PSYC2014 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE
PSYC2014 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE PSYC2014
Popular in Cognitive Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 30 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hannah Grassie on Friday February 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC2014 at George Washington University taught by Myeong-Ho Sohn in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 317 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/20/15
1 What is Cognitive Psychology What is cognitive psychology 0 The scientific study of cognition perception attention language memory basic aspects of human thinking What is cognition The process in which sensory input is o Transformed Sensory information must be transformed into an internal code that can be processed by our brain Demonstrated by the task in which you have to discern which circle is larger n Svmbolic distance effect 0 The greater the difference between internal representations of the stimuli the faster the response 0 If one circle is clearly bigger than the other then the response will be faster 0 Our internal processes not our sensory perception account for the judgments we make 0 Reduced Cognitive processes reduce our experiences to their crucial elements 100 is inputted but only 50 remains a Because of this memories of events are not perfect recordings Demonstrated by the task in which you select which penny is the correct one o Elaborated Recollections are not perfect duplications of what was originally experienced more like reconstructions that elaborate on a theme You recall information that is not physically provided Demonstrated by when you hear the word bacon although you only heard the word you will imagine the sight taste smell color size etc based on your past expe ences o Stored We save information in our memory either short or long term memory a memory involves mental operations that both store and retrieve information at appropriate times 0 Recovered Retrieving information from either long term or short term memory Depending on which memory we are retrieving from the way we do it is different 0 Used We use the information we have stored for n Prospective memory Anticipating what you need to remember memory for the future 0 Remembering you have an exam remembering about the present you forgot to buy a Language understanding 0 Use past experiences or knowledge of language to comprehend what people say to us a Reasoning Incorporate unmentioned or unknown information to come to conclusions we don t rely purely on the input Origins of Cognitive Psychology 0 Behaviorists suggested that to understand humans scientists must only look at their behavior not their mental processes ignored internal processes 0 But this hasn t stuck because cognitive psychology emphasizes information processinq analyzes the flow of events in internal and external processing to formalize and structure internal processing Shows how past experiences and knowledge influence and help us understand present events 0 Gestalt Psvcholoov o Studied how people s perception of the whole is derived from their perception of individual parts of components Seeks to understand how the components are organized together our experience of the whole is more than the summation of parts 0 Illusorv Contour Visual illusion where edged and lines are perceived when none are actually there Due to the tendency for people to apply Gestalt principles of continuation that complete lines and gaps o Contributed a tradition of experimentation to cognitive psychology 0 Human Factors Research 0 Concerned with helping people to perform tasks efficiently and safely while focusing on the limits of our mental capacities and how they constrain our actions 0 How to exploit people how to get the best out of them Ex how to design the best workspace to get the person to perform at their highest level 0 Human factors engineers design work environments to compensate for cognitive limitations so we can achieve our goals 0 Gave us a lot of data regarding what people can and can t do 0 Contributed a tradition of experimentation to cognitive psychology 0 Computer Simulation 0 This approach has been used to create models of thinking and gave cognitive psychology certain terms Memory capacity storage retrieval encoding decoding 0 Goal of computer simulation is to have a computer respond to a problem by producing an output that mirrors the behavior of a real person confronted with the same problem and from this cognitive theories can be developed 0 Programs are used to simulate how people understand language answer questions make decisions and learn 0 Two types of computer simulation models Serial processors n Demonstrate describe the sequential processing of information 0 Ex question is asked encoding the questions searching knowledge for relevant information producing a response a Help understand human memory and problem solving processes Parallel Distributed Processinq Neural Networks a Describes the simultaneous processing of information a Describes human information processing as a series of actions and decisions that are produced at the same time a Help understand human pattern recognition 0 Turing Test To pass the Turning Test the computer simulated human must resemble a human enough to fool the judges Eugene Goostman a chatterbox designed to resemble a 13year old Ukranian boy passed the Turing Test by convincing 30 ofjudges he was a real human boy 0 Coqnitive neuroscience o The scientific study of the relationship between brain structures neurological activity and cognitive function Famous example is the discovery of Broca s area 0 Three goals To discover how the brain contributes to cognitive activity To use neurological findings to test cognitive theories about how the mind works Finding cures treatments for debilitating neurological diseases 0 Cognitive neuroscience was combined with cognitive psychology to create the field of cognitive science that studies mental activity and intelligent behavior Study how people are able to intelligently interact with their environment Study how behavior reflects the way that people mentally represent and use knowledge to produce new behavior Phrenology o The study of different parts of the skull o The bumps on a skull can tell you about cognitive ability or emotional aspects Cognitive Psychology Research 0 Identify and examine processes that produce our thoughts and behaviors 0 Test theories and provide data needed to develop new theories 0 Typically researchers give participants and input then observe the output Research Methods in Cognitive Psychology Resbonse Accuracv 0 Measures if a participant responds correctly to a challenging situation in a specified period of time Vigilance task participants are asked to detect subtle changes in the movement of a clock s hand In Similar to the cognitive demands of aircraft controllers looking at radar screens Resbonse Latencv o Aka response time or reaction time 0 Measures the amount of time it takes a participant to make a response that is either correct or accepted 0 This time is filled with cognitive processes 0 Reflects the minimum amount of time needed to produce a correct or acceptable response 0 Often measured with mental arithmetic Min method look at problem 53 find the bigger number 5 count up from the bigger number 678 Produced Resoonse o The participant s actual response when they freely recall an event 0 Not concerned with accuracy or time o By analyzing the responses researchers can figure out what type of knowledge is used by the participants 0 Transfer of Training 0 Measures the ability to apply certain knowledge from one situation to another 0 Used when researchers want to discover the best method of presenting information 0 Typically there are two phases learning and test If the learning condition is well designed there will be a positive transfer of knowledge regardless of the test condition 2 The Brain and Cognition 22015 638 PM The mindbodv Droblem How the mind and body are related 0 Specifically how are the physical operations of a concrete substance the brain able to evoke mental experiences of thought Still no answer to this question 0 Trepanning 0 Ancient surgery in which holes are made in a person s skull to allow evil spirits to escape o Demonstrates the very old interest in the brain s influence on behavior The Neuron Specialized cells and their interconnections that communicate information both chemically and electrically 0 Typical adult brain consists of more than 10 billion neurons 0 Consists of three major parts 0 Cell body Processes and transmits information o Dendrites Fibers that conduct input to the cell body 0 m Conducts electrical activity from the cell body to other neurons through the synapse The synapse is a junction or gap that allows neurons to communicate 0 When an electrical signal is sent down the axon called the action potential the synapse fills with neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters are packets of chemicals 0 Once in the synaptic gap they either Allow an electrical impulse to occur on the other side of the gap In The signal can be transmitted by the cell of the next neuron or by the cells of a number of neurons that have been activated Prevent an electrical signal if the neuron doesn t have a receptor for the neurotransmitter After they have completed their job neurotransmitters break down into parts or are washed out of the synapse Deficits in neurotransmitters can lead to cognitive difficulties n Deficits in dopamine can lead to problems with muscle control 0 Hence why people with Parkinson s have lost 80 of the cells that produce dopamine Major Divisions of the brain 0 Hindbrain o In the bottom or ventral portion of the brain 0 Controls automatic processes that regulate basic lifesupport functions Breathing heart rate swallowing sleep cycles 0 Damage to the central area of the hindbrain can lead to coma or death 0 Cerebellum is an important area of the hindbrain Responsible for balance and coordination of voluntary movements Damage can make it difficult to coordinate movements like walking Alcohol impairs the cerebellum making ordinary tasks difficult Important role in highlevel cognitive tasks 0 Midbrain 0 Relay center for sensory information entering the brain such as vision and hearing 0 Fibers associated with voluntary movement are present in the midbrain o Damage to this area can cause problems in hearing seeing and motor control 0 Substantia nigra translated to black substance produces dopamine people with Parkinson s have low levels of dopamine in the basal ganglia and people with epilepsy often have damage to the substantia nigra due to too little dopamine Adequate levels of dopamine are critical for attention memory motivation problem solving and muscle control 0 Too much dopamine is associated with schizophrenia Forebrain o Surrounds the midbrain 0 Contains the cerebral cortex o Regulates higher mental processes and allows people to engage in complex learning memory thought reasoning and language 0 The cortex is the wrinkled outer portion Deep wrinkles are called sulci and allow for more surface area in the skull aka fissures n It is assumed Albert Enstein had less developed sulci making the neurons communicate better this could explain his intelligence Brain lateralization Different sides of the brain have different functions aka hemisphere a symmetry 0 Brain is divided into two halves called hemispheres and each hemisphere has different cognitive functions 0 The hemispheres are connected by collections of fibers called commisures the largest of which is the corpus callosum 0 When the cc is cut people experience a split or divided brain when one hemisphere has little knowledge of the signals the other is processing Keyring test is used for split brain patients 0 Right hemisphere 0 Controls left side of the body 0 Registers the sensations originating from the left side of the body 0 Understanding figurative language and metaphor understanding sarcasm 0 Visual spatial o Involved more in global processing If you have an H composed of numerous S s then the right hemisphere will identify the overall H shape 0 Left hemisbhere 0 Controls the right side of the body 0 Registers the sensations originating from the right side of the body 0 Conscious awareness basic language functions speech production grammatical analysis comprehension o Verbal logical processing 0 Focuses more on the element or local features If you have an H composed of numerous S s then the left hemisphere will identify the S s not the overall shape Brain localization 0 Different brain regions are specified for certain functions 0 Gail German anatomist and founder of phrenology proposed brain localization and believed the size of each area was in proportion to the amount of a specific ability a person possessed 0 Possible to identify areas by looking at bumps on the skull the larger the bump the bigger the brain area 0 The bumps on the brain are called gyri and the grooves are fissures The fissures divide the cortex into 4 sections lobes occipital parietal temporal and frontal Occipital lobe 0 Primary visual area 0 Visual pattern recognition Parietal lobes 0 One in each hemisphere 0 Register sensory experiences 0 Responsible for our ability to locate objects in space after being detected by the occipital lobe o Spatially based mathematical thinking 0 Temporal lobes 0 One in each hemisphere 0 Process sound language and longterm memories 0 Faceobject identification Frontal lobe 0 Strategic thinking social cognition shortterm memory language music production voluntary movements 0 Higherlevel cognitive functions Attention Memory Problem solving Communication Brain Plasticitv Brain s ability to be modified by experience Allows us to recover from injuries and other deficits Neurogenesis o The processes in which brain cells grow new connections Neuroimaging 0 Methods that reveal the structure and functioning of the brain examining the relationship between neurological activity and cognitive processes EEG electroencephalooraph o Oldest method 0 Electrodes placed on the scalp measure the electrical activity of the brain 0 EEG waves reflect the total electrical output of neurons near the electrodes EEG waves vary with the person s state of arousal o Often used to diagnose epilepsy tumors and physical damage to the brain 0 Used to identify Event Related Potentials ERPs Momentary changes in EEG signals that occur as a response to stimuli or thought 0 High temporal resolution but low spatial resolution 0 PET Positron Emission Tomooraphv o More precise in identifying which brain area is active but becoming less popular due to its invasive nature 0 Measures blood flow to regions of the brain Radioactive dose of glucose is injected into bloodstream As the glucose is processed by neurons it emits positron particles When the positrons interact with the electrons of the brain cells energy is released and this energy is detected when the brain is scanned 0 Very good spatial resolution better than fMRI but weak temporal resolution 0 Measures glucose consumption fMRI functional magnetic resonance imaging 0 When a brain region is active blood flow and oxygen increases The changing of oxygen content affects the blood s magnetic properties which affects the brain s magnetic signal BOLD blood oxygen level dependent O The increase in oxygen content allows for brain activity to be measured Different parts of the magnet respond differently depending on which part of the brain is active Just because an area is active during an fMRI doesn t mean it is responsible for whatever cognitive process is being studied More suitable for investigation of cognitive behavior that requires a longer time due to its weak temporal resolution Weak temporal resolution but high spatial rTMS Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation O 0 Technique that disrupts or enhances brain activity Electrical activity to a brain area is influenced by magnets that are held over an area of the participant s head The magnetic pulses are repeated and can cause an increase or decrease in a specific brain area s activity and can identify its function 3 Attention 22015 638 PM What is attention 0 Attention is a set of cognitive processes that allow us to concentrate on certain aspects of our environment while ignoring other events 0 Paying attention Being aware of the contents of our consciousness and reacting to them Attention is limited 0 Attention is a limitedcapacity system and is only able to focus on a limited number of activities for a fixed period of time 0 Demonstrated by Mackworth Clock 0 Participants observe a clocklike face with a dot moving around the perimeter of the circle when the dot skips 2 seconds the participants are to respond 0 Found that as time increased accuracy decreased Because attentional resources are depleted Attention is selective 0 We must select relevant information to attend to and filter out other irrelevant events Preattentive processing 0 The ability to focus on a relevant event and exclude all else so quickly that the person may be unaware of all the stimuli that were excluded Demonstrated by the task in which there is a box filled with red squares and one red circle the circle pops out because it is unique and requires effortless processing that examines all features at once 0 Focused attentional processing 0 Using attention more deliberately in order to look at each object because Preattentive processing was not effective Demonstrated by the fact it takes longer to identify the red circle when the box includes objects that share more than one feature with the target Orientinq reflex 0 Reaction to any distinctive change in the environment and turn our attention to it 0 Ensure we pay attention to important stimuli and changes in our environment Rooting reflex o If you touch the cheek of a newborn it will turn in the direction of the touch WhereWhat Circuits 0 Process information about the spatial locations of objects where and allow us to name them what 0 Where circuit 0 Runs from visual cortex to the parietal lobe for visual stimuli 0 Runs from auditory cortex to parietal lobe for sound stimuli o Processed by superior pathway 0 What circuit 0 Runs from visual or auditory cortex to the temporal lobe o Allows memories to be activated to recognize objects 0 Processed by lower inferior pathway Habtua on When a stimulus is no longer novel it doesn t capture our attention 0 anymore Attentional Spotlight 0 Cognitive ability to focus in our attention to a specific stimulus 0 Attention can be moved and refocused Without moving our eyes 0 It takes time to shift attention from one thing to another Takes even longer if the target appears in an unexpected place 0 Attention has a limited range Hence why we don t pay as much attention to information in our periphery Demonstrated by Flanker task 0 Participants look at a string of 5 letters and focus on the central letter they push a button to indicate what the central letter is 0 Target letter or stimulus is flanked by distracters Span of apprehension the amount of information we can attend to without a lot of effort o Subitizing Ability to quickly capture the number of items without counUng We can perceive quantities without counting up to 4 objects a If there s less than 4 items we can use parallel processing but any more than 4 items we need to use serial processing Sensory Storage Aka sensoryinformation storage SIS 0 A buffer memory system that holds incoming information long enough for us to attend to it o Buffers our experience so we can focus on the important events 0 The different sensory systems have their own sensory buffer 0 Capacity how much information can the memory system hold 0 Sperling researched this by developing a research method in which participants are shown various numbers of letters and are asked to recall them Whole Report Technidue n Participants could accurately recall the items if there were less than 5 suggesting the sensory capacity is 5 however they indicated they saw more than they could recall 0 This suggests the reason people couldn t recall more than 4 or 5 items is because the information was leaving their memory faster than they could recall Partial Report Technidue a To test the hypothesis about information leaving the memory he developed a task in which he indicated which row of letters should be recalled a Results show that as the number of items increases so does the amount the participant can recaH Suggesting there is no limit to capacity rather the limiting factor is how quickly they can report the experience 0 Duration and fordettinq 0 Duration of sensory storage is brief 0 As duration increases so does likelihood of forgetting o Masking Occurs when one event interferes with the memory of another and displaces the memory events hide or remove previous events from memory 0 Coding o Precateoorical storage Sensory storage hold information in an unanalyzed way the information is in its basic sensory form Incoming stimuli have not been categorized yet and once they have they re no longer in the buffer Attentional processing 0 After an event is captured by the sensory storage it is processed by the attentional system 0 More information enters the attentional system than can be processed some makes it through the filter and is attended to 0 We attend to certain information based on physical features or content or both Physical features Early Selection 0 Physical characteristics are attended to early and content information is filtered out 0 Cocktailparty phenomenon o Amid noisy environments with multiple conversations occurring people can recognize and thus attend to their own name 0 Shadowing 0 Research method developed by E C Cherry 0 Participants repeat the message they hear in one ear channel while ignoring the message they hear in the other ear 0 Typically the listener only notices physical changes in the message they are supposed to be ignoring like when the gender of the message changes Dichotic Listening 0 Participants wear special headphones and hear two different messages in each ear 0 By studying what they pick up on researchers gain insight into early and late selection Content features Late Selection 0 Humans are capable of attending to lowlevel features of messages as well as highlevel conceptual features 0 Important messages our names help angry expressions are permanently set to be important so we attend to them 0 Late selection theory 0 Even unattended messages enter our sensory storage 0 It is only filtered out late in the process if the information is not relevant o Corteen and Wood demonstrated the early selection filter can be overruled by the late selection of relevant events They conditioned a neutral word desk chair with an emotionally charged image by administering a mild shock The words that were supposed to be unattended still evoked a galvanic skin response this supports the late selection theory Automatic Processes 0 Those that are not consciously controlled 0 Can be wired in or a learned combination of reactions 0 Demonstrated by the Strooo effect 0 Automatic response is to read the word not name the color 0 Occurs rapidly and doesn t require a lot of attentional resources 0 Generally occurs without us being aware of it Controlled Processes 0 Available to conscious understanding 0 Those that are deliberately attended to Demanding of cognitive resources 0 Closed skill o Learner s intention is to precisely duplicate the behavior under multiple predictable circumstances Ex typing 0 Open skill 0 applied in unpredictable circumstances and the person must commit attentional resources to compensate for the unpredictable nature of the environment Ex playing an unfamiliar guitar snowboarding on different terrain Mindlessness 0 Performing activities without evaluating or thinking about what we re doing Generic Error Modeling Svstem GEMS Accidents are the result of two types of situations 0 When automatic processes are not interrupted and taken over by conscious processes when they should be 0 When there is an unusual or unpredicted interaction between automatic and controlled processes Capacity theory of attention 0 Our ability to focus attention varies with the number and complexity of the tasks and how mentally energized we are at the time Attentional blink The moment when you shift your attentional focus and are unable to attend fully to a new target 0 If a second target occurs quickly after the first one people will probably miss it due to the blink Repetition blindness Decrease in the ability to perceive repeated stimuli during a rapid serial presentation of items 0 If letters are flashed at you quickly and the letter B is flashed twice you may only remember seeing one B Chanqe blindness When there is a subtle change in the stimulus two identical pictures with one small difference and you can t recognize the difference Inattentional blindness Attentional spotlight causes people to miss entire events 0 Ex using your phone while driving and not seeing the stop sign Neuropsychology of attention 0 Simultanaonosia o Aka Balint s syndrome 0 Difficulty in recognizing two or more objects at the same time 0 Cannot see to the left or right of where they re attending 0 Difficulty with object based attention Hemispheric neglect 0 People are unable to focus attention on a portion of their visual field 0 As if they re blind to one half of what they should be able to see 0 Vision is fine just their attentional system is impaired 0 Associated with damage to the parietal cortex 0 Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder 0 Difficulty of inhibition can t filter out irrelevant information 0 Low concentration of dopamine in the basal ganglia 0 Symptoms Distractibility inattentiveness restlessness difficulty in selfcontrol Parkinson s o Degenerative disease that involves tremors when muscles are relaxed and attentional difficulties in advanced stages 0 Associated with deficits in dopamine and impairment in the substantia nigra 0 Symptoms typically manifest when the patient employs cognitive resources 4 Pattern Recognition Pattern Recoqnition 0 People use fragments of sensory stimulation to identify experiences 0 Sensory memory and attention make pattern recognition possible Perception Becoming aware of a stimulus or event through our senses BottomUp processinq 0 We extract basic elements from a stimulus in order to identify the whole stimulus 0 Based on sensory data as it is received by the person Toodown processing 0 Use of knowledge in longterm memory to analyze incoming information to identify the stimulus 0 Use of expectations context interpretations biases 0 Our expectations of what we will see based on prior experience or context influence what we perceive Pointillism Art composed of millions of tiny dots that observers are unaware of and they just perceive the whole image The principle of Pradnanz 0 Our perception of a stimulus will be organized into as cohesive a figure as possible symmetry simplicity closed and regular 0 Bottomup Gestaltism o the idea that we perceive the form or configuration of things before we understand the parts 0 Bottomup Six principleslaws of automatic perceptual grouping 0 Law of Proximitv Elements that are close together will be perceived as a coherent group and will be seen as distinct from items that are far from them 0 Law of Similaritv Elements that look similar will be perceived as part of the same group Similarity based on size brightness color shape or orientation 0 Law of Closure We tend to enclose spaces by completing a contour and ignoring caps in a picture filling in the spaces Illusory Contours n We perceive an enclosed form even if its not there 0 Law of Common Fate If objects are moving in the same direction and at the same speed we will perceive them as a group with a common destiny 0 Law of Svmmetrv Symmetrical images are perceived as belonging together Even if a figure is disorganized people find symmetry in it 0 Law of Good Continuation People tend to connect elements in a way that makes them seem continuous or flowing in a particular direction Bottom Up Processing Theories we recognize patterns based on their individual basic perceptual characteristics Distinctive Features Theory 0 Stimuli are composed of distinctive and separable components features 0 Distinctive features allow us to tell objects apart Ex The letter A is composed of distinctive features such as two diagonal lines and a horizontal line connecting them 0 The theory says we identify objects pattern recognition by examining the presence or absence or critical distinct features almost as if there s a checklist of features for each object Thus objects that share features are harder to discern 0 Global features To identify an object we first look at global overall largescale features n Ex The H composed of multiple small 5 letters we first perceive the overall big picture letter H before the smaller 5 letters 0 Local features Aka low level features The smaller components that make up the bigpicture that we observe after the global features a Ex the small letters 5 that are arranged to look like a large H Recoqnition bv Components Theorv 0 3D pattern recognition is completed by identifying and recognizing the stimulus basic 3D features called 9 There are 36 possible geons like an alphabet Geons are the basic building block for identifying 3D objects 0 The geons can be rotated or presented in any configuration and by comparing it to information in our longterm memory we can identify the object We identify the geons based on the outline and the resulting impression on our retina TemplateMatching Theorv 0 Once we experience an object we store literal copies almost like photocopies of the object along with a name for it 0 Once we experience a new instance of this object we match it to the copy we have stored and are able to identify it o This theory is considered impractical though because we have experienced so many objects we could not possible have stored copies of each of them Additionally it doesn t explain how we recognize unfamiliar objects 0 Prototype Theorv 0 Prototype the average or typical instance of the numerous variations of an object 0 Pattern recognition occurs when the experience of an object is matched to or overlaps with the stored average experience of this object prototype Requires less cognitive resources because it does not require an exact match and also does not require storing every possible experience of the object 0 Many prototype studies have ecological validity They use stimuli that are experienced in the real world TopDown Processing our perception of objects is influenced by our expectations 0 Speech Understanding o Humans need a basic understanding of context to adequately comprehend language 0 Pure word deafness As a result of neurological damage people can hear words but only identify them as sounds not as language a Ex they can hear the word hello but cannot tell if it is a word with meaning or just a sound WordSuperiority Effect 0 People can identify and recognize letters better when they are embedded in a part of real words As opposed to if they re embedded in a random string of letters Ex CBOIGT vs COG BIT n We can say each letter aloud faster and with more ease in the second example 0 Demonstrates impact of topdown processing on reading because if we have knowledge of the word whole it s easier to identify the letters parts Because when we are presented with the word we have two sources of information the knowledge of the word and its spelling AND the presence of the letter We actually don t need to be able to recognize all individual letters and can read words even when some are missing or masked cxgnxtxve psxchxlxgx Face Recoqnition Recognizing faces is the most important and frequent pattern recognition 0 Research on new borns suggests we can recognize faces very early in life because babies will mimic adults facial features 0 Suggests there are innate biological mechanisms to recognize faces Fusiform ovrus located in the medial temporal occipital lobe n There s a connection between the amygdala and the fusiform gyrus suggesting emotional aspects to face recognition Facial Prototypes 0 We have developed expectations for what a face should look like based on averages of all the faces we ve seen eyes nose mouth and in that order 0 Typically we recognize faces holistically but when they are rotated we identify faces based on individual features does it have a nose mouth eyes and as a result often can t tell if the face is distorted until it is rightside up The Thatcher Illusion inversion effect 0 Crossrace effect 0 We have difficulty recognizing faces of people from a different race Because we have more experience with people of our own race we develop expectations of what a face should look like and when an object violates that expectation it is harder to recognize a Suggests topdown process 0 Composite effect 0 If you morph faces together it will be very hard to tell what 2 people have been morphed because we cannot identify individual revealing features Neuropsychology of Face Recognition Prosooaonosia face blindness 0 Patients cannot recognize familiar faces but may be able to do so by features like voice or hair color 0 Not the result of visual intellectual or memory difficulty rather due to an impairment in the fusiform gyrus Schizophrenia o Considered to be caused by too much dopamine 0 People who suffer from schizophrenia have symptoms such as abnormal perceptions moods and expressions as well as difficulty in face recognition 0 Study revealed participants with schizophrenia who had difficulty remembering faces also had smaller fusiform gyrus Autism 0 Spectrum disorder involving social and communication deficits o Autistic children do not attend to facial features as much as nonautistic children and often have difficulty distinguishing between 2 similar faces 0 They attend to the mouth more than the eyes opposite of nonautistic children 5 ShortTerm and Working Memory 22015 638 PM Learning 0 Permanent change in behaviorunderstanding as a result of experience Memory 0 The mechanism that allows us to retain and retrieve information o Shortterm memory contains current and momentary thoughts and perceptions reflects conscious awareness o The mechanisms that underlie this process are called Working Memory and it also communicates with longterm memory Long term memorv stores information and helps us understand new information and is lifelong Short Term Memory 0 Capacity also called memory span 0 Typical adult brain can hold approximately 7 items in STM 59 Capacity increases with age peaks in young adulthood and declines with old age 0 Demonstrated by Ebbinghaus as the number of items increases so does the time needed to recall them perfectly o Chunking increases capacity Instead of encoding items as independent you group them together and can remember them more easily Chunk items that fit together as a pattern and are distinct from items surrounding it Shows the STM overlaps and depends on long term memory because the chunks need to be meaningful based on prior knowledge stored in LTM Duration 0 Demonstrated by Brown Peterson task 3 letters and a 3digit number VZN 780 participants are exposed to the stimuli then count backwards by 35 from the number for varying lengths of time n Ex 777 774 771 continue until buzzer sounds o This research shows duration of STM is approximately 18 seconds in the absence of rehearsal Rehearsal used to keep information active in STM o The number of items that can be held in STM decreases with time Forgetting o Interference Rehearsal The more items or chunks in STM the easier it is for the person to get confused between items Proactive interference n Something that you have already learned interferes with your ability to recall more recent events 0 Ex learning the beginning words of a sequence makes it harder to recall the middle Retroactive interference a Current information makes it harder to recall previous events or information 0 Ex remembering the words at the end of a sequence makes it harder to recall the middle 0 The act of paying attention actively processing information 0 Maintenance rehearsal Repeating an item over and over Maintains items in STM o Elaborative rehearsal Retrieval Creating thinking of meaningful relationships among items to be learned and connecting them to prior knowledge Results in longterm recall 0 The Sternberq Task determined how we retrieve information from STM Participants are given a memory setquot that has up to 7 items each presented rapidly one at a time dog ball school phone water computer wallet After a probe is presented and the participant must determine whether the probe was in the original memory set dog a If it was dog this probe is called the target if it wasn t cat the probe is called foil 0 Serial exhaustive search When presented with a question we search every item in our STM entirely and do not stop even when we find the item The time it takes to search for an item that was in the memory set target is equal to the time it takes to search for an item that was not in the memory set foil On average we search our STM for 40ms per item however Parkinson s patients take longer per item 0 The Serial Position Effect Items at the beginning and end of a list are more likely to be remembered than the items in the middle I Demonstrated by a U shaped curve Primacv effect a The early items on a list are remembered better than the middle items a Reflects more rehearsal and attention to items 0 The ability to rehearse is critical to the U shaped curve In Early items are only effected by retroactive interference Recencv effect a The last items on the list are remembered better than the middle items 0 Because the last items are newly placed in STM making them immediately available a Late items are only effected by proactive interference Modalitv effect a Different recall pattern if the stimulus is visual or auditory o More difficulty recalling last few items if they were presented visually List length n The more items a memory set contains the more profound the recency effect Getting Around the Serial Position Effect a Make items more distinct and thus more memorable I Find a way to connect the items you are trying to remember Working Memory a limited capacity system that allows us to store and manipulate information temporarily Phonolooical IOOD o Subsystem of working memory that is responsible for the temporary storage of verbal or phonological items 0 Phonolooical Store Stores a phonological representation of the stimulus Associated with activity in left parietal region 0 Articulatory Control Process refreshes and maintains the information in the phonological store like maintenance rehearsal 2 second cycle Associated with activity in the prefrontal cortex 0 Phonolooical confusion Two items that are similar phonologically will be harder to remember Visuosbatial sketchpad o Subsystem of WM that stores visual information 0 Visual cache Stores visual information from perceptual experience and contains information about the experience Ventrolateral prefrontal cortex 0 Inner scribe Refreshes information stored in visual cache Stores spatial information related to bodily movement Dorsolateral median prefrontal cortex Episodic Buffer o Organizes events stored in phonological loop and visuospatial sketchpad into coherent timebased sequences 0 Keeps track of episodes Thus it is important for remembering the order of items 0 Accounts for how people remember lists of unrelated words 0 The Central Executive 0 Coordinates the activities of the visuospatial sketchpad phonological loop and episodic buffer also communicates with LTM via the episodic buffer 0 A control system that guides attention and allocates resources to maximize performance 0 Demonstrated by the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task PASAT Participants add consecutive numbers 0 Working memory and emotion Stressful or upsetting experiences consume working memory resources The greater the amount of distress the greater demands on WM and poorer performance on WM tasks Attentional capture hypothesis Emotional stimui capture our attention and tell us they are important in ways that nonemotiona stimui do not Negative moods diminish working memory
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