Study Guide for Exam #1 (Ch. 1-4)
Study Guide for Exam #1 (Ch. 1-4) PSYC2012
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily Lowe on Friday February 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC2012 at George Washington University taught by Dr. Duval in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 291 views.
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Date Created: 02/20/15
MY NOTES ARE ALL IN BLUE Psychology 2012 Study Guide Exam 1 NOTE This study guide is meant to refresh your memory about the topics we covered 1N CLASS and how they relate It is not a promise that every question on the exam will come from a topic listed below Don t ignore the book or any empirical readings Chapter 1 Introducing Social Psychology 39Definition of Psychology Psychology the scienti c study of the human mind and behavior 39What is social psychology 0 Social psychology compared to other disciplines Social Psychology the scienti c study of the way in which people s thoughts feelings and behaviors are in uenced by the real imagined presence of other people how one is affected by social situations 39 Two closest disciplines Sociology and Personality Psychology 39 Common between Sociology and Social Psychology they both focus on how situations and the larger society in uence behavior Difference between Sociology and Social Psychology Social Psychology focuses on the psychological makeup of individuals that makes people susceptible to social in uence Sociology focuses on groups of individuals 39 Common between Personality Psychology and Social Psychology they both emphasize the psychology of individuals versus what makes individuals different from each other Difference between Personality Psychology and Social Psychology Social Psychology emphasizes the psychological processes shared by most people around the world that make the susceptible to social in uence 39Construals 0 Where they come from basic human motives 39 Construals behavior depends on interpretation of one s social environment Two main factors in uencing behaviorconstruals 39 1 The need to feel good about oneself selfesteem 39 One will adjust what the facts of a situation are in order to make them feel better about themselves 39 Example If John gets divorced because he can t hide all the jealousy he has about his wife he may interpret the situation as it being his wife s fault because she didn t tend to his needs suf ciently 39 This is about justifying one s past behaviors 39 Problems arise here because one will not take the necessary steps to change a behavior they have that pmblematie need to be accurate has to do with Social Cognition Social Cognition ihew people select interpret remember and use social nifonnatien to make judgements and decisions 39 It human nature to try to View 011658 world as accurately as possible people may ather all the facts but still understandpredict something incorrectly This can happen due to false expteictationej only payin attention to certain details not havin all the facts faulty infOrmation etc Chapter 2 Research Methods amp Ethics 6 Steps of a Research Project Ask a question Develop a hypothesis Select a research method and design a study Collect the data Analyze the data and draw conclusions Report your ndings S ART FROM THE BEGINNING AGAIN should be a continuous cycle Theory attempt to understand exactly why certain eventsprocesses occur as they do 0 More general than a hypothesis 0 A general explanation about behavior events Hypothesis speci c and testable proposition between two variables 0 Statement not a question 0 Stems from a broader theory Experimental Method Independent Variable IV variable that is supposed to cause the change in the DV 0 Experimental a variable that the researcher can actually manipulate Number of hours slept pill being taken etc 0 QuasiExp Subject Variable a variable that the researcher cannot actually manipulate Age gender attractiveness etc Dependent Variable DV the variable supposedly being affected by the IV Hypothesis template for exp method Level of the IV will higher faster longer on DV than other level of the IV 0 Example Students who get eight hours of sleep will have higher exam scores than students who get three hours of sleep True Experiments need to have two things 0 1 Random Assignment 0 2 Experimental Independent Variable 0 Random Assignment every participant has an equal chance of being put into every level of the IV How random assignment allows us to discuss causality accounts for any confounds that may exist among the participants of the study because it is expected to distribute any confounds equally into every group Correlational Method two variables that are measured together but NOT altered by a researcher between 1 and 1 Correlation Coef cient indicates the strength and direction of a relationship between two variables 0 Pearson Correlation r the correlation coef cient is represented by r O Negative s VS Positive s A negative number means that the relationship between the two O U39IAWN x variables in negative As one increases the other decreases OR as one decreases the other increases A positive number means that the relationship between the two variables in positive As one increases the other increases OR as one decreases the other decreases 0 Strength of Relationship The closer the number is to 1 whether the 1 be a positive 1 or a negative 1 the morethe stronger the two variables are associated The closer the number is to O the less the two variables are associated A 0 indicates there is no relationship at all between the two variables Correlation VS Causation 0 Correlation 2 variables move together 0 Causation one variable causes the change in the other variable 3 Criteria for Causality o 1 There must be a relationship between the two variables 0 2 The causal variable must precede the affected variable 0 3 There cannot be any third variable AKA confound affecting the first two criteria Reasons for Correlational research it allows us to predict future patterns of variables Types of correlational research archival o Naturalistic Observation participants are observed in their natural environment researcher does not interfere in any way 0 Archival Research examination of already existing records NOT COLLECTING any new data 0 Surveys questionnaires conducted in person over the phone or through the mail that examine the ways a group of people thinkact Correlational Hypothesis Template variable of interest 1 will be positively or negatively correlated to variable of interest 2 Pros and Cons of experimental vs correlational research Pros Experimental research allows for there to be causality Cons Experimental research can be costly and take a long time Pros Correlational research can be quick and cheap Cons Correlational research does not allow for there to be causality Other Research Methods Terms Internal and External Validity which type of research design is higher in each and what threatens internal and external validity 0 Internal Validity did the IV actually cause the change in the DV True experimental designs have the highest internal validity No random assignment and having confounds threaten internal validity 0 External Validity can the results of this study be generalized to the entire population Experiments that are most nonarti cial with random selection and no biases have the highest external validity Biases no random selection and very arti cial experiments threaten external validity Operationalizing Variables how the researcher is measuring the variable Experimental Bias when the experimenter can in uence the results based on what they want to hear see happen to satisfy their hypothesis 2 ways to avoid this 0 1 Blind to condition experimenter does not know what level of the IV each participant was placed in o 2 Blind to hypothesis experimenter does not know the hypothesis of the experiment Construct validity of IV manipulation check or pretest 0 Construct Validity of IV how well the experimenter operationalized the IV was the operational IV a good method Cover Story something the researcher tells the participants before the study begins as a way to steer them away from what they think the researcher is studying or looking for Aronson and Mills Study True Experimental Design because Levels of initiation severity Participants are randomly assigned to levels Conceptual Independent Variable Level of severity of initiation Conceptual Dependent Variable Liking of the group Operational Independent Variable type embarrassing words at 3 levels Operational Dependent Variable questionnaires on how much they liked the discussion There are 2 main DVs liking of discussion and liking of the group Because it might be harder to slam people than a discussion Hypothesis Person who endures a severe level of initiation will like a group more than a person who endures a mild level of initiation or no initiation Internal Validity relatively high because they used prerecorded conversations and the same group of words for each level Comfortable in talking about causality External Validity relatively low because there are various types of initiation styles all the participants are all women WW Did we get at what we thought we were getting at how well you operationalized your IV In this case was asking participants to say embarrassing words a good way of manipulating initiation severity Ethics Good VS Evil O O O O 0 Good side participants can gain knowledge from participating Evil side participants can be harmed from participating Protecting Participants IRB a board of university and community members who evaluate all research at the university and must approve it as ethically acceptable before it can be conducted Informed consent provides participants with as full as possible description of what they will be asked to do before they decide to participate Debriefmg provides participants with full explanation of the study after the study is over 10 Questionable practices mean that it is NEVER allowed 0 O O 0000 O l Involve people in research without their knowledge or consent When s this okay naturalistic observation public place 2 Coercing people to participate 3 Withholding the true nature of the research Always do this at a certain point but can t do this if it would prevent people from participating 4 Deceiving the participants Must be very specific when debriefing participants This should be a last resort 5 Leading subjects to commit acts that diminish their selfrespect 6 Collecting data that could be used to slander participants social group 7 Exposing subjects to physicalmental stress 8 Invading the privacy of participants Differs 9 Withholding benefits from participants in control groups Mainly involving drug experiments If a treatment is significantly helping the experimental group the researcher would need to tell the controlplacebo group give them the choice to take the drug eventually 10 Failing to treat participants fairlynot showing them consideration and respect Be able to Identify research designs and apply relevant research terminology to a study Chapter 3 Social Cognition Schema cognitive structure organizing tool in the brain centered around a speci c theme that helps us to organize social information 0 Topdown vs Bottomup Processing Topdown processing Schema Based Processing think of this more as automatic thinking Bottomup processing Attribute Based Processing think of this more as controlled thinking 0 Types of schemas Role stereotype tend to be informative use what a person s role is 39 Example When listening to a Professor you will use their Professor schema because it is relevant to what we are doing instead of using her Mom schema Person associating speci c traits and attributes with an individual 39 What we form as we get to know individuals better Event schema script describes a sequence of events 39 Example when you walk into a fancy restaurant you wait at a hostess stand to be seated know that the menu will be given to you once you sit down etc 0 Schema Pros and Cons Pros they save time and energy allow us to infer information we do not have by relying on similar situations we have been through in the past allow us to recall information Cognitive Miser we are stingy with and try to conserve our cognitive resources 0 We use schemas because they save our cognitive resources require less cognitive resources Motivated Tactician determine when it makes sense to use category versus attribute based processing 0 This is when you gure out which processing method is more appropriate Schema Based or Attribute Based Fiske and Neuberg Continuum ModelDual Process Model of Impression Formation 0 Circumstances that make you more or less likely to rely on a schema Schema Based Attribute Base Processing Top Down gt Processing Bottom Up Theory DrivenCategory Data Drive Based Individuated O 0 More likely to use a schema when When we are under high cognitive load which basically means when you have a lot on your mind Time pressure when we need to make a decision quickly Strong schema more accessible easier for us to use In a good mood when you re in a bad mood you are more willing to dive into details In a good mood you cannot be bothered Ambiguity if you have a schema that may help you make a decision on something that is ambiguous Example if someone gave you a list of traits that is equally good and bad you may be unable to decide what you think of them But if you are told they are a Patriots player you re schema for them may be cheater so you think the list of traits means they are negative Less likely to use a schema Outcome dependent Like learning what exactly a professor is looking for from you as a student Accountable If you have to justify a decision you make you will work harder at making the right decision Self Presentation You may not want to look foolish if you decide something different than everyone else came up with Debiasing Instructions Warning people of the dangers of relying completely on schemas encouraging person to consider all attributes of a person situation Schema Activation which one will we use Salient ones a category that sets someone apart Role schemas tend to be informative Accessible schemas either because it has been recently used or was frequently used Frequent chronic you frequently use this schema Recent priming you recently used this schema and so it is fresh in your mind Heuristics mental shortcuts that allow people to make judgements quickly and efficiently 0 Representative tendency to judge the category membership of peopleobjects in terms of how closely they fit an image of the typical member of that category Can lead to errors due to the BaseRate Fallacy tendency to underuse baserate information the relative frequency with which a condition occurs 0 Availability tendency to judge the frequency or probability of an event in terms of how easy it is to think of examples of that event Relate to false consensus effect 0 Anchoringadjustment process of estimating a value by taking an initial value and then adjusting to the new instance based on current circumstances If you go to the Verizon Center and know that it holds 10000 people but see it is just about over half full you will probably guess there are about 6000 people there Automatic vs Controlled Thinking 0 Automatic Thinking quick no conscious deliberation of thoughtsperceptions assumptions a lot of our thought happens this way 0 Controlled Thinking effortful and deliberate think about self and environment carefully selecting a course of action 0 Thought suppression has elements of both If you are trying to suppress a thought you are consciously thinking about doing it controlled but you are also thinking of the unwanted thought more because it is in your head even though you don t want to automatic Controlled Thinking o Counterfactual thinking mentally changing some aspect of the past to imagine what might have been Can impact emotions This is the What ifs what if the Seahawks had run the ball instead of thrown it Positive if it leads to selfknowledge Negative if it leads to obsessing Chapter 4 Social Perception Nonverbal Cues 0 Ekman s Basic Expressions Happiness Sadness Anger Disgust Fear and Surprise Emotions ae Expression Expression a Emotion 0 Forms of nonverbal communication Eyecontact Body Language gestureemblem vs posture EmblemGesture short term action involving a small body part usually has a well known verbal equivalent Posture action involving more of the body over an extended time frame Paralanguage variations in speech that do not have to do with the actual words Inter Channel Discrepancy Nonverbal leaking Nonverbal Leaking when true emotions leak out even when a person tried to conceal them Inter Channel Discrepancy when one channel says one thing but another channel says something different 0 Example someone says I like you but they re leaning away from you Importance of context and culture in understanding nonverbal cues every culture has different norms that are appropriate in various situations It might be okay in Eastern cultures to get really close to someone when they are talking but in Western cultures that is normally frowned upon Implicit Personality Theory a schema people use to group various kinds of personality traits together 0 Example expect that friendly sincere and trusting all go together Attribution 0 Internal Attribution attributing someone s behavior to who they are as a person Usually make these about our own actions that lead to positive outcomes 0 External Attribution attributing someone s behavior to the situation that they are in Would expect anyone to act that same way in the same situation Usually make these about our own actions that lead to negative outcomes Correspondent Inference Theory Jones and Davis under what circumstances are we con dent about making an internal attribution When there is Choice someone freely chooses to do something Noncommon effects there are no other reasons for engaging in the action Social desirability the behavior is NOT socially desirable Kelley Covariation Model how we decide whether to make an internal attribution or an external attribution Consensus extent to which others react to the stimulusevent in the same way as the target person does Do other people act the same Consistency extent to which the target person reacts to the stimulus event in the same way on other occasions Is this normally what happens in this same situation with other people Distinctiveness extent to which the target person reacts in the same manner to other different stimulievents Does this normally happen in other situations with the same person Using Model to make Int vs Ext Attribution High Consistency Low Distinctiveness Low Consensus Internal Attribution High Consistency High Distinctiveness High Consensus External Attribution Attributional Errors Fundamental Attribution Error tendency to explain others actions in terms of dispositional internal rather than more appropriate situational external causes More likely to assume that someone engages in a behavior because of an internal attribution not a more reasonable reason that is external ActorObserver Effect tendency to attribute our own behavior to situational causes by the behavior of others mainly to dispositional causes Happens due to Salience what stands out Salient to the actor is the environment salient to the audience is the actor Knowledge of past behavior know more about our 0 W N past behavior that someone else s SelfServing Bias tendency to attribute our OW N positive outcomes to internal cases and our OW N negative outcomes to external causes Happens due to Protective Mechanism we want to think positively about ourselves Cognitive Distinctiveness we attribute our positive outcomes internally because they are less distinctive while our more distinctive negative outcomes are externally attributed o Discounting tendency to attach less importance to one potential cause usually internal cause of some behavior when other potential causes are also present If someone tells you Mike broke the school record for the 100m race you will think they are an amazing runner But then someone tells you Mike had a 40mph wind at his back blowing him down the track This just discounted your original thought 0 Augmentation tendency to attach greater importance to a potential cause usually internal cause of behavior if the behavior occurs despite the presence of other inhibitory causes If someone tells you Mike broke the school record for the 100m race you will think they are an amazing runner But then someone tells you Mike had a 40mph wind at his front blowing against him The new information makes you think Mike is even a more amazing runner than you thought before Dweck Research mastery vs helplessoriented students 0 MasteryOriented Students students believe intelligence is malleable and feel effort and ability are positively related Results in students seeking challenges will help them learn more 0 HelplessOriented Students students believe intelligence is xed and see effort and ability as negatively related Results in students avoiding challenges so they don t look stupid If they have to work hard they think it because they are stupid Be able to explain 0 when we might rely on nonverbal cues IPT vs attribution o the evidence for why we make certain attributional errors 0 the value of an internal vs external attribution
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