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New Material for Final

by: Anna Shaw

New Material for Final COMM 1500-005

Marketplace > Clemson University > COMM 1500-005 > New Material for Final
Anna Shaw
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This is the new material we covered after Exam 2 for the final
Introduction to Human Communication
Marianne H. Glaser
Study Guide
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Anna Shaw on Wednesday April 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 1500-005 at Clemson University taught by Marianne H. Glaser in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 52 views.


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Date Created: 04/20/16
Final Exam Study Guide New Material Career Appendix  College isn’t just about the scholarly/degree side. It’s a stepping­stone to grad  school, Workplace  Networking is key o Have legitimate networks: professors in your field, previous employers,  even parents  Interview: A planned, structured conversation in which one person asks questions  and another person answers them. o Glaser: if you have a planner structured interview à not awesome bc you  want to build relationships o Research company, have questions for them, understand the environment,  know the position you’re applying for, bring in resume and be able to talk  about it, be honest, prepare for common questions o Resume o Blog or website (only if you need to) o Research organization  Go to their website and know the company (view it like a big test à study for it), if they don’t ask a question, drop little tidbits o Develop questions to ask  Before the Interview (way before) o Consider your online image  Own the first page of google  Social media o research o cover letter o resume  Passion is more important than money à michelin center can help lead you to the  passion  Prepare a self­summary o Easiest way for interviewer to turn conversation into interview o Why are you sitting in front of me and why should I hire you  Rehearse interview questions o Primary and Secondary/Follow­up questions, Open and Closed questions,  Neutral and Loaded or Leading questions o Illegal questions  Questions about engagements, relationship status, children (need to know if you will move with husband/have kids)  They will have pictures of their families facing out making you  talk about them  Grey question = grey answers  Guidelines for Interviewee o Dress appropriately  o Arrive early (but not too early…) o Be considerate and thankful o Be confident o Shake hands  A firm handshake matters o Build relationship  Find something in common à look around environment (artifacts)  OR have 3 general conversation pieces  In thank you note à reference what you talked about o Bring supplies  Pen, resumes (in case there is more than one), references  On references: can’t just write anyone down (need permission) à  bring but do not give out unless they ask for one (if they are  serious, they will call and ask for your references)  questions o Use active listening o Think before answering  It’s okay to pause o Be enthusiastic o Ask questions  During the Interview o Listen actively o Consider nonverbal communication o Don’t invade their space o Posture à look confident but not stiff o Be clear and concise with answers o Show diversity in your answers o Ask if answered fully o Always “on the record” o Ask questions (avoid salary)  Whoever speaks numbers first loses  If they ask you à What would someone with my resumes,  experience be worth to the company  Know bottom number o Set the next step o Before you leave ask them if it’s okay to contact them  After Interview o Shake hands o Say thank you/Write a thank­you note  24­48 hours of a note, not an email o Follow­up with permission o Contact for feedback Chapter 2: Connecting Perceptions and Communication Perception  The process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting information to give  personal meaning to the communication we receive o Deciding what we’re going to pay attention to and what we’re going to  ignore and drawing conclusions about it.  Perceptions are based on our experiences  Perception gives meaning to our communication  Perception influences how we communicate with others o Miscommunications will start to occur here  Perception is a complex phenomenon The Perception Process – 3 stages STAR QUESTION/CONCEPT  Selection o Exposure o Attention o Retention o Sort stimuli  Library bridge à I'm going to select and pay attention to what they  are doing  Selectively pay attention to things that focus on our needs  Selectively remember  Organization o Closure  we fill in the missing pieces  We start making assumptions and stereotypes but it is needed b/c  there is too much info  Bad when we add biases o Proximity o Similarity o There is too much info and we need to synthesize it o Simplify and label  Interpretation o Past experiences o New situations o Opinions of others o Trying to make sense of the info o Use past experiences to explain the new o Your reality vs. someone else’s reality  Plenty of scope for error and inaccuracy  Self­concept o Believing you can do something well or poorly  Self­esteem o Value you place on something you do well or poorly  Social construction of self o You were different “hats” in different situations  Self­monitoring o Self talk (intrapersonal communication) Why do people perceive the same situation in different ways? (7 factors) probably a  star question    Perceptual set o Stereotyping o Allows past to control perceptions; ignore differences  Attribution Error o Fundamental attribution error o Attempt to understand reason behind other peoples perceptions  Physical Characteristics o If your 5 senses work different than someone else  Psychological State o Brain/filter o Can dictate how your day will be  Cultural Background o Ethnocentrism (just b/c we do it one way, doesn’t mean that my way is  better) o Set on beliefs and values and norms  Gender  Media Guidelines for Competent Communicators  Separate facts from assumptions  Perceptions, especially first impressions, are not always accurate  Recognize your personal biases  People from different cultural backgrounds do not always attach the same  meaning to events  Don’t be afraid to verify your perceptions  Admit misperceptions and change if needed Chapter 3: Connecting Self and Communication Understanding Self­Concept STAR QUESTION  Self­concept/self­identity is our perceived self, made up from our:  Beliefs, attitudes, experiences  Self­image is how we see ourselves  What makes up who you are  Self­esteem is our feelings and attitudes toward ourselves  How you value yourself Development of Self­concept  Sensing our environment  Parental Communication  Others’ communication  Values  Attitudes  Beliefs Personal­social identity continuum STAR QUESTION  The 2 distinct ways the self can be categorized:  At a personal level (as a unique individual)  Son or daughter  Student  Sorority or fraternity sister or brother  At the social identity level (as a member of a group)  Family member  Member of the freshman class  Part of the Greek organization  Your identity is dependent of the situation  We describe ourselves according to the context Culture and self­concept  Individualistic orientation  Cultures that are individualistic are more focused on the “I” individual  What is best for me  Collectivistic orientation   More interested in the well being of other  Look for well­being of others Gender and self­concept  Sex and Gender  Sex = biological term (physiological)  Gender = socially constructed learned behaviors (feminine vs. masculine)  Gender Stereotypes  Expectations  Gender Expectations  Androgynous  Male and female traits  If you can do both (adapt) you’ll be more successful in business/life Self­Fulfilling Prophecy  Self­Fulfilling Prophecy  Expectations we have of ourselves or that others have of us that help to  create the conditions that lead us to act in predictable ways.   Too many failure à bad for self­esteem  No failures à inflated self­esteem  A balance  Inaccurate gap in self­perceptions  “I’m going to have a terrible day” example  Above­average effect   Thinking we are better than the average person on almost every  dimension available  Texting while driving – we know its bad and don’t want  others to do it but yet we do it Impression Management  Impression Management  Perceived self  Presenting self  These two don’t always match  Facework (star)  Verbal and nonverbal ways we act to maintain our presenting  image  How our faces appear as we communicate Chapter 6 Connecting Listening and Thinking in the Communication Process Listening What is difference b/t hearing and listening?  Listening is understanding/paying attention  active process o Listening is a cognitive activity that’s is an active process of receiving,  constructing meaning from,  Hearing is the passive physiological process  7 stages to effective listening STAR QUESTION  Listening is complex  1. Sensing o Accurate reception of sound attention o Listening is effected by all of your senses  2. Information processing – you’ve already sensed the message o evaluation  analyzes evidence and sorts fact from opinions (differentiation) o interpretation  understanding the message from speakers point of view o understanding  3. Remembering o short term and long term o retain the info and give it back o when listening its good to take notes b/c it helps with memory o construct mnueonics  4. Thinking  5. Interpreting  6. Evaluating  7. Responding and sending feedback o verbal, meaningful feedback  once you hear it, steps 2­6 happen all at once  step 7 is the “loop” process 4 functions of listening  Listening to obtain info o Lectures  Listening to evaluate o Business proposal o Driving to car and getting close to a train track  Listening with empathy o Empathy is the identification or experiencing of feelings, thoughts, or  attitudes of another o Empathic listening: listening to understand another person o This is the most natural form o Reflect and clarify feelings by perception checking (sensing step/ you’re  going to know if something is wrong)  Listening for enjoyment Steps to improve Listening Competence st  1  recognize that it is important  2  think of listening as an active process  3  recognize that a willingness to work and a desire to improve are essential to  ithrease listening effectiveness  4  behave like a good listener o Fake it till you make it  5  take good notes o Not just a regurgitation  6  if you don’t understand  ask questions to clarify information Intercultural Listening  Chinese symbol  people must listen with their entire beings  Similarities and differences in listening in all cultures: best advice  respectively  ask questions and be aware of cultural differences  Listening requires energy and commitment Chapter 13: Interpersonal Communication: A Theoretical Foundation Interpersonal Relationships  Relationships—an association between at least two people, which may be described in terms of intimacy or kinship.  This is a big umbrella term  Good relationships – interactions are satisfying to and healthy for all involved. Theories of Interpersonal Communication STAR QUESTION/CONCEPTS  Most of us want relationships so we need to be good at communicating  these are theories to why we communicate with others and why we have relationships Uncertainty Reduction Theory  Uncertainty reduction theory suggests that when we meet others, we seek to reduce uncertainty about each other o It feels uncomfortable to be uncertain in a situation so we communicate to reduce the uncertainty we have about someone  In other words: o New relationships cause uncertainty o Uncertainty is uncomfortable o People communicate to alleviate discomfort Uncertainty Management Theory  This theory takes into account the different ways people respond both psychologically and communicatively to uncertainty  Three main features: o The interpretation and experience with uncertainty o The effect of emotion related to uncertainty o The ways communication and emotion are managed when uncertainty exists  This was developed by a medical psychologist so think of this as would the uncertainty of not knowing a second opinion offer you some hope about your prognosis or would the elimination of the uncertainty offer you hope? Social Information Processing Theory  Suggests that textual electronically mediated relationships grow only to the extent that people gain information about each other and use it to form impressions  Two features: o Verbal cues are used to form opinions and impressions of others so without this ability it is harder for relationships to get deeper o Time: it takes longer to get to know someone via textual technology rather than face-to-face interactions Social Penetration Theory  A theory suggesting that disclosures in relationships become increasingly intimate as the relationship develops o Breadth of information shared/topics o Depth of information shared/deepness o Increases with intimacy o Think of Shrek: Ogres are like onions  they have layers  humans are like ogres who have layers that others must peel back Social Exchange Theory  Social exchange theory is based on the assumption that people weigh the costs and benefits associated with entering a relationship and seek out relationships that benefit them, avoiding those that don’t  Pro/con list Interpersonal Needs Theory  This is a theory that provides insight into our motivation to communicate. The theory consists of three needs:  Affection  The need to feel likeable or loveable.  Inclusion  Encompasses our need to feel significant and worthwhile.  People need to feel significant  Undersocial (don’t want to communicate) vs. oversocial (need to communicate)  Social = a balance  Control  Our motivation for power or influence in our relationship. Dialectical Theory: Push and Pull  Connection-Autonomy o C- you want to be with them and feel connected o A- “me time” o You need to be dependent and independent in a healthy relationship  Openness-Closed-ness o O- you want to be open to them, to self-disclose o C- you don’t always want to share everything (for protection of yourself)  Novelty-Predictability o N- you want things to be predictable  a safe spot o P- however if things become too predictable that can be not so good (it’s good to be surprised)  STAR QUESTION: Managing Relational Tensions o 1) Temporal selection: choose one desire and ignore the other for that time being  focus on one and not the other o 2) Topical Segmentation: for certain topics we will be more open/disclosed o 3) Neutralization: compromising/finding neutral ground b/t two people’s desires o 4) reframing: reframe/change the perception of the tension associated with changing yourself so that both desires can be satisfied Self-Disclosure in Relationships  Self-disclosure is voluntarily sharing information about ourselves that another person is not likely to know.  Feedback – the verbal and physical responses to people and their messages.  Makes the relationship closer  A healthy relationship is one that involves both parties equally self-disclosing Self-Disclosure  Why do we Self-Disclose?  Self-presentation  When we want to appeal to others, we put our best foot forward  Relationship building  To allow the relationship to grow, we must self- disclose  Catharsis  Form of communicative release  It feels good to unburden ourselves Chapter 14: Developing and Maintaining Relationships: From Formation to Dissolution Relationship Formation  Interpersonal Attraction—the desire to interact with someone based on a number of factorst o Physical attributes: 1 impressions (assumptions, stereotypes)  Look for similarities often or people that are very different o Communication and attraction  The argument in book: we are fear rejection and b/c of that we chose to communicate with people who have a similar level or attract-ability  If you’re an “8”, and someone who is a 10 came by, you may not communicate with them b/c you fear rejection b/c they're out of your league  People like similar attractiveness level o Chemistry or physical attraction  It is important (attraction at 1 sight)  It can develop (attractiveness to them) o Meeting online  Meeting someone online à today there is less of an endpoint  Relationships: Initiation or Coming together STAR QUESTION o Initiatist  1 15 secs.  Start to form impressions  Would I like to experiment? o Experimenting  Small talk, awkward  My name is…, im from…, my major is…  Kinda like an audition  There are many that can stay in this stage (doesnt have to get deeper) o Intensifying  Close friends  Increasing shared amount of information  You may recognize you’re here (start to making nicknames)  Can be platonic or nickname; can use plural pronouns (ours, us,we)  Towards the end: direct expression of committment o Integrating  tight sense of togetherness  Deepening amount of personal information  Relationship has higher priority o Bonding  Public announcement 5 Relationship Maintenance Strategies  Positivity o Communicative behaviors that make others feel good o Friendly, cheerful, polite, patient o Pleasant to be around o Want relationship to build? à be positive  Openness o Willing to self-disclose and talk about the relationship (not all the time) o Be open and share feelings o Balance  Assurances o Verbal and nonverbal that demostrate a commitment o Holding hands, gifts, saying it  Blending Social Networks o Friends come together and support the relationship o Encouragement  Sharing tasks o Fair share Relationship Disolution  Signs That Relationships Are in Trouble Aggressive Behavior  Aiming to hurt the other party o Not always extreme: can be meanness o “zingers”, sassiness/snarkieness Lies o Deceives another by not telling the truth o Are there secrets? Betrayal o Extramarital affairs, gossip, and harmful criticism  Could end relationship Relationships: Coming Apart Stage  Differentiating o The differences are now annoying o Things that were ours are now singular o toleration  Circumscribing o Information exchange is reduced o Conversations are not dialogues à lead to arguments à so you stop talking/communicating in general  Stagnating o Both verbal and nonverbal communication is planned out (don’t want to cause an argument)  Avoiding o Physical and emotional  Terminating o The anti-bonding stage/Make it official that y’all are done Duck’s Phases of Dissolution  The Intrapsychic Phase o Analyzing the state of the relationship  The Dyadic Phase o B/t the 2 of you, you talk about the stage of relationship  Nice and not nice  The Social Phase  The Grave­Dressing Phase o Explain why it happened Interpersonal Conflict  According to Wilmot and Hocker conflict is: o “an expressed struggle between at least two interdependent parties who  perceive incompatible goals, scarce resources, and interference from  others in achieving their goals.” Causes  Faulty Communication o Could more happen likely online  Faulty attribution errors  Faulty perceptions o Our way isn’t necessarily right or best o “Put yourself in their shoes”  Personality traits Both Sides of Conflict  Destructive o Winner vs. loser o Too aggressive behaviors, withdrawal, withholding feelings o Prevents work or feeling good about ourselves o Forces us to do things we do not want to do o Outcome more important than the relationship o Form of bullying  Beneficial o Bring out problems that need solving o Bring people together to clarify goals and explore new ideas o Eliminate resentments and help in understanding o Bring out creativity o Produce acceptable solutions o Pay attention to other points of view o Bring new life into a relationship Strategies for conflict management  How did you react?  Situational  Withdrawing o Avoidance (physically and emotionally)  Accommodating o Satisfying other person needs and neglecting your own needs  Forcing o Satisfying your own needs with no concern for others o Good: an intervention  Negotiating/Compromising o Neither are completely satisfied     Collaboration o View it as a issue where you both decide to come to a solution together Improve Communication Competence  Address issues clearly o  Treat others with respect  Know that praise will most likely produce desired responses o Praise in public. Punish in private (shows respect)  Establish Supportive and Caring Relationships  Nurture a Supportive Environment  Invite More Communication


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