PSC 2369 Final Study Guide
PSC 2369 Final Study Guide
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Date Created: 02/20/15
Final Study Guide Reservation History and Extent Who counts 0 SC Access to temples roads wells schools Whether the caste pollutes highcaste Hindus by touch or proximity Whether caste Hindus take water from the caste 0 ST cultural and spatial marginalization o OBC Social occupation ritual cleanliness political representation Economic housing land public employment Educational literacy educational attainment Creamy layer the relatively advantaged among those belonging to reserved categories only applies to OBCs various criteria based on parental income and occupation Colonial reservation o 1909 Separate electorate for Muslims in MorleyMinto Reforms o 1919 Small number of reserved seats for nonBrahmins Sikh separate electorates o 1926 Reservation extended to Madras and Bombay presidency in government jobs Madras for 15 positions 2 Brahmins 2 quotbackwards castesquot 2 quotdepressed castesquot 6 other Hindus 2 AnglolndiansChristians 1 Muslim o 1932 Poona Pact creating reserved seats for quotdepressed classesquot 0 1935 Christian electorates established Current reservation in India 0 Legislatures SCST reservation in Lok Sbha and Vidhan Sabhas in proportion to population Virtually no SC and few ST MPs in MLAs from non reserved constituencies 10year sunset provision on legislative reservation Panchayati raj mandates SCST representationljhuge spike in representation of SCsSTs Some states mandated OBC reservation in 0 Government jobs SCSt reservation in central government jobs increased from 19505 to 19705 Implementation of Mandal Commission Report in 1990 creates 27 OBC 0 Higher education Same SCST reservation as in employment applied to central educational institutions 27 OBC reservation implemented in 2008 o Reservation in the states SCST reservations in most states from beginning Variation across states in levels and extent of OBC reservation Lists of reserved castes vary by state and can differ from the central list Example Tamil Nadu 0 Why no religious reservation Other religions included under purview of caste based reservations Sikhs treated as Hindus for reservation purposes 0 Muslim castes included as OBCs State is unwilling to actively privilege religious identity in politics Women s reservation o 33 reservation in government for women 0 Coupled with SCSTOBC reservation o Stalled at state and national levels ll Reservation in practice and politics Failure in implementation SCsSTs in higher education 0 Delhi University 1996 o 700 faculty in postgraduate departments 7 SCs 2 STs 0 4512 faculty in undergraduate colleges 11 SCs 0 STs The controversy in politics 0 Refers mainly to OBC reservation less to SCST 0 Therefore focused on jobs and education not legislative reservation Demands o Compartmentalization MBE EBE OBC quota for Muslims o Reclassi cation JatsDOBC GujjarsljST from OBC 0 Economic reservation poor among the forwards Parties 0 Paries formed explicitly to advance the cause of reservation Justice Party in colonial Madras PMK in Tamil Nadu RSNM in Rajastham 0 Parties for which reservation was a key issue SSP and backward caste reservation in 19605 Janata Dal in the early 1990s 0 Parties using reservation for temporary political gain Reservation outbidding in Tamil Nadu ADMK DMK Jat reservation in Haryana Congress lll Arguments for and against reservation Proreservation o Pervasive castebased discrimination in addition to persistent inequality 0 Caste is a salient social factor denying its existence perpetuates the status quo o Reservation has helped viz creation of SC middle class In politics reservation sort of works 0 SCs would almost certainly be underrepresented 0 SC reservation in local government changes attitudes and behaviors 0 Women s reservation increases future female representation though caste reservation does not 0 Women s reservation changes policy outcomes Antireservation o Reservation reinforces rather than undermines caste identity 0 The current system is so awed failing to bene t those most in need that an alternative remedy is needed IV Examples Legislative reservation in Bangladesh 0 Jatita Sanghad Some form of women s reservation in most elections gnceindependence Number of seats varies currently 50350 Not directly elected allocated based on proportion of seatsin 0 Local level direct election to women s reserved seats Legislative reservation in Pakistan 0 National and provincial assemblies Women s and religious minorities seats based on a party s share of legislative seats 0 Local government Direct election to women s reserved seats in 29 for union councils Religion What does South Asia s religious landscape look like a Hinduism 64 Often described as a quotway of lifequot as much as a religion Highly heterogeneous in belief and practice No centralized clergy or religious organization Idea of Hinduism as single world religion became popular in the 19th century b Islam 29 Mix or migrants and indigenous converts in South Asia Mughal Empire ruled most of SA immediately prior to colonialism Most SA Muslims are Sunni about 1015 are Shia in India and Pakistan ln Muslim minority areas in India Muslims are highly urban c Sikhism 2 Founded in 15th century by Guru Nanak in Punjab Porous relationship with Hinduism retains caste Relevant only in Indian Punjab and surrounding lndian states d Christianity 2 Early Christians 3rCI centuries o Kerala o Syrian Christians effectively upper castes Portuguese Christians 16th17th centuries o Goa and other coastal pockets Sri Lanka 0 Latin Christians or Catholics retained original jatis Colonial missionaries 18thearly 20th centuries o Widespread activity most effective in India s NE and among Sri Lankan elites o Mainly Protestant Recent converts 20th century 0 Heavily SCST largely in central lndian tribal belt and South India SCs e Buddhism 2 Siddhartha Gautam Buddha born in Nepal established Buddhism in presentday Bihar in 6th century BCE Widespread in SA but began to decline around 4thCE century at expense on Hinduism and later lslam Three main strains 0 Theravada Sri Lanka 0 Tibetan Nepal Bhutan Himalayan lndia Ladakh NE 0 NeoBuddhists SC converts in India f Others 1 Jainism 0 Ancient offshoot of Hinduism o Mainly upper caste Zoroastrianism 0 Paris and Iranis less than 100000 0 Mainly in Maharashtra and Gujarat 0 Extremely af uent 0 Judaism o Formerly sizeable communities in Kerala and around Mumbai 0 Most have emigrated to Israel 0 Tribal religions o Practiced in central India NE Nepal Secuarism Equal treatment of all religions does not apply to separation of religion and state in SA Communalism Representing the narrow interests of a speci c religious group to the exclusion of others equivalent of religious chauvinism II Hindu nationalism understanding of Hindus as a quotnational groupquot equation of the Indian state with Hindutva 0 Hard line no place for foreign religious traditions in India limited acceptance of Partition 0 Soft line all welcome in India but nonHindus must acknowledge the Hindu character of India and its society 0 Cow slaughter 0 Uniform civil code 0 Status ofjammu amp Kashmir 0 Babri Masjid 0 Portrayal of the Muslim 0 Invader 0 Birth rates 0 Love jihad o The fallacy of the Muslim threat 0 Indian Muslims economically disadvantaged not a particularly powerful political constituency o Ignores higher fertility rates for other disadvantaged groups SCsSTs Sikh terrorism in PunjabantiMuslim pogroms Tamil sympathy for L39ITE in Sri Lanka Ill Major religious con icts in South Asia a Major religious con icts o HinduMuslim riots 0 195095 10000 deaths 30000 injured Alleged dowry deaths 2008 8172 Road accidents 2010 134000 Urban phenomenon Victims predominately Muslim Riots are planned and preventable Waxes and wanes over times spikes in late 19605early 19705 and early 19905 fairly quiet in decade after 2002 0 Location varies from state to state Most riot deaths in Gujarat Maharashtra Uttar Pradesh and Karnataka Fewest riot deaths in Haryana Himachal Pradesh Kerala and Punjab Gujarat 2002 o Institutionalized riots systems Brass these systems have developed in north and west Indian cities that have experience riot violence making them prone to further violence quotFire tendersquot stoke HinduMuslin tension through in ammatory acts largely sangh parvar members quotConservation specialistsquot lead potential rioters and signal when violence should begin largely sangh parvar members Criminals and the dispossessed recruited and rewarded for participation in violence Politicians and the media ascribe blame to in amed passions of the masses 0 Interethnic engagement Varshney Aligarh vs Calicut quotcivic organizations in Aligarh took an increasingly intercommunal form HinduMuslim civic engagement was given a solid associational foundation in Calicut s new organizationsquot 0 Electoral incentives Wilkinson Why should elections matter Riots more likely in religiously mixed constituencies where elections are competitive Riots are most likely to occur in o Twoparty systems where the government relies on Muslim votes 0 Twoparty systems where the government does not rely on Muslim votes Multiparty systems OOOOOO 0 Economic growth Bohlken amp Sergenti why should growth in uence riots Low growth lowers opportunity costs to participation Low growth gives politicians an incentive to focus on other issues Low growth generates greater economic competition Summary riots happen In places where they have occurred before In places with little HinduMuslim associational life In competitive electoral districts In states with twoparty systems when the party in power does not depend on Muslim votes When economic growth is low 0 Kashmir insurgency 0 Con ict Began in 1989 following allegations of a fraudulent state elections Initially fed by discontent among Kashmiri Muslims led by Jammu amp Kashmir Liberation Front JKLF Later stages increasingly dominant by foreign militant groups sponsored by Pakistan effectively a proxy war 0 Explanations Jammu amp Kashmir as an authoritarian enclave delayed elections little contestation fraudulent results Rising but unmet expectations 0 Punjab insurgency 0 Background Colonial Separate electorates for Sikhs granted in 1919 Independence Massive displacement and bloodshed in Punjab Postindependence creation in 1966 of Sikh majority in Punjab o Origins among Sikh fundamentalists demanding a separate Sikh state Khalistan o Bhindranwale group gained strength in early 19805 o Explanations Initial insurgent support from Indira Gandhi aimed at weakening the Akali Dal Rising agricultural prosperity but insufficient nonagricultural economic opportunities b Other religious con icts o AntiShia violence in Pakistan 0 AntiChristian violence in India c Potential instances of religious con ict 0 Sri Lankan civil war 0 Terrorism in Pakistan 0 Terrorism in India Language amp Region I South Asia s language landscape IndoEuropean languages IndoAryan Iranian Nurstani Dravidian indigenous to SA only AustroAsiatic Khmer Vietnamese TibetoBurman Tibetan Burmese Bangladesh 9598 Bengali speaking Nepal mostly Nepali followed by Maithili Sri Lanka 75 Sinhalese 25 Tamil Pakistan mostly Punjab followed by Pushto Saraiki and Urdu India mostly Hindi followed by Bengali ll How language has been involved or not in politics Official languages Country Language Mother Tongue Speakers Bangladesh Bengali 9598 India Hindi English 42 Nepal Nepali 4550 Pakistan Urdu English 8 Sri Lanka Sinhala Tamil 99 Pakistan 0 Only Sindhi has official status as a provincial language 0 Quasilinguistic federalism calls for addition of parts of Punjab amp Balochistan to KPK demand for a Seraiki speaking province 0 Little interest in revisiting federal boundaries Status of Hinduism and English in India 0 Most central government business and documents in Hindi and English 0 India is supposed to increase use of Hindi in central government business and of cial business between states 0 Constitution stipulated use of English for of cial purpose for a limited times supposed to be phased out by 1965 o AntiHindi agitations prompted retention of English India 0 12 English speaking 125 million 0 02 native English speakers 226449 III Language con icts Sri Lanka 1 Civil war with Pakistan 1 Pakistani constitution and status of Urdu Bengali 2 Balochistan civil war India 1 AntiHindu agitations 2 Bifurcation of Bombay and Punjab 3 Nativist con ict in Maharashtra and Assam Why so little linguistic mobilization in India Linguistic states Most electoral districts are linguistically homogenous Language correlates poorly with English as lingua franca Gender ll What is the role of women in politics Summary 0 Women participate at lower rates but with some modest improvement 0 Women are highly underrepresented in elected of ce absent reservation 0 Women s underrepresentation is lower at higher levels of of ce in part because of dynastic politics Local government Pakistan 0 Onethird of seats must be reserved for women at least 12 states already have 50 women s reservation 0 As of 2011 3687 of panchayat members were women 0 Pakistan and Bangladesh similar reservation for directly elected local government positions I De nitions 1 The proffering of material goods in return for electoral support where the criterion of distribution that the patron uses is simply did youwill you support me 2 When political parties and politicians win electoral support through the individualized and discretionary allocation of goods services and states capacity ll Implications We should not treat elections as evidence of popular mandates on parties state politics We should perhaps not be surprised that parties do not do a better job catering to poor even when they are clearly in the majority Ethnicity and clientelism are often thought to go together in large part because ethnicity is a quotvisiblequot indicator of who bene ts Cientelism and votebuying in particular was a pervasive phenomenon in the US Japan and Italy lt s easy to judge when we are quottoo expensivequot to buy Corruption and Criminality l Corruption misuse of public office for private gain Examples 0 Payments in return for a vote in legislation politicians o Kickbacks in returns for awarding contracts politicians bureaucrats o Diverting public funs into private hands politicians bureaucrats o Demanding bribes in return for performing basic services or priority in receiving services bureaucrats 0 Grand corruption 0 Petty corruption Causes 0 Large state sector 0 Politicized bureaucracy 0 Economic development Corruption and development 0 Widespread scarcity 0 Poor citizens make easy targets 0 Bureaucratic salaries are low 0 Judiciary has few resources to prosecute corrupt ll Criminality Extent 0 2004 Indian about 25 under criminal indictment of which 23s are serious charges 10 0 Of all MLA seats 35 had at least one candidate contesting who was facing serious criminal charges A new phenomenon 0 Brass 1965 and strategic ling of cases against enemies o Sanjay Gandhi and the criminalization of politics Better today 0 Voters do not have the information to discriminate between very low and very high quality candidates 0 Voters have a preference for quotcleanquot candidates but quotcriminal candidates systematically perform better in elections 0 In many instances criminal reputations are known Why so many criminal candidates 0 Jobrelated hazard Politicallymotivated cases Politicians invite more scrutiny 0 Selection Politics attracts those with corrupt economic aims Hard to succeed without access to illicit funds 0 Parties prefer criminal candidates Better at self nancing More likely to win 0 Voters preferare indifferent to criminality Prefer coethnic criminals as more effective Prefer quotcleanquot candidates but prefer coethnics more Poverty and Inequality Who is the quotmiddle classquot 0 Historically those with middle class professions lawyers doctors civil servants the wealthy o By economists classi cation those living in 105 per day 15K 73K 612 of Indians Human Development Index United Nations 0 Dimensions health education living standards 0 Indicators life expectancy at birth mean years of schooling amp expected years of schooling gross national income per capita IV Explanations Different levels 0 National colonialism corruption low growth 0 Subnational public policy welfare reservation 0 Individual 11 Falling into poverty health debt death feasts and marriages Escaping poverty diversi cation of income sources irrigation sometimes information and contact Government schemes make poverty more tolerable but do little to eliminate it Economic Growth and Development South Asian economies in the global context Country 2013 GDP US Similar Countries rank USA 168 tril 1 China 92 tril 2 Brazil 22 tril 7 India 19 tril 10 Italy Canada Pakistan 2 tril 43 Greece Kazakhstan Bangladesh 1 tril 57 Hungary Angola Sri Lanka 1 tril 67 Belarus Sudan ll lndia s growth story Timeline 0 Colonial era stagnant 9 o 19505705 Hindu rate of growth 35 0 19805 growth takes off 5 0 19905 growth accelerates 6 0 20005 breakneck acceleration 9 20058 then slowdown 5 in 2012 Conventional wisdom 0 Turning point 1991 economic reforms ushered in by O Manmohan Singh Balance of payments crisis Large budget de cits Overvalued currencydeclining exports Rising cost of oil imports IMF bailout and structural adjustment followed by a gentler domestic reform agenda Reforms in Investment dismantling of the permitlicense quota raj enabling foreign investment Trade lowering tariffs and other barriers Finance new private sources of credit Reforms liberalization quotpromarket stance growth 19905 as a turning point where the Indian state scaled back its role in the economy 12 0 Unleashed the quotenergy talents and world ambitions of India s many millionsquot Bhagwati An alternative view 0 Critiques and puzzles of conventional wisdom Economic growth started in the 19805 a decade before 1991 reforms Industrial and agricultural production lagged growth was not uniform Uneven results and growth across states subjected to the same national reforms 0 Roots lie in state action and policies in the 19805 Growth of 19905 built on prior efforts at poverty reduction redistribution and social investment in 19805 and A change in the state s stance in 19805 towards domestic business turn to the business sector as an ally Emphasis on indigenous business 0 Intentional elite driven neglect of agriculture Why does conventional vs alternate view debate matter 0 Conventional view Liberalization less stategrowth 0 Alternative view Strong interventionist state that intercedes on behalf of business and against labor and agricultural interestsgrowth o Preconditions for growth and development Conventional view growth then development 0 Rapid economic growth then poverty falls 0 Growth enables investment in the social sector quotStatistquot or developmental view investment in social sector as in 19705805 in India enables growth 0 Human capital investment creates growth lll Does growth end poverty 0 The economy is growing 0 But not equally in all regions states sectors 0 Agriculture and manufacturing low skill sectors lag behind services high skill high wage 0 Poverty is falling 0 According to most economic income measures 0 According to some social measures but not others 0 Advances in education access to drinking water but lags in access to sanitation health outcomes nutrition 13 Maoism in India and Nepal Maoists Communist groups dedicates to a quotpeople s warquot protracted guerilla war with the state particularly in the countryside o In India Maoists Naxals Naxalites I Maoist insurgency in India 0 Began in Naxalbari West Bengal in 1967 0000 Largely put down by the mid19705 Lowlevel activity in 19805 Scale of operations appears to have increased in the last decade Historically heavily SCST membership signi cant upper caste leadership 0 Estimates of 79K 39hardcore ghters plus 3050K providing rudimentary logistical support 0 Branches Maoist main Maoist organization formed by the merger of People s War Group and Maoist Communist Centre CPI MarxistLeninistLiberation original Naxal organization now active in electoral politics Salwa Judum antiNaxal militias in Chhattisigarh covertly sponsored by the government 0 Explanations Failure of the state ll Maoist insurgency in Nepal Headed by the Communist Party of Nepal Maoist CPNM now the Uni ed Communist Party of Nepal Maoist UCPNM Leader is Pushpa Kamal Dahal aka Prachanda Timeline 0 O O Maoist competes in1991 elections but later 1994 decides to abandon parliamentary politics Insurgency begins in 1996 with an attack on a police station by the CPNMoaist King Gyanendra comes to power escalates the con ict by deploying the army after broken cease re In control of most of the countryside Maoists unilaterally declare a cease re in 2005 begin talks to form a front with other republican parties PM Koirala signs an agreement with the Maoists in November 2006 in which they agree to give up weapons and contest elections cease re involving giving up of Maoist weapons and participation in elections Monarchy abolished in 2007 Constituent Assembly elected in 2008 14 lll Similarities and Differences Similarities o Rooted in poor geographically remote places 0 Predominantly uppercaste leadership women play a prominent role in ghting Differences India Nepal Longstanding no end in sight Relatively brief about a decade Little threat to major population centers Threat to major population centers Few Maoists quotabove groundquot Maoists in government Unrealistic goals of communist revolutions Goals of abolishing monarchy and revising the constitution 15
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