Music as a World Phenomenon: Unit 4- Study Guide
Music as a World Phenomenon: Unit 4- Study Guide Mus 22121
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Carla Notetaker on Wednesday April 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Mus 22121 at Kent State University taught by Andrew Shahriari in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see Music as a world phenomenon in Music at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 04/20/16
Music as a World Phenomenon -1 Unit 4: Study Guide Notes cover Unit 4: Chapters 10 and 11 Instrument Classifications Aerophone o air is vibrating (flutes, reeds, trumpets) Membranophne o stuck with hand, struck with a stick or other device, "rubbed" or "singing" membranes Idiophone o thing itself is vibrating (plucked, struck, or shaken) Lammellophone o idiophone with a tongue Sites o Ghana: Polyrhythmic (rhythmically dense) Ensemble Audio: drums, rattles, bells, handclaps Rhythmic pattern seems repetitive but isn’t actually. subtle variations. Double bells produce high and low sounds Drums played differently to create different/ unique timbres Call and response- Vocal organization Patterns together makes the music more interesting Reference pattern used instead of an implied meter o Listening to each other is key. Band: Recreational, formal - royal funeral, informal - market place o Talking drum Audio: Kid talking and hitting drums- drum beat mimics vocal drum language depends on tonal contours of language and rhythm of speech. Music as a World Phenomenon -2 Unit 4: Study Guide Two pitches so a high and low sound can be used to imitate tonal inflection. o Nigeria: Juju Music- complex polyrhythmic Audio: Happy, fast pace, electric guitar/ keyboard Popular music, often has an easily discernable duple meter beat – for wider audience main focus on lyrics o Pygmy: rainforest region of Central Africa Egalitarian Social Structure: no chief or social hierarchy but does provide leadership opportunity. Audio: Polyrhythm w/ voices dominating. Vocals in typical call and response patter or repear phrases to interlock w/ other vocal performers. Use small drums, bells, or rattles- full instrumentals are not often found. o Zimbabwe: Mbira Dza Vadzimu Audio: polyrhythmic music box w/ a few louder beats. Multiple Mbira will be played at the same time. Hosho gourd rattles drums and vocal performances. For entertainment and reading spirits. o Akadina in Uganda Audio: wood sticks hitting a board. Interweaving patterns created by performers sitting across from one another. Unique for its 3 interlocking patterns. Often used to praise King and Royals Gyilxylophone instrument is used to produce sound. o Jali with Koea in Senegal- Gambia Audio: string instrument like guitar w/ soothing vocals Harp like sound and vocal melody Kora is a lute harp- performers called Jali, sit on ground to play Vocalist sings during the Kumbengo section. Solo: Birimintingo- played quickly- instrument Kumbengo- entire song- Vocal o Mbube Choir: Republic of South Africa Audio: Purely vocal, choir w/ deep sounds and lush harmonies. Music as a World Phenomenon -3 Unit 4: Study Guide Call and response, rhythmic changes from piece to piece which adds vibrancy from a shift in meter or temp. it is NOT polyrhythmic. o Vodou: Haiti Audio: African drumming traditions, polyrhythmic percussions. Rada drums. o Reggae: Jamaica Audio: Bob Marley song w/ laid back beat, lyrics expressed a lesson. Heavy bass and thin guitar, lyrics educate general public on things relieving humanitarian ills. Jah: God 2 & 4 “off beats” o Calypso: Trinidad and Tobago (islands) Carnivals known as Mardi gras in the US. o Pan (steel drum): Calypso Music Audio: sounds like an aquatic song Basis of melody is harmony o Bahamas- Rhyming spiritual Audio: Gossipal songs w/ vocals ranging in pitch 2 parts- baser w/ low gruff sound and rhymer who sings in middle to upper range Rhyme the lyrics with previous verse and improve. Rhythm generally follows a meter but tempo is not strict and often fluctuates w/ improve of rhymer. 3 parts: Earth = Basser, Sky = falsetto, Water/ Wind = Rhymer o Cuban Son: Afo- Cuban derived music Audio: Latin Jazz similar to salsa. Clave pattern is strongly syncopated and follows a 4 pulse duple meter. Creates polyrhythmic structure for other percussion instruments to follow. o Merengue: associated w/ Dominican Republic DR shares island w/ Haiti- island called Hispaniola Haitian Revolution (1804) – most of French colonialists left therefore leaving a predominantly African descended population. Culture- Dominican Spanish heritage Music as a World Phenomenon -4 Unit 4: Study Guide Former dictator- Rafael Launidas Trujillo Molina largely succeeded in cultivating European roots and instilling a fear and dislike for the African connection, that he associated w/ Haitian people. Audio: “Thuddy” drum, “scraping” timekeeper 3 major instruments: a double- faced barrel drum (tambora) a rasp idiophone (guira) and a button box accordion. Tambora- fundamental rhythm utilizing a difference in the timbre between one face struck w/ the hound and the other struck w/ a stick. Guira- regulates tempo w/ improvisatory rhythms that compliment the drum and melodic instruments. Accordion- melody and harmony, performs call and response Merengue - dance music w/ quick walking tempo. Divided into 3 sections: o Paseo: slower and free rhythm o Meringue and jaleo: repeated indefinitely w/ the vocals organized in a call response format. Saxophone often included to complete the ensemble Merengue is music and dance form (Euro African dance) Ballroom style Merengue is done w/ partners dancing in a circle (believed to derive from African circle dances) w/ a basic pose of one hand on shoulder and other on hip (associated w/ European salon dances) Elements Vibrant percussion and the call and response – African Western melodic instruments and use of harmony – European Harmony supports Melody, forms a cord, multiple notes at a time. Melody is the “tone/ beat” of the song. Music as a World Phenomenon -5 Unit 4: Study Guide Questions o Bob Marley plays what type of music? Reggae o Ethiopian flag is what colors Gold, Green and Red o Lead voice of a Bahamian rhyming spiritual is known as what? Rhymer o Terminology associated w/ Vodou rituals Loa, Legba/ Ogoun o The individual patterens of African- based polurhythm are known as what? Time- lines
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