave rise swept up tens of thousands of MS Bedouins in a whirlwind of conquests ultimately driven by religious 7 According to Muhammed s earliest biographer Ibn lshaq zeal and visions of earthly riches q 3 mwe Should not nk of their advent as something ordinary but as Muhammed encountered a Christian monk in 582 CE at age 12 due to divine working Before calling them God had prepared them while riding in a desert caravan the Middle Eastern Christian leader Nawfal affirmed Mohammed39s prophetic calling after he had his first revelations in 610 CE beforehand to hold Christians in honor How otherwise apart from God s help could naked men riding without armor or shield have been able to win God called them from the ends of the earth in order Q Meccan Muslims were given refuge in the Christian kingdom of to destroy through them a sinful kingdom Amos 98 and to xum Abyssinia Ethiopia between 613 and 615 CE humiliate through them the Proud Spirit Of the PerSian S39 m a Christian delegation from Najran came to consult with I It seemed yet another miracle and sign of God39s favour Before the uhammed at Medina in 628 CE Muhammad sent messages calling on nearby kings to become Raw coming of Islam the Arabs had been a despised outgroup but in a remarkably short space of time they had inflicted major defeats upon Muslims in approximately 631 CE two world empires 8 GE Perry in his book The Middle East Fourteen Islamic Centuries Suggests that Muhammad39s teachings underwent so much 7 in uence for a while that in retrospect one can imagine that Islam might have evolved into the us may sect o ewish B Christian 9 in the face of rising tensions with Medina s jews Muhammad 7 MS changed the direction of prayer south toward Mecca instead of orth toward jerusalem eplaced the o needay fast of Yom Kippur with fasting during C Zoroastrian Ramadan the month in which Muhammad39s first revelation had come replaced Sabbath Saturday evening observance with Friday congregational worship eased dietary laws which had been borrowed from the jews 10 After Muhammad expelled two Jewish tribes from Medina following the Battles of Badr and Uhud the final remaining third tribe A feared Muhammad s power and converted to Islam B feared Muhammad s power and fled to another city C rose up and seized the city expelling the Muslims D was expelled in the same manner as the other two tribes had their men slaughtered and women and children sold into slavery by Muhammad l 1 The Covenant of Ulnarquot granted recognition respect and freedom of religion to Jews Christians 8t Zoroastrians under Muslim rule or F 12 According to the Muslim author Muhammed Enan in his book D ecisive Moments in the History of Islam quot 39The Excellent Dream39 or Project of the Caliphate was 7 A converting all peoples of the world to the religion of Islam onquering and ruling the world C annihilating Christendom and the Eastern Empire D all of the above E only one and two above y 39 YZdHIEMW 39 tal Of the 13 With respect to the Muslim aim of conquering the calm Empire Constantinople match the following rail Prophet Mohammed J The Arab philosopher al Kindi Many Muslim scholars y 39 CW 2 Speculated that the Muslim who took Constantinople WOUld Fen lslam and go on to rule the world 3 Said the conqueror of Constantinople would be the Mahdi lthe Expected One39 the mystical gure whom many Muslims expected to see when history approached its endpoint r 1 Once said that the Final victory of Islam would be at hand when Muslims took Constantinople 14 Muslims attempted at least 7 times to conquer ight 15 The city of Constaninople finally Fall to the Muslim armies in A 717 CE under Sulayman Umar II B 786 809 CE under Harun arRashid C 1341 to the Golden Horde 1453 CE under the Ottoman ruler Mehmet 11 Constantinople A three B five D twelve 16 From as early as the 650s the Muslim Navy began to gain control over the eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea T or F 17 According to the Muslim historian Muhammed Enan in 732 CE an event happened which had the greatest and most far reaching effect in the history of Islam and Christendom E This great event was 7 the battle of the Pavement of the Martyrs B the battle of Tours or Poitiers Whom of the above k a Regarding the Battle of Poitiers Mark A Noll in Turnin P 39 1 a t g omts suggests that inIernce of this battle B Charles Martel al 39 39 7 l I g 011g Wlth hIS successors came to be seen as the sawors of Christian Europe Decisive Moments in the History of Christianity A it is Possible to exaggerate the decisive C if Charles Martel had failed Europe would have become Muslim and the entire course of history would have been changed D all of the above 7 nly one and two above 19 In connection with the routes which Muslim armies took in their attempts to conquer Christian Europe match the following I 1 Frontdoor East to West Backdoor West to East 1 739 Sieges of ConstantinoPle 653 a 1453 2 Via Spain 8 France in the Battle of Poitiers Tours 732 CE 20 Political relations between Christian Europe 8 the Islamic Caliphate included A exchanges between Pepin 8t alaMansur 750785 CE B2 gifts and letters sent between Charlemagne amp Harun arRashid 800809 CE which included a Jewish representative C the Muslim Embassy to Constantinople sent by alMutasim 83339 842 CE D all of above E only one and two above 21 r The main issues that were negotiated in the of cial court exchanges between Christian Europe and the Islamic Caliphate were A Umayyad Spain B safe passage through the Middle East for Latin Christians on pilgrimage to Holy Land both of the above 2 Muslims Christians 8t jews lived and worked together pe zfully for several centuries in Cordoba and other parts of Islamic Spain a or F 23 In Spanish Martyrs39 Movement also known as the Martyrs of Cordoba 850 859 CE Muhammad 8 Islam came to be interpreted as A a true prophet of God B a friend and supporter of Christianity the quotAntiChrist39 D all of the above E only one and two above 24 The views of Muhammed 8 Islam which developed in the Spanish Martyrs Movement A died out within the next generation having no lasting effect on Western Christian thought ave continued to serve as a primary paradigm for the Western Christian world down to the present 25 A militant warring spirit was developed in Christian Europe in response to M8 the wars amp conquests of the Roman Empire gthe wars amp conquests of the Byzantine Empire the attacks of the Central Asian and Germanic tribes on the Roman Empire 62 the ongoing battles with Muslim armies from both east and west as well as in the Mediterranean the assaults of the Vikings from the north and Magyars from the northeast 26 The resurgence of Christian Europe against the Muslim world came through reconquest of territories from the Islamic Caliphate MS by the Byzantine Empire during the Macedonian Dynasty 867 1059 in the several waves of the Spanish 39Reconquistaquot 1085 1210a 66 14661617 uring the Crusades 10951291 rough attempts by Christian Europe to partner with the Mongol lter they devastated Baghdad 12581310 CE
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