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Intro Bio 2 Lab Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Sijil Patel

Intro Bio 2 Lab Exam 2 Study Guide BIOL 10513

Marketplace > Texas Christian University > Biology > BIOL 10513 > Intro Bio 2 Lab Exam 2 Study Guide
Sijil Patel

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This review contains comprehensive charts of all the terms and concepts that may appear on the second lab exam! It has the information organized into well developed charts. I would recommend googli...
Introductory Biology II
Dr. Demarest
Study Guide
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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sijil Patel on Wednesday April 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 10513 at Texas Christian University taught by Dr. Demarest in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 153 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology II in Biology at Texas Christian University.


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Date Created: 04/20/16
EXERCISE 8: ANIMAL TISSUES -look at low, medium and high magnification -start at lowest magnification and work up -tissue- cells that share both structural and functional similarities -cell  tissue  organ  organ system  whole organism -Hydra have epiheliomuscular cells, not shared by vertebrates -4 categories of tissue: -tissues not isolated from each other Epithelial Shape/Arrangement: -sheets of cells on extracellular basement membrane -cells connected by cell junctions -cuboidal- cell height equals width -columnar- cell height greater than width -squamous- cell width greater than height -simple- one cell layer thick, all cells touch basement membrane -stratified- multiple cell layers thick, shape of outermost layer used to name tissues -skin is stratified squamous -one surface faces free space -distinct symmetry/polarity with apical domain facing free space, lateral domains facing neighboring cells, basal domain facing basement membrane -apical domain has modifications such as cilia to move materials or microvilli for more surface area Location: -throughout body -covering organs (pericardium of heart, gut lining, skin, organ components, respiratory lining, circulatory lining endothelium) Function: -absorption, secretion, protection -glands of epithelial origin (anterior pituitary for growth hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, and prolactin) -skin is combo of outer epidermis (epithelial) and inner dermis (connective) Connective -large amount of extracellular matrix (material bw cells) -volume of EM is larger than volume of cells comprising connective tissue - can be solid/calcified, flexible, or fluid -3 major types: dense connective tissue, loose connective tissue, and specialized connective tissue Bone -large calcified EM -osteocytes- produce/break down EM -osteons- cells organized in this system of circles -lacunae- osteocytes reside here and extend protoplasm into EM by tiny channels called canaliculi -osteonal/Haversian canal- at center of osteon, contains blood vessels to supply nutrients/add calcium -osteoblasts- produce bone EM in formation -cell surrounded by EM and is termed osteocyte -osteoclasts- reabsorb bone material (maintains Ca balance) -increases with age -osteon arrangement determines physical properties -compact bone- tightly organized -spongy/cancellous bone- arranged in sheets called trabeculae Cartilage -large EM, not calcified -made of polysaccharides -cells called chondrocytes and responsible for EM maintenance -at end of bones to form joints -high water content makes them resistant and resilient -once damaged, hard to repair bc absences of blood vessels in tissue Loose (Areolar) -widely distributed in body -EM made of collagen and elastin fibers in a jelly substance -loose bc flexible and loosely packed -immediately beneath most epithelial membrane and is delicate packing along vessels and nerves -contains fibroblasts (cells making up collagen) and macrophages -contains cells involved in immune system Dense -contains number fibers (collagen (common) and elastic) -densely packed -found in tendons (bind bone to muscle) and in ligaments (bone to bone) Adipose -fat tissue made of adipocyte cells -large intracellular lipid vacuole -cytoplasm and nucleus displaced to periphery -vacuole looks like empty space -size increases/decreases as weight is gained/lost -produces several hormones for nutrient uptake/estrogen Hemopoietic -made in red marrow of long bones (femur, (blood) humerus, radius, ulna) and separated by plasma EM -two types: -leukocytes- white blood cells -nucleated, less common, immune response, produce antibodies -erythrocytes- red blood cells -not nucleated, most numerous, transport oxygen, light pink Muscular -associated with movement based on interaction bw two proteins: actin and myosin -3 types of muscle Skeletal -striated- actin and myosin arranged regularly forming striped pattern -alternating light (I) and dark (A) bands -voluntary, direct control -multinucleate, run entire length of muscle, nuclei displaced to sides -bulk of body’s muscle mass Cardiac -striated -involuntary -mononucleate, shorter cells -in heart, highly branched -intercalated disk- two cardiac cells join together to form junction -nuclei remain at center with fibers passing around Smooth -involuntary- movement of food, blood pressure, amount of air in lungs -mononucleate- Nuclei centrally positioned -internal organs -actin and myosin not in regular pattern -cells long and spindle shaped -contract slowly and longer lasting Nervous -conduction of nerve impulse -glial cells (in brain and spinal cord) or Schwann cells (in periphery of body) - supporting cells making up bulk of nervous tissue -neurons- conducting cells -dendrites- receive stimuli and pass to -cell body- integrates impulse and passes to -axon- pass to next dendrite -nerves- collections of neurons EXERCISE 9: VERTEBRATE ANATOMY-DIGESTIVE SYSTEM -prepared slides and fetal pig -specialization of tissue cells -heterotrophic digestive system -transport of nutrients and oxygen -reproduction -coordination with integration via prolonged endocrine system and stimuli via quick nervous system Tissues: groups of cells similar in structure with common function -arranged to function in organs to perform specific functions -largest organ is skin (slide) -protects from dehydration, bacterial invasion, regulates body temp, and receives stimuli from environment -2 layers: thin outer epidermis with stratified squamous epithelium and thicker inner dermis with dense connective tissue with blood vessels (merges into loose connective and smooth muscle) -hair follicles lined with epithelial cells continuous with epidermis -smooth muscle cells on side of follicle= arrector pili (attached follicle to outermost dermis layer) -responsible for erect pulling when cold or scared -sebaceous glands= associated with follicles, secretory cells (more in monkeys) -stratum corneum- outermost layer, dead keratinized cells impermeable to water, continuously exfoliated/replaced -basal layer/stratum germinativum- innermost epidermis layer, divide mitotically making new cells, as they mature push higher -not in slide: melanocytes producing melanin (pigment producing brown/black hues in skin), push melanin into forming cells and create skin color protecting against sun exposure -sweat glands lined with cuboidal epithelium extend from epidermis to dermis (show as circular clusters) mainly in pig skin -3 layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm -4 Categories: Epithelial -close aggregates with little matrix -cover/line external or internal surface -simple- single layer -stratified- multiple layers -squamous- flat -cuboidal- cube shaped -columnar- tall Connective -large matrix with fibers in amorphous ground substance -loose fibrous connective tissue- in liquid ground substance binds tissues and keeps organs in place -adipose- adipose cells in soft matrix storing drops of fat pushing nuclei to sides -Bone or cartilage- specialized connective tissue (bone ground substance secreted by osteocytes; cartilage ground substance secreted by chondrocytes) -blood- erythrocytes and leukocytes and platelets (cell fragments) in liquid plasma -derived from mesoderm Muscle -striated- alternating light and dark band pattern (skeletal and cardiac) -smooth (visceral)- no banding pattern (skin, walls of organs like stomach and uterus) -skeletal moves skeleton and diaphragm (cell fused end to end) -cardiac muscle cells not fused, attached by intercalated discs -derived from mesoderm Nervous -in central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and peripheral nervous system with nerves -in every organ -neurons and glial cells -neurons- respond to stimuli by creating an impulse -glial cells- support and protect neurons -derived from ectoderm Fetal Pig: -from pregnant sows being slaughtered -gestation period of 112 to 115 days -formaldehyde or phenol based solution for preservation External Anatomy: -head -neck -trunk- divided into thorax and abdomen -thoracic cavity in thorax and abdominal (peritoneal) cavity in abdomen -tail -mouth -external nostrils -ear with supporting cartilage auricle -nictitating membrane- third inner eyelid -epitrichium- outer embryonic skin -umbilical cord with umbilical arteries, flat umbilical vein, and small round allantoic stalk -umbilical arteries carry blood from fetus to placenta -umbilical vein carries blood from placenta to fetus -allantois is extension of urinary bladder -Male: -urogenital opening caudal to cord -scrotal sacs next to anus -Female: -urogenital opening near anus -folds/labia surround opening and small protuberating genital papilla -mammary papillae in both sexes Digestive System: -located in body cavity/coelom -diaphragm- large muscular structure divides body cavity into thoracic cavity and abdominal (peritoneal) cavity -thoracic cavity: -pleural cavity- holds lungs -pericardial cavity- holds heart -coelomic epithelial membranes- line these cavities, cover all organs -parietal epithelial membranes- lining the walls of cavity -visceral epithelial membranes- covering organs Ex: -membrane covering lungs: visceral pleura -membrane lining pleural cavity: parietal pleura -lining of abdominal cavity: parietal peritoneum -epithelium covering organs in abdominal cavity: visceral peritoneum -more complex animals have tubular digestive system with anterior mouth and posterior anus -allows specialization and development of specific organs -teeth, tongue with papilla, mouth roof with ridged hard palate and soft palate -glottis (beginning of respiratory passageway), epiglottis (flap of tissue), esophagus (beginning of digestive tube), opening into nasal chamber -these all open into pharynx -shiny epithelial membranes line cavity and parietal peritoneum line cavity and visceral peritoneum covers organs -diaphragm- large domed, striated muscle -only in mammals, cause thoracic cavity to expand and contract, changing pressure facilitating movement into air -liver- large brown organ, processes nutrients, detoxifying, produces bile -gall bladder- paddle shaped, sac in ventral surface, stores bile -esophagus- passes through diaphragm into upper medial border of stomach -spleen- dark organ on greater curvature of stomach, filters blood -stomach- contains gastric rugae ridges, churns food and mixes it with water, mucus/ HCl and enzymes -cardiac valve/sphincter- food enters stomach from esophagus via this -small intestine- food goes from stomach here -pyloric sphincter – bw stomach and small intestine -duodemum- small portion of small intestine connecting to small intestine -pancreas- gland, enzymes secreted -common bile duct- enters duodenum -hepatic duct and cystic duct -jejuno-ileum- highly convoluted portion of small intestine, ileum joins colon -digested food reabsorbed into circulatory system via JI -surface area increased with vili and microvilli enhancing absorbing capacity -thin membrane called mesentery supporting the folds -small intestine joins large intestine aka colon (water reabsorption) -cecum- fingerlike projection at end of large intestine -large cecum helps with absorption -humans have vermiform (wormlike) appendix from cecum -rectum is distal portion of colon passes to outside anus Jejuno Ileum slide: -lumen- central cavity -vili- fingerlike, lined by columnar epithelial tissue, absorption into circulatory system, capillaries in each villus -loose fibrous connective tissue- contains many blood vessels with lymphocytes in lymph nodules -visceral peritoneum/serosa-outer surface of section with simple squamous epithelium -longitudinal muscle layer- outermost muscle layer -circular muscle layer- wide band inside longitudinal layer EXERCISE 10: VERTEBRATE ANATOMY-CIRCULATORY AND RESPIRATORY SYSTEM -oxygen necessary for the release of energy -circulatory, respiratory, and excretory systems collectively used to take materials in , eliminate waste, and maintain homeostasis Sternum Flat bone lying midventrally to which ribs attach Thymus gland -Large in fetal pig -important role in development of immune system Larynx -glottis leads here -houses vocal chords -expanded structure through which air passes from mouth to trachea -from larynx to this narrower structure -rings of cartilage prevents its collapse and allow air to pass to lungs -esophagus past this Thyroid gland -reddish land covers trachea -secretes metabolism influencing hormones Pericardial cavity -heart lies here Pleural cavity -lungs lie here Pulmonary circuit -circulatory circuit that carries blood form hear to lungs in arteries and back to heart in veins Systemic circuit -carries blood from heart in arteries to all organs but the lungs, back to the heart in veins Pericardial sac -houses heart -wall is touch membrane composed of two fused coelomic epithelial linings: parietal pericardium and parietal pleura Right atrium -receives blood from venae cavae and pulmonary veins -associated with cranial and caudal venae cavae Left atrium -receives blood from venae cavae and pulmonary veins Right ventricle -contract to pump blood Left ventricle -contract to pump blood Coronary artery -seen on heart surface where ventricles share common wall -carries blood to heart tissue -branches of aorta -short circuit servicing heart tissues Pulmonary trunk -blood from RV -large vessel lying on ventral surface of heart -3 branches: pulmonary arteries and ductus arteriosus -arteries conduct blood to lungs -DA has greatest volume of blood going to aorta and systemic circulation bc compact lung tissue are resistant to blood pathway Aorta -dorsal to pulmonary trunk -blood from LV Atrioventricular -bw atria and ventricles valves Coronary veins -on surface of heart bw ventricles -short circuit servicing heart tissue Cranial and caudal -enter RA venae cavae -cranial toward head Brachiocephalic -unite in cranial vena cava veins -formed by jugulars and subclavian External and -carry blood returning from head internal jugulars Left Subclavian -drains blood from front leg and shoulder vein -fromed by subscapular joining with axillary Subscapular vein -drains blood form shoulder region Axillary vein -carries blood from front leg Cephalic vein -beneath skin, enters external jugular near base Aortic branches -carry blood to head and anterior limbd -brachiocephalic trunk and left subclavian vein are the branches Aortic arch -behind aortic curve Right subclavian -serves right shoulder/limb area artery Common carotid -carry blood to heart, adjacent to jugulars arteries Brachiocephalic -branches into two right subclavian to right limb and common trunk carotids Azygos vein -large vein, carries blood from ribs back to the heart Dorsal aorta -branches into arteries supplying abdominal organs -branches into umbilical arteries to placenta -blood from organs of digestive system pass through vessels in hepatic portal system before emptying into caudal vena cava Coeliac artery -carries blood to the stomach and the spleen Cranial -carries blood to small intestine mesenteric artery -branches to mesenteric arteries Renal arteries -Lead to kidneys External iliac -aorta branch into into hind legs arteries Umbilical arteries -aorta branch to placenta Femoral artery -exernal iliac divides into this -carries blood to muscles of lower leg Deep femoral -carries blood to thigh muscles artery Renal veins -carry blood from kidneys Common iliac -carry blood from hind legs veins Hepatic veins -carry blood from liver to caudal vena cava Portal system -second capillary bed is inserted in a second organ in the circulatory pathway -in digestive system Mesenteric -associated with small intestine arteries Mesenteric veins -veins leaving small intestine -unite to form one mesenteric vein Lieogastric vein -veins from stomach and spleen unite to form this Hepatic portal -menteric and lienogastric vein fuse to form this vein -in the liver, branches into second capillary bed -these capillaries reunite into hepatic veins which joins the caudal vena cava Umbilical vein -joins hepatic vein as enters the liver -majority of blood passes via channel in liver called ductus venosus into caudal vena cava Circulation paths -one through ductus arteriosus -second through formaen ovale (hole bw two atria) Bronchi -trachea branches into this Lungs -bronchi leads to lobes of these Bronchioles -when bronchi tubes about 1-2 mm in diameter Alveoli -microscopic, thin-walled sacs lined with capillaries for gas exchange to occur EXERCISE 11: VERTEBRATE EXCRETORY, REPRODUCTIVE, AND NERVOUS SYSTEMS -functionally, excretory and circulatory related -developmentally, excretory and reproductive related -nervous and endocrine systems coordinate organ system activity -interaction of nervouse and endocrine system is used to bring out homeostasis Nervous system -contains sensory component and sensory nerves -rapid, precise, complex control Sensory -made of sensory receptors (detect stimuli) component Sensory nerves -carry data to central nervouse system (brain and spinal cord) -CNS integrates info from all stimuli, external and internal and sends signal to motor system Motor system -caries impulses along motor nerves to effectors (glands, muscles, organ) to bring about response Endocrine system -consists of endocrine glands that respond to stimuli by secreting hormones into blood -slow and less precise control Osmoregulation -by excretory system -control of tissue water balance and the elimination of excess salts and urea (metabolism waste) -in terrestrials, water conservation is important Renal artery -blood enters kidney Renal vein -blood exits kidney Kidneys -in parietal peritoneum -made of microscopic tubules, blood vessels, and nephroms Nephron Consists of: -bowmans capsule (proximal convoluted tubule) -cup shaped swelling surrounding capillaries (glomerulus) -blood filtered from glomerulus to capsule -loop of henle (distal convoluted tubule) -collecting duct latter two: -play role in making urine (terrestrial adaptation) -hypertonic urine goes into collecting ducts to renal pelvis (expanded portion of ureter into kidney) Renal cortex -capsule, proximal and distal convoluted tubules, and vessels Renal pyramids -loops of henle and collecting duct -make up the renal medulla Ureter -exits kidney into urinary bladder -bw umbilical arteries and narrows into allantoic stalk Urethra -exits urinary bladder Male pigs -urethra leads to penis Female pigs -urethra leads to vagina forming chamber aka vaginal vestibule Male Reproductive -gonads, ducts glands System -testes=male gonads, make sperm/testosterone -sperm from testes to epididymis (stores and mature) -ductus deferens/vas deferens= ejaculation to urethra -penis carries sperm out of body -secretions from seminal vesicles, prostate, and bulbourethral glands are added making semen (fluid containing sperm, fructose, amino acids, mucus and other substances)—help with sperm motility/survival Structures to know: -ureters, ductus deferentia, inguinal canal, scrotum, testis, epididymis, uretha, urinary bladder, bulbourethral glands,seminal vesicles, prostate gland Urogenital opening -aka preputial orifice Pubic symphysis -portion of pelvic girdle that fuses in position ventral to several of the reproductive structures and the rectum Female -ovaries (female gonads), uterine tubes (fallopian tubes/oviducts), Reproductive uterus, vagina, vaginal vestibule (not in humans) System -uterus has uterine body and uterine horns where embryonic pigs develop Structures to know: -ovaries, uterine tube, horn of uteris, body of uterus, cervis, vagina , vaginal vestibule, urogenital opening Pregnant pig Structures to know: uterus -chorionic vesicle- surrounds each pig made of two fused membranes: chorion and allantois -amnion -umbilical cord Placent -conssits of issue form inner lining of uterus (maternal tissue) Chorionic vesicle -embryonic tissue Nervous tissue Things to know: -cell body, dendrite, axon (these make up neurons -nucleus, nucleolus, process extensions (acon and dendrites) Glial cells -nonconducting cells that support and protect neurons Reflex Arc -dorsal and ventral roots (collections of neurons in spinal nerves) -central fissure, central canal, grey/white matter, dorsal root ganglion, motor neurons, interneurons, response Eye -sensory receptor rods and cones are light sensitive photoreceptor cells that are sensory part of multilayer retina (other cells regulate amount of quality of light stimulating photoreceptor cell) -cornea, optic nerve, fibrous tissue (protects internal eye structures), sclera (white) -lens- focuses light on retina -ciliary body- part of second tunic, contractions change lens shape -vascular tunic- second, dark tunic -iris- sphincter muscle -pupil- opening, allows light to pass through vascular tunic into lens -vitreous humor- holds retina in place and major internal support -retina- third tunic of the eye -choroid layer- absorbs extraneous light passing through the retina -optic nerve- rainbow colored tissue -tapetum lucidum (tissue fonund in choroid enhances vision in limited light) EXERCISE 1: POPULATION -allele for brown eyes dominant to blue eyes -Hardy underpins population genetics -with Weinberg -Hardy Weinberg equation -allows us to calculate genotypic and allelic frequencies in a population -describe idealized populations in which alleles are in equilibrium and their frequencies do not change from generation to generation -mutation, selection, drift, all act to cause deviations in allelic frequencies -2 alleles A and a p= frequency of A q= frequency of a p+q=1 -genotypic frequencies provided mating occurs randomly: p^2 + 2pq +q^2 = 1 p^2= homozygous A q^2= homozygous a 2pq= heterozygous -use formulae to get genotypic frequencies and allele frequencies Traits examined: Widow’s peak- -widow’s peak= dominant W -flat hair line= recessive w Free Ear Lobes- -free= dominant A -attached= recessive a Tongue Rolling- -roll= dominant R -no roll= recessive r PTC Tasting (phenylthiocarbamide)- -taste= dominant T -no taste= recessive t -Compare phenotypic frequencies from past: only widow’s peak and free ear lobes -greater variation forces rejection of hypothesis -Chi square test: -to find expected value, multiply frequency from past year times total number of observations from this year -degrees of freedom= number of classes – 1 -smaller chi-square value= greater probability that the differences in the observed and predicted data occur purely by chance -if chi square value exceeds 3.84, the phenotypic frequencies in your class are significantly different than those in past years Polygenic Inheritance: Fingerprints -some phenotypes controlled by single gene -some phenotypes controlled by multiple genes = polygenic -wide range of expression -affected by environment -skin color, height, intelligence -each gene contributing to trait has active allele (contributing increment to trait being measured) and inactive allele (no increment contribution) -phenotype determined by sum total of all active alleles present in a given individual Fingerprint Classification: -used for personal ID by Galton—forensics use th -pads observed around 6 gestation week, reach max size by week 12/13 after which dermal ridges are formed -once formed, very resistant to subsequent prenatal/postnatal influences -ideal for genetic studies -3 major groups of dermal ridges: -arches -loops -whorls Arches: -least common, simplest -ridges from two sides intersect Loop -triradius and core -triradius=point in which three groups of ridges intersect at angle of approx. 120 -core is arrangement of ridges which turn back upon themselves at 180 -two types: radial loop and ulnar loop Radial Loops: -core closer to thumb and radius bone relative to triradius Ulnar Loops: -core closer to little finger and ulnar bone relative to triradius Whorl: -2 triradii -ridge count is 0 for arch -ridge ocunts determined for loop by couting number of ridge bw triradius and center of core -for whorl, ridge count is number of ridges from each triradius to center of print, only use higher -minimum of 7 genes contribute to ridge count -active allele adds 30 ridges, male have a base of 40 and females 20 -look to see if there is sub structuring within population such that alleles frequencies are not uniformly distributed -if true, actual genotypic frequencies will not be consistent with what our hardy- weinberg genotypic frequency formula EXERCISE 7: EVOLUTION Theory of evolution -modern species of organisms are descendants of a common ancestor -their present characteristics have resulted from genetic variation and natural selection -supported by paleontology, biogeography, comparative anatomy, biochemistry, and genetics Species -share common genes and can interbreed to make fertile offspring Fossil Preserved remnant or impression of an organism Fossil record -the sequence of fossils form the oldest to the most recent -REVIEW TABLE ONE IN LAB REPORT IT IS CONCISE AND VERY HELPFUL Evidence from -early embryos similar vertebrate embryology -pharyngeal pouches, aortic arches, and tubular 2 chambered heart -all vertebrates have similar genes directing early embryonic development -pouches in humans form middle ear, tonsils, and thymus and parathyroid glands -in fish pouches form gills Evidence from -vertebrates adapted for a variety of lifestyles vertebrate anatomy Homologous structures -similarity is due to descent form common ancestors -results from divergent evolution when organisms expand into new environments -Ex: forelimbs of animals Analogous structures -have similar functions in unrelated organisms -results from convergent evolution when unrelated animals are subjected to similar environmental pressures -Ex: wing of butterfly and wing of bird Human evolution -pattern not clear -modern humans closes relative is chimpanzee -great apes and hominids evolved from common ancestor Hominids -from ape lineage in Africa (8-5 mya) Adipithecus ramidus -oldest hominid -4.4 mya Australopithecus Anamesis: -4 mya Afarensis: -3.9-2.9 mya -small, bipedal Boisei: -2.5-1.4 mya Robustus: -2.3-1.3 mya -heavy bones, large jaws and teeth -offshoots not in human species Homo habilis -2.5-1.6 mya -more human, used tools Homo erectus -1.8 mya-500,000 ya -to asia and Europe -bigger braines, more bipedal, more tools, heavy brow ridges, sloping forehead, long crowned cranium, no chin, and protruding face Homo neanderthalis -200,000 ya to 35,000 ya -extinct through interbreeding with h. sapiens -stocky, heavy brow ridges, large protruding face, no chin, sloping low-crowned large cranium Homo sapiens Out of Africa hypothesis: -H. sapiens evolved from H. erectus in Africa aroun 150,000 ya and migrated out multiregional hypothesis: -localized populations of early H. sapiens evolved independently from H. erectus in different regions -most knowledge comes from cro-magnon about 40,000 ya -excellent tools, skill hunters, fine artists Chimp skull -heayy brow ridges, sloping forehead muzzle like face, large caines, no chin, posterior skull attachment Human skull -no borw ridges, high forehead, flattened face, small canines, central skull attachment, well developed chin Indexes -used for comparative purposes -overcome problems caused by different specimen sizes Cephalic index-living Cranial index= (cranial breadth/cranial length) x 1000 Cranial index- nonliving Skull proportion index Spi= (cranial breadth/facial breadth) x 100 Facial projection index Fpi= (facial projection length/total skull length) x 100


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