Industrial Psychology Final exam Study Guide
Industrial Psychology Final exam Study Guide Psyc 3640
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Courtney Luber on Wednesday April 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 3640 at Clemson University taught by Eric S McKibben in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 133 views. For similar materials see Industrial Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 04/20/16
Industrial Psychology Final Exam Study Guide People James McKeen Cattell o Studied qualities of people that would make them good in the military or other organizations o Among the first to realize the importance of differences among individuals as a way of predicting their behavior Campbell o Model of Job Performance o 3 direct determinants of job performance Declarative knowledge (DK) The facts that we learn Procedural knowledge & skill (PKS) Knowing how to do things Motivation (M) o 8 basic performance components 3 are essential for every job Core task proficiency Demonstrated effort Maintenance of personal discipline Concepts Personnel psychology o Field of psychology that addresses issues such as recruitment, selection, training, performance, appraisal, promotion, transfer, and termination o describing, explaining, & controlling—from class notes o often seen as part of human resources management o assumes that people are consistently different in their attributes and work behaviors and that information about these differences can be used to predict, maintain, and increase work performance and satisfaction SIOP o Society of Industrial-Organizational Psychology o An association to which many I-O psychologists, both practitioners and researchers, belong o Designated as Division 14 of the American Psychological Association Hawthorne Studies o Research done at the Hawthorne, IL plant of the Western Electric Company that began as attempts to increase productivity by manipulating lighting, rest breaks, and work hours. This research showed the important role that workers’ attitudes played in productivity o What manipulations can we make to the environment to improve performance o Example: Amount of light vs productivity o Light increase = productivity went up o Light decrease = productivity went up o Why? People became more aware Title VII of Civil Rights Act o Title VII specified demographic groups to be protected from employment discrimination o Required employers to justify the use of tests for selection Culture o System of shared beliefs and shared sense-making o We need to understand of the ways other cultures make sense of things o Horizontal culture: a culture that minimizes distances between individuals o Vertical culture: a culture that accepts and depends upon distances between individuals Research designs o Experimental Random assignment of participants to conditions Allows you to say that all groups are essentially equal Correlation does equal causation in this case Advantage—Can outline a true causal relationship Independent variable causes dependent variable Disadvantage—takes a lot of time, resources, and energy Conducted in a laboratory or the workplace Involves alteration/manipulation o Non-experimental Does not include manipulation or assignment to different conditions Disadvantage—correlation does not equal causation Advantages—huge sample set very quickly and cheaply 2 common designs: Observational design—observes and records behavior Survey/questionnaire—most common o Quasi-experimental Participants are assigned to different conditions, but random assignment to conditions is not possible Example: an organization might institute a new pay plan at one plant location but not at another. Or the researcher would assess employee satisfaction with an existing plan, then the organization would change the pay plan, and the researcher would assess satisfaction again with the new plan. Job analysis o process that determines the important tasks of a job and the human attributes necessary to successfully perform those tasks o typically involves the combination of data from many different sources in coming to a complete understanding, or theory, of the job in question Histogram o a diagram consisting of rectangles whose area is proportional to the frequency of a variable and whose width is equal to the class interval Standard deviation o a quantity calculated to indicate the extent of deviation for a group as a whole o variance of a distribution o we can characterize a distribution by looking at the extent to which the scores deviate from the mean score Correlation coefficients o Slope of z scores o Statistic or measure of association o Reflects magnitude (numerical value) & direction (+ or –) of relationship between 2 variables o Ranges from -1.00 to 1.00 o = perfect positive relationship; same z score; perfect diagonal line (45 degrees) o = scattered dots; horizontal line o Positive correlation → As one variable increases, other variable also increases & vice versa o Negative correlation → As one variable increases, other variable decreases & vice versa o Strong positive correlation DOES NOT mean causation! Reliability o Consistency or stability of a measure o Generally speaking, we want our measures to produce the same value over a reasonable time period Types of validity o Predictive validity Time lag between collection of test data & criterion data Test often administered to job applicants Enables you to predict what would have happened had you actually used the test scores to make the hiring decisions Administer a particular test to all applicants and then hire applicants without using scores from that particular test to make the hiring decision; then, go back and collect performance data o Concurrent validity No time lag between collection of test data & criterion data Test administered to current employees, performance measures collected at same time Disadvantage: No data about those not employed by the organization o Construct validity Investigators gather evidence to support decisions or inferences about psychological constructs Construct - concept or characteristic that a predictor is intended to measure; examples include intelligence, extraversion, and integrity Mental ability (“g”) o Measured by many different tests such as WWI intelligence tests o broad general capability – describes person’s ability to learn from experience o ↑ job complexity = ↑ predictive value of general intelligence tests o Involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, comprehend complex ideas, & learn from experience Five factor model of personality o Conscientiousness—responsible, prudent, persistent, planful, achievement oriented Best predictor of performance o Extraversion—sociable, assertive, talkative, ambitious, energetic Introvert, ambivert, extrovert are the main labels on the continuum, but there are not only 3 types o Agreeableness—good-natured, cooperative, trusting, likable, friendly i.e. public speaker, retail would both need to score high in agreeableness o Emotional stability (neuroticism used in acronym)—secure, calm, poised, relaxed Neuroticism—experience negative emotions o Openness to experience—curious, imaginative, independent, creative i.e. when would you want someone who isn’t open to experience? Priest o OCEAN—acronym o CANOE—acronym Types of knowledge o Declarative knowledge knowing “that”; definitions of things; gain through lectures, books, papers, seminars, etc. o Procedural knowledge knowing “how”; gain this through the process of engaging in something o Tacit knowledge “street smarts”; common sense; something we never really learned; most jobs require much more than tacit knowledge KSAO o adults have variety of attributes that are relatively stable over a period of time o KSAO=knowledge, skill, ability, other characteristics o Knowledge Collection of discrete, related facts & information about a particular domain o Skill (e.g., computer or interpersonal skills) Practiced act o Ability Stable capacity to engage in a specific behavior o Other characteristics: interests, personality, etc. Types of interviews o Structured interviews Candidates asked same/similar questions Planned out questions with a reason Tend to cover job knowledge, abilities, skills, personality, & person-org. fit o Situational interview places the interviewee in a future situation and is asked to tell the interviewer what they would do o Behavioral descriptive interview (BDI) tries to predict future behavior by asking about past behavior Criterion contamination and deficiency o Criterion contamination When actual criterion includes information unrelated to the behavior one is trying to measure o Criterion deficiency When actual criterion is missing information that is part of behavior one is trying to measure Task performance o Proficiency with which job incumbents perform activities that are formally recognized as a part of their job o Contrasted with OCB OCB o Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) Behavior that goes beyond what is expected o Altruism: Helpful behaviors directed toward individuals or groups within the organization; OCBI; directed toward individuals o Generalized compliance: Behavior that is helpful to the broader organization; directed toward organization; OCBO i.e. wearing a Clemson shirt in public o Common to most jobs o Individual differences tied to personality (some personalities are more inclined to help others than others are) o Activities not part of job description o Supports organizational environment o i.e. help friend with their job; talk positively about job o can end up becoming criterion contamination CWB o Counterproductive Work Behavior (CWB) Voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms and threatens the well-being of the organization, its members, or both i.e. cyber bullying, sexual harassment Reasons for performance measurement o Uses for performance information Criterion data Employee development Motivation/satisfaction Rewards Promotion Layoff Types of justice in performance evaluation o Distributive justice Fairness of outcomes related to decisions You get something as a result of your behavior; i.e. promotion, bonus, fired o Procedural justice Fairness of process by which ratings are assigned & a decision is made o Interpersonal justice Respectfulness & personal tone of communications surrounding evaluation Halo error o Same rating is assigned to an individual on a series of dimensions, causing the ratings all to be similar; lack of identification of strengths and weaknesses o A “halo” surrounds the ratings Types of criticism in performance evaluation o Clinical decision making can be almost impossible for humans to use a clinical decision making process when using a comprehensive approach o Sometimes, performance evaluation can be a legal issue companies may evaluate their workers unfairly Types of decisions that can be made when selecting an employee o Clinical decision making Uses judgment to combine information & make decision about relative value of different candidates each person making decision uses own judgment can be almost impossible for humans to use a clinical decision making process when using a comprehensive approach o Statistical decision making Combines information according to a mathematical formula Regression equation Fewer errors in this approach Selection ratio o Index ranging from 0 to 1 that reflects the ratio of available jobs to applicants o To increase validity, we want to lower SR o SR = n/N n = number of available jobs N = number of applicants assessed Compensatory vs hurdle approach o Hurdle system of combining scores Non-compensatory strategy: individual has no opportunity to compensate at later stage for low score in earlier stage Allows us to eliminate individuals easily i.e. if you don’t have at least 3 years of experience, you will be cut immediately Establishes series of cut scores Constructed from multiple hurdles so candidates who don’t exceed each of the minimum dimension scores are excluded from further consideration Often set up sequentially More expensive hurdles placed later Used to narrow a large applicant pool o Compensatory approach Multiple regression analysis Results in equation for combining test scores into a composite based on correlations of each test score with performance score Cross-validation Regression equation developed on first sample is tested on second sample to determine if it still fits well Disparate (adverse) impact o Type of discrimination that acknowledges the employer may not have intended to discriminate against a plaintiff, but an employer practice did have an adverse impact on the group to which the plaintiff belongs Disparate (adverse) treatment o Type of discrimination in which the plaintiff attempts to show that the employer actually treated the plaintiff differently from majority applicants or employees; intentional discrimination Training needs evaluation o 3-step process Organizational analysis Where training is needed; who needs to learn what needs to be done Task analysis Person analysis o Required to develop systematic understanding of where training is needed (organizational), what needs to be trained (task), & who will be trained (person) Goal orientation o disposition toward developing or demonstrating ability in achievement situations o a motivation variable useful for recruitment, climate and culture, performance appraisal, and selection Behavior modification o Simple recognition & feedback can be effective in increasing performance o Recognizing that stimuli are important in the outcomes of a behavior; therefore, we can modify people’s behaviors by changing stimulus Training evaluation o Involves the systematic collection of descriptive and judgment information that can be used to make effective training decisions Types of sexual harassment o Quid pro quo – direct exchanges; type of sexual harassment that involves direct requests for sexual favors, for example, when sexual compliance is mandatory for promotions or retaining one’s job o Hostile working environment – not necessarily exchanges, but inappropriate comments may be made, staring, etc.
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