Test #1 Study Guide-Bio 150
Test #1 Study Guide-Bio 150 Bio 150
Popular in The World of Plants
Popular in Biology
This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexa Wilson on Thursday February 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 150 at San Francisco State University taught by John Blair in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 146 views. For similar materials see The World of Plants in Biology at San Francisco State University.
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Date Created: 02/19/15
Bio 150 Study Guide Intro to Biology 1 Role of peopleculture in advancement of botanical knowledge 0 huntergatherers 0 Spread knowledge of plants through oral traditioncommunication 2 1400s1700s 0 Age of Herbals 0 World exploration 0 Moveable type c Microscopes Carolus Linnaeus 0 List of all known plants and animals 0 Binomial system of nomenclature o Hierarchical system of categorization 0 Changed categorization of plants based on sexual characteristics 3 Hierarchal system 0 Domain most inclusive 0 Kingdom 0 Phylum Class 0 Order 0 Family Genus Species least inclusive 4 Domain v Kingdom 0 3 domains with four to eight kingdoms in each 0 Domain Bacteria Domain Archaea Domain Eukarya 0 Kingdom Protista 0 Kingdom Plantae 0 Kingdom Fungi 0 Kingdom Animalia 5 Binomial nomenclature Genus first species second 6 Monophyletic v NonMonophyletic o Monophyletica taxon that descended from a single ancestor Cells and the Cell Cycle 1 Prokaryotic v Eukaryotic o Prokaryotic o No membrane bound nucleus 0 No organelles Eukaryotic o Membrane bound nucleus 0 Various organelles 2 Plant Cell Parts Cell wall 0 Cellulose some have lignin o Glued together by middle lamella made of pectin o Plasmodesmata channels btwn cells Cell membrane plasma membrane 0 All cells have a plasma membrane 0 Phospholipid bilayer 0 Embedded proteins 0 Selectively permeable Cytoplasm liquid matrix 0 Mostly water 0 Nutrients proteins ions Cytoskeleton o Microfilaments 0 Intermediate filaments o Microtubules 0 Transportation Nucleus 0 Most lightdense organelle 0 Filled with chromosomes DNA molecule 0 Control system for the cell Vacuole o Often fills the entire cell 0 Storage Nutrientsstarch Water Some pigments water soluble Endoplasmic reticulum 0 Rough ER and Smooth ER 0 Protein and lipid synthesis Ribosomes protein factories Vesicles membranebound spheres used for transport Golgi apparatus process package and transport materials like proteins lipids and toxins Chloroplasts photosynthetic organelles Mitochondria powerhouse of the cell where ATP is made 3 Mitosis Prophase 0 Nuclear membrane dissociates o Chromosomes coalesce o Spindles form 0 Metaphase chromosomes line up on a metaphase plate 0 Anaphase duplicated chromosomes are split apart 0 Telophase 0 Nuclear membrane reforms o Chromosomes unravel o Spindles break apart 4 Plasmodesmata cytoplasmic streaming initial vs derivative and cytokinesis o Plasmodesmata 0 channels btwn cells in cell wall Cytoplasmatic streaming cyclosis o bundles of microfilaments o facilitates exchanges of materials within the cell 0 movement of substances from cell to cell 0 Initial v Derivative o initials are the remaining cambium cells 0 derivatives are the sister cells Cytokinesis 0 formation of 2 new cells 0 occurs during the end of mitosis and beginning of interphase not between them Tissues 1 Meristematic tissues 0 Apical meristems 0 At tips of roots and shoots o Involved in growth of length 0 Primary growth 0 Lateral meristems 0 Usually just inside bark o Grow in girth 0 Secondary growth 2 NonMeristematic tissues 0 Parenchyma cells 0 Most common living cell in a plant 0 Thinwalled 0 Storage water nutrients pigments o Chlorenchyma Collenchymatissuecells 0 Living at maturity o Thickened in the corners secondary cell walls 0 Strength and flexibility Sclerenchyma 0 Dead at maturity 0 Highly thickened secondary cell wall 0 2types Fibers Sclereids 3 Vascular tissue Xylem cells water transport 0 Vessel elements large and tracheids small 0 Dead at maturity 0 Roots to leaves Phloem cells 0 Sugar photosynthate transport 0 Seive tube elementstransport and companion cells 0 Leaves to where it39s needed meristems source to sink 4 Epidermis Outermost layer of cells in nonwoody areas of a plant Cuticle wax cutin layer keeps water in never on roots Guard cells in either side of stomata Epidermal outgrowths extend out from the cell 0 Prickles 0 Leaf hairs 0 Root hairs o Secretory cells 5 Peridermbark Perennial live longer than a season Replaces epidermis as woody plants grow lnner bark and outer bark 6 vascular cambium cork cambium chlorenchyma fibers sclereids cutin suberin Vascular cambium 0 produces secondary xylem and phloem tissues that function primarily in support and conduction in roots Cork cambium o secondary dermal tissue in woody plants Chlorenchyma o parenchyma cells containing numerous chloroplasts mainly function in photo synthesis Fibers 0 one type of sclerenchyma tissue usually longer than wider and have a proportionately tiny cavity lumen at center of the cell string canvas rope etc Sclereids 0 other type of sclerenchyma tissue about as long as they are wide sometimes occur in specific zones rather than scattered within other tissues 0 Cutin 0 makes up cuticle of epidermis waxyfatty 0 Suberin 0 fatty substance secreted by cytoplasm of cork cells into the walls 0 makes cork cells waterproof o protects phloem and other tissue from drying out mechanical injury and freezing temperatures Organs 1 Roots o Func on 0 Water and dissolved nutrient uptake 0 Anchors the plant 0 2 kinds of roots 0 Taproot and its lateral roots 0 Fibrous root system 2 Longitudinal section 0 Root cap 0 Resists abrasion 0 Associated gravitopism a tendency to grow toward or away from gravity 0 Apical meristem region of cell division 0 Region of elongation 0 Region of maturation o Differentiated cell show maturation 3 Dicots cross section of maturation o Epidermis 0 Single layer 0 Root hairs o No cuticle Cortex 0 Region of parenchyma between epidermis and vascular tissue 0 Storage 0 Endodermis 0 Single layer 0 Each cell has a waxy layer around it quotHomeland securityquot 0 Primary phloem 0 Primary xylem xshaped dicot 4 Specialized roots 0 Aerial roots 0 Storage roots o Pneumatophors o Mycorrhizae o More than 90 of all plant species have this relationship 0 Root nodules contain a bacteria species 0 Parasitic roots 0 Exdodder 5 Monocot v Dicot o Monocot o angiosperms o 1 cotyledon 0 Parallel venation o Angiosperms o 2 cotyledons 0 Either palmate or pinnate venation
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