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UA / Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology / EEMB 182 / What adaptations do cuttlefish have to enable them to blend into their

What adaptations do cuttlefish have to enable them to blend into their

What adaptations do cuttlefish have to enable them to blend into their

Description

School: University of Arizona
Department: Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology
Course: Introductory Biology II
Professor: Hunter bonine
Term: Spring 2015
Tags: ecol, 182R, hunter, bonine, martinez, Ecology, Biology, diversity, life, protostomes, University, and arizona
Cost: 25
Name: ECOL 182R Diversity of Life 5 Lecture: Protostomes
Description: This is a copy of the lecture slides along with inserted text where parts in the slides are blank. Helpful details are noted at the left- and right-hand sides. Near the end is a general outline of the lecture, as well as a Q&A session of its key concepts.
Uploaded: 02/20/2015
26 Pages 47 Views 1 Unlocks
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Key concepts for today  


What adaptations do cuttlefish have to enable them to blend into their background? how have they used their ‘electric skin’ for a new purpose?



1. Morphologically simple animals may be evolutionarily successful, have diverse  life styles and relatively complex behavior.  

2. Learn the basic body form, key adaptations, feeding niches, reproduction of:  Porifera

--ancestor of animals

Cnidaria

--polyp (sedentary form) and medusa (mobile form)

--have both forms in life cycle, but one form predominates

--polyps live in large colonies, secrete calcium carbonate

--old polyps die, new ones build on top

--live in shallow, clear, nutrient-poor water

--get nutrients from photosynthesizing protists called  


What do cnidarians use their nematocysts for?



dinoflagellates that live within their cells

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--nematocysts (mini harpoons)

--trigger senses foreign chemicals, releases fatal toxin

--capture prey, defense

--asexual (budding off from polyps) and sexual (fertilization to  mobile, planktonic forms) reproduction

The Lophotrochozoans  

--grow by adding to their skeletal elements

--*Platyhelminthes (Flatworms)

--no body cavity (=acoelomate)

--most have mouth but no anus


Where are the autotrophs in the coral reef community?



--lack circulatory/respiratory system ~ absorb O2 through  body wall

--slow movement

--many are parasites

--*Schistosoma

--asexual (separate into two) or sexual (hermaphroditic)  reproduction

--two hermaphrodites lie next to each other and each  Don't forget about the age old question of What is the free-rider problem?

donates sperm to other’s egg sac

--*Annelida (Earthworms)

--*Polychaete worms

--filter feeders/parasites/predators

--*Leeches

--feed off blood

--segmented worms (body and coelom), mostly marine forms --head w/brain – more sophisticated nervous system

J

--respiration across body wall

--feed off organic material in soil --*Mollusca

--extremely diverse

--*Octopi

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--*Nudibranchs

--nematocyst defense

--*Marine Sea Slugs

--mantle: sheet of skin that secretes shell (if there is one),  forms gills for gas exchange, and in cephalopods forms  muscular cavity that forcibly ejects water for locomotion --radula: hardened tongue evolved for scraping algae off  rocks, puncturing, slicing, and manipulating food

--feeding niche: grazers or predacious If you want to learn more check out What if alexander the great had lived longer?

--*Cephalopods

--chambered nautilus We also discuss several other topics like Define okun's law.

--giant/fast axons, highly-developed nervous system

--chromatophores (sudden color changes)

--intelligent

The Ecdysozoans

--*Arthropods

--*The Nematoda (Roundworms)

--“a tube within a tube”

--20,000 species; range in length from 0.3mm to 8m

--many free-living decomposers and parasites of almost  everything (plants and animals)

--*Trichinella

--parasite of mammals (rodents, pigs, and humans)

--lay eggs in intesting, larvae travel through arteries  

and encyst in muscles where can live for years

--insect-parasitic nematodes can be used to control pests --sometimes mutualistic bacterial associates; release  

bacteria in the insect to kill it

--some bacteria luminescent!

--some cause river blindness in humans

--sexual reproduction

--have both sexes, some are hermaphrodites

3. Define/describe:  

Nematocyst—an organelle within Cnidaria that functions like mini  harpoons and releases toxins as an adaptation for feeding and defense Chromatophore—a cell that contains pigmentation; allows sudden color changes for disguise, confusion, courtship, and predation

Medusa—the mobile form of the Cnidaria, (e.g., jellyfish, etc.)

Polyp—the sedentary form of the Cnidaria, (e.g., coral, sea anemone) Plankton—tiny creatures that drift around with the current; provides  crucial source of food for many aquatic organisms Don't forget about the age old question of Why we need to understand the marketplace and customer needs?

Mantle—the sheet of skin of the Mollusca; secretes shell, forms gills for  gas exchange, and forms muscular cavity in cephalopods that ejects water  for locomotion

Radula—the hardened tongue of the Mollusca; scrapes algae off rocks,   punctures, slices, and manipulates food

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Nudibranchs—A type of colorful mollusk (e.g., marine sea slugs, etc.) Cephalopods—A type of predatory mollusk (e.g., cuttlefish, squid,  octopus, etc.)

Schistosoma and Schistosomiasis—an example of a human  Platyhelminthes parasite, of which each developmental stage is  morphologically distinct, can only infect the next host in the life cycle;  causes Schistosomiasis  Don't forget about the age old question of Dot product is also called?

Trichinella and Trichinosis—a roundworm parasite of mammals,  including rodents, pigs, and humans; lays eggs in intestine and young  larvae travel through arteries and encyst in muscles where they can live for  years; causes Trichinosis

Intermediate Host—host that harbors the parasite only for a short  transition period

Definitive Host—host where the parasite reproduces

Medicinal Leeches—method in the 1800’s; used an anticoagulant in  leech saliva that prevents from blood clotting and allows the veins to  regrow; also found to be useful in reattaching severed tissues Tool use in octopuses—cephalopod intelligence (recall video: octopus  use of coconut shell as shelter/protection)

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4. What adaptations do cuttlefish have to enable them to blend into their  background? How have they used their ‘electric skin’ for a new purpose?  Chromatophores—pigmentation in cuttlefish skin that allows sudden  color changes for disguise, confusion, courtship, and predation (recall  video: cuttlefish use of chromatophores to hypnotize crab and capture it)

Outline  

I. Cnidaria  

A. Body form - polyp and the medusa  

i. Nematocysts  

B. Feeding niches  

C. Corals  

i. Structure of coral  

ii. Mutualism with dinoflagellates  

D. Reproduction  

II. Flatworms (Platyhelminthes)  

A. Body plan  We also discuss several other topics like What happens when your body is low on electrolytes?

B. Feeding niches  

C. Reproduction

III. Annelida  

A. Morphology  

B. Feeding niches  

C. Medicinal leeches

IV. Mollusca  

A. Body plan - key adaptations mantle and radula  

B. Feeding niches  

C. Cephalopods in particular

V. Roundworms (Nematoda)  

A. Body plan -"a tube within a (pseudocoelom within a) tube"  B. Feeding niches  

i. Parasites of humans - e.g. Trichinella and trichinosis  C. Reproduction

Animal(Diversity(2:((The(protostomes((all( but(Arthropoda)(

Animals(

Ancestor)of)

animals)

Radial)symmetry)

tissues)

Extracellular)digestion) Mouth)&)anus)

Bilateral)symmetry)

PROTO;) STOMES) Coelom)

Porifera

Cnidaria)

Ctenophora)

Lophotrochozoans) Ecdysozoans)

DEUTEROSTOMES)

)))2

Striped(Pyjama(squid((a(cuttlefish)(

B.)Biology)of)Cnidaria)

i.(Morphology:(Two(basic(body(forms(

a sedentary and

The(polyp(and(the(medusa(E(___________________( _______________(

mobile form

Today)–)More)about)Cnidaria)and)the)Protostomes)

(in)part)

3Many(cnidarians(have(both(forms(in(their(life(

4

cycle,(in(others,(one(form(predominates(

Which(form(predominates(in(jellyfish?(In(sea(

anenomes?(In(coral?(

Polyp Medusa

 JP

sedentary mobile

Polyp Medusa

coral,  

sea anemones

 JP

jellyfish

B.)Biology)of)Cnidaria) ii.(Feeding(

p.5 Nematocysts(

6

Trigger(senses(ʻforeignʼ(chemical(profile(

ʻHarpoonʼ(released(E(can(pierce(a(crab(shell

Adaptations(for(feeding(and(defense(E( ______________________ that(function(

nematocysts - organelles 

like(miniature(harpoons(

Releases(toxin(E(some(species(have( toxins(fatal(to(humans(

a trigger

b) ʻharpoonʼ 

 Jenna PimentelPage 1  

p.7Biology(of(Cnidaria:(Corals(in(particular…( 8

Biology(of(Cnidaria

What(do(cnidarians(use(their(nematocysts( for?(

Capturing(prey(

Defense(against(predators(

Defending(territories(((video(segment)  JP

coral showdown

Corals(in(particular…(

Corals(E(polypEform(cnidarians,(live(in(large( colonies,(and(secrete(calcium(carbonate(

Corals(E(________________, live(in(large(colonies,(

polyp-form cnidarians

and(secrete(calcium(carbonate(

p.9

p.10

Corals(in(particular…(

A(coral(reef(is(millions(of(coral(skeletons(with(

new ones build on top living ones on the periphery 

When(old(polyps(die,(__________________(

iii.(Corals(in(particular(

Where(are(the(autotrophs(in(the(coral(reef( community?(Corals(live(in(shallow,(clear,( nutrientEpoor(water...(

p.11

________________________(

B.(Biology(of(Cnidaria

Reproduction(

budding off from polyps

Asexual(reproduction(E(_____________________( Sexual(reproduction(E(fertilized(eggs(give(rise(to(

p.12

Corals(get(much(of(their(energy(from(_________( 

photosynthe-

_____________________(E(that(live(within(their(

mobile,(planktonic(forms(

 JP

sizing protists called dinoflagellates cells(

Coral(polyps(with( dinoflagellates

What(is(plankton?(((

tiny creatures that drift around  

with the current

 Jenna PimentelPage 2  

PROTO;) STOMES)

p.13

Lophotrochozoans) Platyhelminthes)

Annelida)

Mollusca)

Platyhelminthes((

(flat(worms)(

__________________________((

no body cavity (= acoelomate) In(most(mouth(but(no(anus(

14

Ecdysozoans)

DEUTEROSTOMES)

Nematoda) Arthropoda) 

Lack(circulatory,(respiratory(( system,(absorb(O2(through(( body(wall( Movement?((

slowly

Lophotrochozoans,-,grow) incrementally)by)adding)to)their) skeletal)elements

Platyhelminthes)

Feeding(

Some(freeEliving,(many(parasites(

15 Platyhelminthes)

Example(of(a(human(platyhelminthes

parasite:((Schistosoma

_____________________________,(can(only(

complex life cycles Each stage morphologically distinct

i.(Some(of(the(parasites(with(___________________:(

several(different(forms(and(more(than(one(host(

Human(liver(fluke(

must(pass(through(

two(other(hosts(to(

complete(life(cycle(

infect(the(next(host(in(life(cycle( 1)(Parasite( eggs(shed(

in(human(

feces,(gets(

into(water(

4)(Burrow(

into(human(

skin,(infect( organs,(

reproduce(

2)(Eggs(hatch,(infect(snails( 3)(Snails(shed( swimming(stage(

The)platyhelminth)parasite,Schistosoma)) Humans((where(parasite(reproduces)(the(

The)platyhelminth)parasite,)Schistosoma E((causes(_______________ 

definitive host schistosomiasis 

___________________ 

Snails(the(intermediate0host(

1)(Parasite(

eggs(shed(

in(human(

feces,(gets(

into(water(

4)(Burrow(

into(human(

E((found(throughout(tropical(regions(of(the( world(

E 200(million(people(infected,(chronic( infection(damages(the(liver,(intestines,( lungs,(10%(develop severe(consequences(

E What(do(you(think(might(reduce(disease( transmission?(

skin,(infect( organs,(

reproduce(

2)(Eggs(hatch,(infect(snails( 3)(Snails(shed(

swimming(stage(

 Jenna Pimentel

Page 3  

Platyhelminthes(

Reproduction(

E(_______________(E(e.g.(can(cut(Planaria

some asexual

in(two(

E(sexual,(most(hermaphrodites(E((

two(hermaphrodites(lie(next(to(each(other,(( each(donates(sperm(to(the(otherʼs(egg(sac

Diversity(of(Annelida(

Morphology(

Coelom(

Segmentation(of(body(and(coelom( (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((E(more(sophisticated((

head w/ brain 

nervous(system(

Respiration(across(body((

wall(

p.

19

p.21 23

20

Diversity(of(Annelida(–(segmented0worms0

Examples(of(annelids?(

____________________________ (mostly(

Earthworms, Polychaete worms

marine(forms),(Leeches(

22

Diversity(of(Annelida(

Feeding(varied(

Earthworms?((

Organic(

material(in(

soil(

p.

Diversity(of(Annelida(

Feeding(

Marine(polychaete(worms?( Filter(feeders/Parasites/predators(

Diversity(of(Annelida( 24

Leech)

feeding?))

blood!)(mostly))

 Jenna PimentelPage 4  

Medicinal))

leeches)

• ʻblood(lettingʼ(popular(for(centuries,(fell(out(of( favor(in(mid(1800s(

• recently(leeches(found(to(be(very(useful(in( reattaching(severed(tissues(

• anticoagulant(in(saliva(prevents(clotting,(allows( veins(to(reEgrow(

• better(than(synthetic(compounds(which(act( throughout(the(body,(have(side(effects

p.

p.

25Diversity(of(Mollusca

26

Very(diverse(E(110,000(species((compare(to(~(

30,000(vertebrates)(

Examples?(

 JP

chitons snailsbivalves  like clams

Diversity(of(Mollusca( 27 Examples(of(mollusks(without(shells?(

 JP

octopi

29

What’s(the(adaptive(significance(of(all(the(bright( colors?(

28

A(return(to(the(most(colorful(mollusks(–( nudibranchs,(marine(sea(slugs(

30

Mollusca:(Morphology((

Key(adaptations(the(mantle(&(the(radula( 

Nudibranch(defense(with(nematocysts( What(group(produces(nematocysts?((

organelles made  by cnidaria

The(mantle(E(sheet(of(skin(

 JP

Secretes(shell((when(there(is(one),(forms(gills(for( gas(exchange,(and(in(cephalopods(forms( muscular(cavity(that(forcibly(ejects(water(for(

locomotion(

Generalized(mollusk(

Shell(

Mantle(

Gills(

Mantle(

cavity(

 Jenna PimentelPage 5  

31

Mollusca:)Morphology))

The(radula(E(a(hardened(tongue(

Probably(evolved(for(scraping(algae(off(rocks,( and(in(different(species(has(been(modified(for( puncturing,(slicing,(manipulating(food(

Shell(

Mantle(

32

Diversity(of(Mollusca(

Feeding(niches(

Mostly(grazers((e.g.(snails(on(algae)( 

Radula(

Gills(

Mantle(

cavity(

Generalized(mollusk(

33 Mollusca:(Cephalopods(in(particular((

34

Diversity(of(Mollusca(

Feeding(niches(

Or(predacious( 

Amazing(mollusk(predators,(the(

cephalopods((Video(clip)(

bye-bye shark

 JP

Cuttlefish) 

Squid) 

Octopus)

35 36 Cephalopods(in(

Cephalopods))

Chambered)nautilus)

particular((

The(Giant(squid(

Long(been(a(subject(of( seafarers’(folklore(E(e.g.( the(Kraken(

Engraving(from(1810(

 Jenna PimentelPage 6  

37 2004(E(the(first((remote)(observations(ever(of(a( 38

Giant(Squid(

The largest invertebraetwice the length of this  _____________________.(Largest(

giant(squid(in(the(wild!(Better(footage(2013(–(long( tentacles(troll(along(behind(–(look(like(fish,(giant( squid(appears(to(use(them(as(‘bait’(

specimen(60(ft(long(

 JPclassroom

For(centuries,(never(seen(alive(by(humans!(

Cephalopods(in(particular((

ii.(Giant((fast)(axons(E(most(highly(developed( nervous(system(of(invertebrates(

chromatophores - allow sudden color

iii.(__________________________________( ___________(for(disguise,(confusion,(

changes

courtship(and(predation.(((Most(amazing(

39

PROTO;)

STOMES)

p.40

Lophotrochozoans) Platyhelminthes) Annelida)

Mollusca)

Ecdysozoans)

Nematoda)

Arthropoda) 

use(of(these(in(cuttlefish((video!)(

Light show hypnosis

iv.((cephalopod(intelligence((e.g.(tool(use(by(

DEUTEROSTOMES)

octopuses)((video!)(

 JPOctopus uses coconut  

shell to become a turtle

Ecdysozoans,-,grow)by)molting

roundworms

Nematoda(–(______________0 Body(plan(

E(very(simple(E(“a(tube(within(a(tube”

So(three(“worms”(today(

–(Flat(worms(

(Platyhelminthes),(

41

42

Nematoda(E(roundworms

20,000(species,(range(in(length(from(

0.3 mm to 8 m 

_______________((the(longest(

found(in(a(whale(placenta*)(

What(was(it(doing(there?

parasitic relationship

Segmented(worms( (Annelida),(and( Roundworms(

(Nematoda)(

 JP

Collection(of(Ascaris

human(intestinal(

parasites(–(up(to(35(

cm(long,(the(largest(

human(parasite(

 Jenna PimentelPage 7  

43

Nematoda(E(roundworms

Feeding

Many(free(living(decomposers(and0 ______________________(E(plants(

44

Who(has(been(told(its(important(to( cook(pork(thoroughly?((

Trichinella, a(roundworm(parasite(of(mammals,( including(rodents,(pigs(and(humans(

Parasites of almost everything eating uncooked

and(animals(

Nematode(in(plant( tissue(

Pigs(get(infected(from(eating(_______________( ___________(or(from(rodent(contamination(

meat scraps

as well as humans

 JP

On(cooking(pork...(

45On(cooking(pork...(

46

•Trichinella(worms(lay(eggs(in(intestine,(young( larvae(travel(through(arteries(and(encyst(in( muscles(E(can(live(for(years(

Trichinosis((disease(associated(with(

Trichinella infection)(not(very(common(any( more(

In(1940,(16%(of(US(human(population(

infected(

In(1970,(4%(

In(1991E1996,(average(of(38(cases(per(year( Why(the(improvement?((

people tend to freeze pork beforehand, cook more thoroughly,  more sanitation in pig farms, rodent control, pigs  

 JP JP

not given uncooked meat anymore, etc.  

vomiting, diahrrea, intestinal discomfort, fever, etc.

47

48

Nematoda(E(roundworms

Wilbur had  

 JPTrichinella.

Rodent lived under  

his straw

Parasites(can(be(our(allies

E(the(use(of(insectEparasitic(nematodes(for(control(of( pests(

Insect(

parasitic(

nematodes(

leaving(the(

carcass(of(an(

insect(

 Jenna PimentelPage 8  

Nematoda(E(roundworms

49Nematodes(that(cause(river(blindness,(

50

elephantiasis(in(humans(also(have(

Nematode(parasites(sometimes(have( mutualistic(bacterial(associates((

mutualist(bacteria(

 JPotherwise they won't survive

InsectEparasitic(nematodes(release(bacteria( in(the(insect,(the(bacteria(kill(it(

Some(of(these(

bacteria(are((

luminescent!(

two caterpillars affected by  

 JP

nematodes

51

Nematoda(E(roundworms

Reproduction(

Sexual(E(some(species(have(both(

sexes,(some(are(hermaphrodites

Just(recently(led(to(new(therapies(( ___________________ 

with antibiotics 

52

Nematoda(E(roundworms

Reproduction(

The(record(for(reproductive(output?( Ascaris(the(parasitic(roundworm(______( _________________________ 

produces

100,000 - 200,000 eggs per day!

Assuming(population(of(roundworms(isn’t(

growing,(what(does(this(say(about(

mortality(of(immature(stages?

 Jenna Pimentel Page 9  

Key concepts for today  

1. Morphologically simple animals may be evolutionarily successful, have diverse  life styles and relatively complex behavior.  

2. Learn the basic body form, key adaptations, feeding niches, reproduction of:  Porifera

--ancestor of animals

Cnidaria

--polyp (sedentary form) and medusa (mobile form)

--have both forms in life cycle, but one form predominates

--polyps live in large colonies, secrete calcium carbonate

--old polyps die, new ones build on top

--live in shallow, clear, nutrient-poor water

--get nutrients from photosynthesizing protists called  

dinoflagellates that live within their cells

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--nematocysts (mini harpoons)

--trigger senses foreign chemicals, releases fatal toxin

--capture prey, defense

--asexual (budding off from polyps) and sexual (fertilization to  mobile, planktonic forms) reproduction

The Lophotrochozoans  

--grow by adding to their skeletal elements

--*Platyhelminthes (Flatworms)

--no body cavity (=acoelomate)

--most have mouth but no anus

--lack circulatory/respiratory system ~ absorb O2 through  body wall

--slow movement

--many are parasites

--*Schistosoma

--asexual (separate into two) or sexual (hermaphroditic)  reproduction

--two hermaphrodites lie next to each other and each  

donates sperm to other’s egg sac

--*Annelida (Earthworms)

--*Polychaete worms

--filter feeders/parasites/predators

--*Leeches

--feed off blood

--segmented worms (body and coelom), mostly marine forms --head w/brain – more sophisticated nervous system

J

--respiration across body wall

--feed off organic material in soil --*Mollusca

--extremely diverse

--*Octopi

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--*Nudibranchs

--nematocyst defense

--*Marine Sea Slugs

--mantle: sheet of skin that secretes shell (if there is one),  forms gills for gas exchange, and in cephalopods forms  muscular cavity that forcibly ejects water for locomotion --radula: hardened tongue evolved for scraping algae off  rocks, puncturing, slicing, and manipulating food

--feeding niche: grazers or predacious

--*Cephalopods

--chambered nautilus

--giant/fast axons, highly-developed nervous system

--chromatophores (sudden color changes)

--intelligent

The Ecdysozoans

--*Arthropods

--*The Nematoda (Roundworms)

--“a tube within a tube”

--20,000 species; range in length from 0.3mm to 8m

--many free-living decomposers and parasites of almost  everything (plants and animals)

--*Trichinella

--parasite of mammals (rodents, pigs, and humans)

--lay eggs in intesting, larvae travel through arteries  

and encyst in muscles where can live for years

--insect-parasitic nematodes can be used to control pests --sometimes mutualistic bacterial associates; release  

bacteria in the insect to kill it

--some bacteria luminescent!

--some cause river blindness in humans

--sexual reproduction

--have both sexes, some are hermaphrodites

3. Define/describe:  

Nematocyst—an organelle within Cnidaria that functions like mini  harpoons and releases toxins as an adaptation for feeding and defense Chromatophore—a cell that contains pigmentation; allows sudden color changes for disguise, confusion, courtship, and predation

Medusa—the mobile form of the Cnidaria, (e.g., jellyfish, etc.)

Polyp—the sedentary form of the Cnidaria, (e.g., coral, sea anemone) Plankton—tiny creatures that drift around with the current; provides  crucial source of food for many aquatic organisms

Mantle—the sheet of skin of the Mollusca; secretes shell, forms gills for  gas exchange, and forms muscular cavity in cephalopods that ejects water  for locomotion

Radula—the hardened tongue of the Mollusca; scrapes algae off rocks,   punctures, slices, and manipulates food

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Nudibranchs—A type of colorful mollusk (e.g., marine sea slugs, etc.) Cephalopods—A type of predatory mollusk (e.g., cuttlefish, squid,  octopus, etc.)

Schistosoma and Schistosomiasis—an example of a human  Platyhelminthes parasite, of which each developmental stage is  morphologically distinct, can only infect the next host in the life cycle;  causes Schistosomiasis  

Trichinella and Trichinosis—a roundworm parasite of mammals,  including rodents, pigs, and humans; lays eggs in intestine and young  larvae travel through arteries and encyst in muscles where they can live for  years; causes Trichinosis

Intermediate Host—host that harbors the parasite only for a short  transition period

Definitive Host—host where the parasite reproduces

Medicinal Leeches—method in the 1800’s; used an anticoagulant in  leech saliva that prevents from blood clotting and allows the veins to  regrow; also found to be useful in reattaching severed tissues Tool use in octopuses—cephalopod intelligence (recall video: octopus  use of coconut shell as shelter/protection)

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4. What adaptations do cuttlefish have to enable them to blend into their  background? How have they used their ‘electric skin’ for a new purpose?  Chromatophores—pigmentation in cuttlefish skin that allows sudden  color changes for disguise, confusion, courtship, and predation (recall  video: cuttlefish use of chromatophores to hypnotize crab and capture it)

Outline  

I. Cnidaria  

A. Body form - polyp and the medusa  

i. Nematocysts  

B. Feeding niches  

C. Corals  

i. Structure of coral  

ii. Mutualism with dinoflagellates  

D. Reproduction  

II. Flatworms (Platyhelminthes)  

A. Body plan  

B. Feeding niches  

C. Reproduction

III. Annelida  

A. Morphology  

B. Feeding niches  

C. Medicinal leeches

IV. Mollusca  

A. Body plan - key adaptations mantle and radula  

B. Feeding niches  

C. Cephalopods in particular

V. Roundworms (Nematoda)  

A. Body plan -"a tube within a (pseudocoelom within a) tube"  B. Feeding niches  

i. Parasites of humans - e.g. Trichinella and trichinosis  C. Reproduction

Animal(Diversity(2:((The(protostomes((all( but(Arthropoda)(

Animals(

Ancestor)of)

animals)

Radial)symmetry)

tissues)

Extracellular)digestion) Mouth)&)anus)

Bilateral)symmetry)

PROTO;) STOMES) Coelom)

Porifera

Cnidaria)

Ctenophora)

Lophotrochozoans) Ecdysozoans)

DEUTEROSTOMES)

)))2

Striped(Pyjama(squid((a(cuttlefish)(

B.)Biology)of)Cnidaria)

i.(Morphology:(Two(basic(body(forms(

a sedentary and

The(polyp(and(the(medusa(E(___________________( _______________(

mobile form

Today)–)More)about)Cnidaria)and)the)Protostomes)

(in)part)

3Many(cnidarians(have(both(forms(in(their(life(

4

cycle,(in(others,(one(form(predominates(

Which(form(predominates(in(jellyfish?(In(sea(

anenomes?(In(coral?(

Polyp Medusa

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sedentary mobile

Polyp Medusa

coral,  

sea anemones

 JP

jellyfish

B.)Biology)of)Cnidaria) ii.(Feeding(

p.5 Nematocysts(

6

Trigger(senses(ʻforeignʼ(chemical(profile(

ʻHarpoonʼ(released(E(can(pierce(a(crab(shell

Adaptations(for(feeding(and(defense(E( ______________________ that(function(

nematocysts - organelles 

like(miniature(harpoons(

Releases(toxin(E(some(species(have( toxins(fatal(to(humans(

a trigger

b) ʻharpoonʼ 

 Jenna PimentelPage 1  

p.7Biology(of(Cnidaria:(Corals(in(particular…( 8

Biology(of(Cnidaria

What(do(cnidarians(use(their(nematocysts( for?(

Capturing(prey(

Defense(against(predators(

Defending(territories(((video(segment)  JP

coral showdown

Corals(in(particular…(

Corals(E(polypEform(cnidarians,(live(in(large( colonies,(and(secrete(calcium(carbonate(

Corals(E(________________, live(in(large(colonies,(

polyp-form cnidarians

and(secrete(calcium(carbonate(

p.9

p.10

Corals(in(particular…(

A(coral(reef(is(millions(of(coral(skeletons(with(

new ones build on top living ones on the periphery 

When(old(polyps(die,(__________________(

iii.(Corals(in(particular(

Where(are(the(autotrophs(in(the(coral(reef( community?(Corals(live(in(shallow,(clear,( nutrientEpoor(water...(

p.11

________________________(

B.(Biology(of(Cnidaria

Reproduction(

budding off from polyps

Asexual(reproduction(E(_____________________( Sexual(reproduction(E(fertilized(eggs(give(rise(to(

p.12

Corals(get(much(of(their(energy(from(_________( 

photosynthe-

_____________________(E(that(live(within(their(

mobile,(planktonic(forms(

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sizing protists called dinoflagellates cells(

Coral(polyps(with( dinoflagellates

What(is(plankton?(((

tiny creatures that drift around  

with the current

 Jenna PimentelPage 2  

PROTO;) STOMES)

p.13

Lophotrochozoans) Platyhelminthes)

Annelida)

Mollusca)

Platyhelminthes((

(flat(worms)(

__________________________((

no body cavity (= acoelomate) In(most(mouth(but(no(anus(

14

Ecdysozoans)

DEUTEROSTOMES)

Nematoda) Arthropoda) 

Lack(circulatory,(respiratory(( system,(absorb(O2(through(( body(wall( Movement?((

slowly

Lophotrochozoans,-,grow) incrementally)by)adding)to)their) skeletal)elements

Platyhelminthes)

Feeding(

Some(freeEliving,(many(parasites(

15 Platyhelminthes)

Example(of(a(human(platyhelminthes

parasite:((Schistosoma

_____________________________,(can(only(

complex life cycles Each stage morphologically distinct

i.(Some(of(the(parasites(with(___________________:(

several(different(forms(and(more(than(one(host(

Human(liver(fluke(

must(pass(through(

two(other(hosts(to(

complete(life(cycle(

infect(the(next(host(in(life(cycle( 1)(Parasite( eggs(shed(

in(human(

feces,(gets(

into(water(

4)(Burrow(

into(human(

skin,(infect( organs,(

reproduce(

2)(Eggs(hatch,(infect(snails( 3)(Snails(shed( swimming(stage(

The)platyhelminth)parasite,Schistosoma)) Humans((where(parasite(reproduces)(the(

The)platyhelminth)parasite,)Schistosoma E((causes(_______________ 

definitive host schistosomiasis 

___________________ 

Snails(the(intermediate0host(

1)(Parasite(

eggs(shed(

in(human(

feces,(gets(

into(water(

4)(Burrow(

into(human(

E((found(throughout(tropical(regions(of(the( world(

E 200(million(people(infected,(chronic( infection(damages(the(liver,(intestines,( lungs,(10%(develop severe(consequences(

E What(do(you(think(might(reduce(disease( transmission?(

skin,(infect( organs,(

reproduce(

2)(Eggs(hatch,(infect(snails( 3)(Snails(shed(

swimming(stage(

 Jenna Pimentel

Page 3  

Platyhelminthes(

Reproduction(

E(_______________(E(e.g.(can(cut(Planaria

some asexual

in(two(

E(sexual,(most(hermaphrodites(E((

two(hermaphrodites(lie(next(to(each(other,(( each(donates(sperm(to(the(otherʼs(egg(sac

Diversity(of(Annelida(

Morphology(

Coelom(

Segmentation(of(body(and(coelom( (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((E(more(sophisticated((

head w/ brain 

nervous(system(

Respiration(across(body((

wall(

p.

19

p.21 23

20

Diversity(of(Annelida(–(segmented0worms0

Examples(of(annelids?(

____________________________ (mostly(

Earthworms, Polychaete worms

marine(forms),(Leeches(

22

Diversity(of(Annelida(

Feeding(varied(

Earthworms?((

Organic(

material(in(

soil(

p.

Diversity(of(Annelida(

Feeding(

Marine(polychaete(worms?( Filter(feeders/Parasites/predators(

Diversity(of(Annelida( 24

Leech)

feeding?))

blood!)(mostly))

 Jenna PimentelPage 4  

Medicinal))

leeches)

• ʻblood(lettingʼ(popular(for(centuries,(fell(out(of( favor(in(mid(1800s(

• recently(leeches(found(to(be(very(useful(in( reattaching(severed(tissues(

• anticoagulant(in(saliva(prevents(clotting,(allows( veins(to(reEgrow(

• better(than(synthetic(compounds(which(act( throughout(the(body,(have(side(effects

p.

p.

25Diversity(of(Mollusca

26

Very(diverse(E(110,000(species((compare(to(~(

30,000(vertebrates)(

Examples?(

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chitons snailsbivalves  like clams

Diversity(of(Mollusca( 27 Examples(of(mollusks(without(shells?(

 JP

octopi

29

What’s(the(adaptive(significance(of(all(the(bright( colors?(

28

A(return(to(the(most(colorful(mollusks(–( nudibranchs,(marine(sea(slugs(

30

Mollusca:(Morphology((

Key(adaptations(the(mantle(&(the(radula( 

Nudibranch(defense(with(nematocysts( What(group(produces(nematocysts?((

organelles made  by cnidaria

The(mantle(E(sheet(of(skin(

 JP

Secretes(shell((when(there(is(one),(forms(gills(for( gas(exchange,(and(in(cephalopods(forms( muscular(cavity(that(forcibly(ejects(water(for(

locomotion(

Generalized(mollusk(

Shell(

Mantle(

Gills(

Mantle(

cavity(

 Jenna PimentelPage 5  

31

Mollusca:)Morphology))

The(radula(E(a(hardened(tongue(

Probably(evolved(for(scraping(algae(off(rocks,( and(in(different(species(has(been(modified(for( puncturing,(slicing,(manipulating(food(

Shell(

Mantle(

32

Diversity(of(Mollusca(

Feeding(niches(

Mostly(grazers((e.g.(snails(on(algae)( 

Radula(

Gills(

Mantle(

cavity(

Generalized(mollusk(

33 Mollusca:(Cephalopods(in(particular((

34

Diversity(of(Mollusca(

Feeding(niches(

Or(predacious( 

Amazing(mollusk(predators,(the(

cephalopods((Video(clip)(

bye-bye shark

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Cuttlefish) 

Squid) 

Octopus)

35 36 Cephalopods(in(

Cephalopods))

Chambered)nautilus)

particular((

The(Giant(squid(

Long(been(a(subject(of( seafarers’(folklore(E(e.g.( the(Kraken(

Engraving(from(1810(

 Jenna PimentelPage 6  

37 2004(E(the(first((remote)(observations(ever(of(a( 38

Giant(Squid(

The largest invertebraetwice the length of this  _____________________.(Largest(

giant(squid(in(the(wild!(Better(footage(2013(–(long( tentacles(troll(along(behind(–(look(like(fish,(giant( squid(appears(to(use(them(as(‘bait’(

specimen(60(ft(long(

 JPclassroom

For(centuries,(never(seen(alive(by(humans!(

Cephalopods(in(particular((

ii.(Giant((fast)(axons(E(most(highly(developed( nervous(system(of(invertebrates(

chromatophores - allow sudden color

iii.(__________________________________( ___________(for(disguise,(confusion,(

changes

courtship(and(predation.(((Most(amazing(

39

PROTO;)

STOMES)

p.40

Lophotrochozoans) Platyhelminthes) Annelida)

Mollusca)

Ecdysozoans)

Nematoda)

Arthropoda) 

use(of(these(in(cuttlefish((video!)(

Light show hypnosis

iv.((cephalopod(intelligence((e.g.(tool(use(by(

DEUTEROSTOMES)

octopuses)((video!)(

 JPOctopus uses coconut  

shell to become a turtle

Ecdysozoans,-,grow)by)molting

roundworms

Nematoda(–(______________0 Body(plan(

E(very(simple(E(“a(tube(within(a(tube”

So(three(“worms”(today(

–(Flat(worms(

(Platyhelminthes),(

41

42

Nematoda(E(roundworms

20,000(species,(range(in(length(from(

0.3 mm to 8 m 

_______________((the(longest(

found(in(a(whale(placenta*)(

What(was(it(doing(there?

parasitic relationship

Segmented(worms( (Annelida),(and( Roundworms(

(Nematoda)(

 JP

Collection(of(Ascaris

human(intestinal(

parasites(–(up(to(35(

cm(long,(the(largest(

human(parasite(

 Jenna PimentelPage 7  

43

Nematoda(E(roundworms

Feeding

Many(free(living(decomposers(and0 ______________________(E(plants(

44

Who(has(been(told(its(important(to( cook(pork(thoroughly?((

Trichinella, a(roundworm(parasite(of(mammals,( including(rodents,(pigs(and(humans(

Parasites of almost everything eating uncooked

and(animals(

Nematode(in(plant( tissue(

Pigs(get(infected(from(eating(_______________( ___________(or(from(rodent(contamination(

meat scraps

as well as humans

 JP

On(cooking(pork...(

45On(cooking(pork...(

46

•Trichinella(worms(lay(eggs(in(intestine,(young( larvae(travel(through(arteries(and(encyst(in( muscles(E(can(live(for(years(

Trichinosis((disease(associated(with(

Trichinella infection)(not(very(common(any( more(

In(1940,(16%(of(US(human(population(

infected(

In(1970,(4%(

In(1991E1996,(average(of(38(cases(per(year( Why(the(improvement?((

people tend to freeze pork beforehand, cook more thoroughly,  more sanitation in pig farms, rodent control, pigs  

 JP JP

not given uncooked meat anymore, etc.  

vomiting, diahrrea, intestinal discomfort, fever, etc.

47

48

Nematoda(E(roundworms

Wilbur had  

 JPTrichinella.

Rodent lived under  

his straw

Parasites(can(be(our(allies

E(the(use(of(insectEparasitic(nematodes(for(control(of( pests(

Insect(

parasitic(

nematodes(

leaving(the(

carcass(of(an(

insect(

 Jenna PimentelPage 8  

Nematoda(E(roundworms

49Nematodes(that(cause(river(blindness,(

50

elephantiasis(in(humans(also(have(

Nematode(parasites(sometimes(have( mutualistic(bacterial(associates((

mutualist(bacteria(

 JPotherwise they won't survive

InsectEparasitic(nematodes(release(bacteria( in(the(insect,(the(bacteria(kill(it(

Some(of(these(

bacteria(are((

luminescent!(

two caterpillars affected by  

 JP

nematodes

51

Nematoda(E(roundworms

Reproduction(

Sexual(E(some(species(have(both(

sexes,(some(are(hermaphrodites

Just(recently(led(to(new(therapies(( ___________________ 

with antibiotics 

52

Nematoda(E(roundworms

Reproduction(

The(record(for(reproductive(output?( Ascaris(the(parasitic(roundworm(______( _________________________ 

produces

100,000 - 200,000 eggs per day!

Assuming(population(of(roundworms(isn’t(

growing,(what(does(this(say(about(

mortality(of(immature(stages?

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