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Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Margaret Guenther

Exam 1 Study Guide SOC-S 100

Margaret Guenther
Introduction to Sociology
Eric Wright

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Study guide for the first exam.
Introduction to Sociology
Eric Wright
Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Margaret Guenther on Friday February 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOC-S 100 at Indiana University taught by Eric Wright in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 82 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology at Indiana University.

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Date Created: 02/20/15
Sociology 100 Section 22650 Exam 1 Study Guide Introduction to Sociology C Wright Mills the idea that the individual can understand his own experience and gauge his own fate only by locating himself within his period p 5 Wanted to understand how an average person in the US understood an average day of his life Thought everyone lives in a small orbit so our worldview is limited by our social situations of everyday life ie family small groups we re a part of school ever dorm life He argued that we need to overcome our limited perspective by having sociological imagination Sociological Imagination the application of imaginative thought to the asking amp answering of sociological questions Someone using the sociological imagination thinks himself away from the familiar routines of daily life Social Structure the underlying regularities or patterns in how people behave and in their relationships with one another Social Construction an idea or practice that a group of people agree exists It is maintained over time by people taking its existence for granted 0 Example college administration system criteria for admission has shifted depending on the historical amp demographic trends as well as changes in university leadership One purpose of sociology is to disentangle what is biological from what is socially constructed 0 Sex vs Gender Sex of a child biological and the gender child being a boy or a girl Gender is socially constructed and sex is biological 0 An idea or practice that a group of people agree exists 0 Maintained over time by people taking its existence for granted 0 What people think and do are products of culture and history Socialization the social processes through which children develop an awareness of social norms amp values amp achieve a distinct sense of self Although socialization processes are particularly significant in infancy amp childhood they continue to some degree throughout life No individuals are immune from the reactions of others around them which in uence amp modify their behavior at all phases of the life course 0 An explanation for social order 0 Norms re ect divisions of power amp class Structure and Agency 0 Agencies behaviors what we want to do with our lives 0 Structure policies things that exist without just one person doing the constraining 0 Social Constraint hold people back money social class constrains our agencies Social norms Rules of conduct that specify appropriate behavior in a given range of social situations A norm either prescribes a given type of behavior or forbids it All human groups follow definite norms which are always backed by sanctions of one kind or another varying from informal disapproval to physical punishment Social Theory Karl Marx The main dynamic of modern development is the expansion of capitalism Rather than being cohesive society is divided by class differences Marx believed that we must study the divisions within a society that are derived from the economic inequalities of capitalism Max Weber The main dynamic of modern development is the rationalism of social and economic life 0 Weber focused on why Western societies developed so differently from other societies Also he emphasized the importance of cultural ideas and values on social change 0 Symbolic Interactionism exchanges of symbols through social interaction Emile Durkheim Study of suicide examined the anomie that comes when social constraints break down during periods of social change 0 The main dynamic of modern development in the division of labor as a basis for social cohesion and organic solidarity o Durkheim believed that sociology must study social facts as things just as science would analyze the natural world His study of suicide led him to stress the important in uence of social factors qualities of a society external to the individual on a person s actions Durkheim argued that society exerts social constraint over our actions Metatheory MetatheoryTheoretical Perspective general thoughts of why things happen meta beyond far away Grand Theory theory of everything uncommon why do social movements happen Theories of the Middle Range common why do social groups start Social Interaction Norms rules of conduct that specify appropriate behavior in a given range of social situations 0 Different expectations in different situations Mead s Development of the Self 0 Taking the role of the other 1 Play Taking the role of one other person catch 2 The Game understanding the expectations of a specific group baseball 3 The Generalized Other ability to understand the expectations has put on us as a whole coming into class sitting down etc Lareaa Two Parenting Styles 0 Accomplishment of Natural Growth 0 Working classpoor families 0 Kids are kids parents are parents 0 Not encouraging of questioning 0 Single activity over the year 0 Converted Cultivation 0 Middle Class 0 Negotiation instead of violencedirectives 0 Multiple activities 0 Encourage questionings 0 Childhood as preadulthood Social Reproduction through socialization we teach our children our own norms amp values Erving Goffman 0 Front Stage Servers cashiers 0 Back Stage Back of House dish food prep Impression Management Preparing for the presentation of one s social role Giddens et al 1 10 Organizations and Institutions Organizations A large group of individuals with a definite set of authority relations Many types of organizations exist in industrialized societies but not all are bureaucratic p 139 Informal vs Formal Organizations 0 Country Time Lemonade Formal 0 Looking to reach a set amount of profit 0 CEO CFO Managers employees Division of Labor 0 Kid s Lemonade Stand Informal o Wanting a profit to buy a toy etc 0 One or two people working the stand and making lemonade Institutions Any structure or mechanism of social order governing the behavior of a set of individuals within a given community Institutions identify with a social purpose transcending individuals and intentions by mediating the rules that govern living behavior Examples of Institutions 0 Education IU is an organization 0 The FamilyMarriage one unit of a family is an organization 0 Religion medicine the legal system military mass media league of nonprofit organizations Bureaucracy Max Weber 0 Explicit hierarchy of authority 0 Bureaucracy depends on this formal structure of hierarchy o Rationalization encompasses all of the past formal policies the rules exist for the rules sake o The Iron Cage of rationality when the red tape becomes so strict you feel trapped 0 Three Strikes Law Law saying if you commitare convicted of three crimes of varying types you can be sentenced to a higher amount of time o Mandatory minimal sentencing o Removes leeway when a judge decides sentencing 0 Judge can t do anything Health and Illness Health Disease Biomedical conditions that lead you to feel bad 0 Example u aids cancer Illness You feeling bad Sickness The social component of ill health Sick role A term associated with the functionalist Talcott Parsons to describe the patterns of behavior that a sick person adopts in order to minimize the disruptive impact of his illness on others 0 Three Versions I Conditional Sick Role Applies to individuals suffering from a temporary condition that ultimately will be cured Expected to get well and receives some rights and privileges according to the severity of the illness Ex Someone with bronchitis would get more privileges than someone with a common cold I Unconditionally Legitimate Sick Role Refers to individuals who are suffering from incurable terminal illnesses Automatically entitled to occupy the sick role because the sick person cannot do anything to get well I Illegitimate Sick Role Applies when an individual suffers from a disease or condition that is stigmatized by others There is a sense that the individual may be partially responsible for the illness additional rights and privileges are not necessarily granted Ex HIVAIDS some patients may be held responsible for their condition and possibly judged negatively for having engaged in highrisk behaviors unprotected sex or the use of unclean needles Pediatric AIDS patients are perceived to be innocent victims and spared stigmatization Family and the Life Course Nuclear family A family group consisting of a wife a husband or one of these and dependent children Extended family A family group consisting of more than two generations of relatives living either within the same household or very close to one another Monogamy A form of marriage in which each married partner is allowed only one spouse at any given time Polygamy A form of marriage in which a person may have two or more spouses simultaneously Polyandry A form of marriage in which a woman may simultaneously have two or more husbands Polygyny A form of marriage in which a man may simultaneously have two or more W1ves Additional Readings Mills The Sociological Imagination Schuman Sense and Nonsense Annette Lareau 0 Concerted Cultivation o Accomplishment of natural growth Hochschild Emotional Geography of Work Gladwell Small Change Origins of Of ce speak 0 Jargon 0 What does jargon tell us about organizations 0 Basic Stages of organizational development


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