exam 1 study guide
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gabriela Saint-Louis on Friday February 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 1101 at George Washington University taught by Tamara Henry in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 274 views.
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Date Created: 02/20/15
How would you de ne Health class responses The absence of disease General Well being Life expectancy Physical and mental status Emotional stability Social relationships Economic status Risk behavior Environmental factors 7 dimensions of health Physical Mental Emotional Environmental the built environment what individuals are born in time and place Sputual Intellectual Social Health Wealth Mental Health now vs then Back in the day diagnosis of mental disorders you39d be quarantined and put aside from society ex schizophrenia lnsensitivity to certain disorders Perceptions Stigmatized label that we cannot move forward from people are so fearful of being labeled with stigma Those who are insured are most likely to talk to their doctors about how they are feeling and therefore more likely to be diagnosed Economically it39s not always possible to pay for mental illness drugs which are very expensive Socio economic disparities vs those who are insured and those that aren t What are we referring to when we say quotpublic healthquot Entails part of what the government is obligated to do to make sure you39re safe as well as community involvement Achieve parody across the board goal of public health practitioners Government subsidies Socioecological framework a concentric circle with different levels 39wewwe Individual level speci c high risk diseases lifestyle etc Interpersonal level Organizational level ex school worksite etc Community level Public policy level issues cost time Important for researchers start looking at the interpersonal level people who directly in uence your behavior AND THE BAND PLAYED ONSHILTZ HIV H Human because this virus can only infect human beings I lmmunodeficiency because the effect of the virus is to create a deficiency or a failure to work properly within the body39s immune system V Virus because this organism is a virus which means one of its characteristics is that it is incapable of reproducing by itself It reproduces by taking over the machinery of the human cell AIDS A Acquired because it is a condition one must acquire or get infected with not something transmitted through the genes Immune because it affects the body39s immune system the part of the body which usually works to fight off germs such as bacteria and viruses D Deficiency because it makes the immune system deficient makes it not work properly S Syndrome because someone with AIDS may experience a wide range of different diseases and opportunistic infections HIV is the virus one is infected with and may develop into AIDS 250 below 250 CD4 count is when you39re considered having AIDS HIV is only transmitted via bodily uids 0 blood 0 beast milk 0 vaginal uid 0 semen not saliva not concentrated enough you d have to swallow a gallon to get HIV HIV began in 1981 only transferable from human host to human GR I D acronym for pre HIV Gay Related Immune De ciency Politicism of HIV not much attention given to at rst because it was a known quotgay diseasequot President Reagan was more interested in the War on drugs era of crack cocaine policies more about policing and cracking down on abusers Why CDC did not behave with a sense of urgency when 5 gay men presented with the virus in 1981 stigmatism of gay only affecting a certain group people started paying more attention when someone was born with it a senator39s wife contracted HIV Chapter 3 class notes Health Informatics vs Communications Health informatics compiling collecting and presenting health information electronic medical record EMR link your doctors and health issues data Health Communications looks at how we perceive information to make decisions almost always trying to convince entice How we utilize information to make decisions collecting data compiling info 0 blanket demographic statistics presenting information Receiving info perceiving info combining info decision making 6 methods of public health surveillance single case or small series statistics come from birth and deathvital statistics surveys YRBSS behavioral risk survey selfreporting usually adverse effectsthings that don39t normally happen sentinel monitoring syndromic surveillance patterns to raise alerts of new disease P P PP NI THIS WILL BE ON EXAM HALE Health Adjusted Life expectancy all the things that you39ve been doing that impact your life DALY Disability adjusted life year we are looking at disabilities that impact your life dread effect unfamiliarity effect assessing costbene t uncontrollability effect Feb 4 2014 SHILTS anything that is greater than 1 of the population is considered an epidemic about 12 million people living with HIV in United States every year about 5660000 people are infected with HIV 0 unprotected sex Men who have sex with men uninformed selfawareness invinciblelower chances unaware of HIV Status demographic that has known HIV the longest stigma female partners physiological reasons anal sex is easiest mode of transmission African American individuals 0 12 of US represent over 50 of new HIV infection rates 0 higher rates of poverty one of the main reasons that this occurs in this population less access to testing Stigma Risk Perception very low Women are next highest group after MSM 0 higher incarceration rates aa women prefer to have sex with aa men when they are incarcerated you are tested when going but not when you leave liability the giver doesn39t consider themselves gay and continues having sex with women commercial sex workers young people 1520 year ods 0 almost on par with aa women invincibility mentality lack of comprehensive sex hiding sexual activity perception issue hook up culture OOOOO feb92015 class notes Affects one s health SES socioeconomic status access to heathca re access to safe housing access to health information general quality of access to above lack of quality education lack of empowerment inabiity to advocate access to nutritious food unemployment uneducated parents college health outcome worse for children more likely to be exposed to health and environmental hazards Culture faith based healing general attitudes towards health workers dietary trends how much activity sedentary Birthdeath rituas female genital mutilation FGM famin structurerelationships substance abuse mental health not acknowledged Religion circumcision dietary restrictions blood transfusion faith based healing substance abuse Factors regarding in uencing health behaviors 1 Enabling norms a becomes a cultural thing b what we think 2 Enforcing patterns of social control a incorporation of laws and policies b idea of consequence more than in the social aspect c has more to do with the legal rami cations 3 Providing or not providing opportunities for people to engage healthyunhealthy behaviors 4 reducing or producing stress ways that we can mitigate usualy refer to collegiate population Upstream factors are grounded in social policies usually depends on the elected in of ce and may change collective effort to change policies Downstream factors directly involve behavioral alteration you and individual and you are trying to help the person address smoking for example Mainstream factors relationship between a person and a group the most costeffective looking at how that individual relates to a particular groups Theories to know for exam 1Stages of change theory an individual level theory a precontemplation iindividual has no idea hisher behavior is a problemunaware he is engaging in an unhealthy behavior bcontemplation ihas a more heightened sense of knowing his or her behavior may be unhealthy c preparation iacknowledging and thinks maybe they should get help getting doctor card d action i active decision to refrain from action e maintenance i idea that individual has eliminated behavior and decided to not doing it anymore and able to maintain not engaging in behavior for a greater than six month period f relapse i Almost inevitable returning to previous action and has to start the process over again Model doesn39t take into consideration that we are at different stages and doesn39t take into account any external factors used for alcohol weight watchers cigarettes not linear feb 112015 review various times of preventions primary prevention occurs before onset of disease quality carehome secondary prevention occurs during early stages of disease primarily deals with screening challenge here is the followup tertiary prevention management of disease 4 p39s of social marketing Product promotion Price Place Diffusion of innovation theory bell curve similar to stages of change theory innovators make about 25 of population early adopters 135 early majority 34 Late majority34 laggers 10 time frame between early majority 3 months and late majority up to a year using innovators highly revered or popular group to implement intervention feb 18 Is there a right to health care in the United States Fundamentally no right to health care If you are basing it on the constitution no right to health care 0 Police power authority of states to pass legislation for the common good 0 Interstate commerce clause a mandate that provides the federal government to spend tax and regulate interstate commerce ocal government as well 0 negative constitution 0 US Constitution allows but does not require governments to act to protect public health or to provide healthcare services referred to as the negative Constitution 0 Individual Rights 0 two ways health care is looked at in us social justice equal distribution of care as a social responsibility everyone is entitled to basic care ability to pay is inconsequential implies that the government plays a signi cant role in health care market system less emphasis on collective good views health care as economic good based on one39s ability to pay assumes free market conditions for health care delivery individual responsibility for health emphasis on individual well being No duty principle health care providers do not have an obligation to provide care IRB came to be to monitor what happens to people in certain trials after Tuskegee informed decision physician or provider telling you what they are going to do to you informed consent you are told things that will happen to you you read and approve sign document shared decision making occur between you and a provider you both decide on care and treatment
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