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GSU / Sociology / SOCI 1160 / What does benevolent sexism mean?

What does benevolent sexism mean?

What does benevolent sexism mean?


School: Georgia State University
Department: Sociology
Course: Introduction to Social Problems
Professor: Mindy stombler
Term: Summer 2015
Cost: 25
Name: SOCI Exam 4 Readings Notes
Description: These notes summarize the articles we had to read for the Final: Exam 4
Uploaded: 04/21/2016
6 Pages 161 Views 13 Unlocks

Exam 4 Readings

What does benevolent sexism mean?

The Problem When Sexism Just Sounds So Darn Friendly ∙ 2 diff. types of sexism: hostile sexism (negative attitudes toward  women), and benevolent sexism (interrelated attitudes toward women  that are sexist but positive feeling in tone)

∙ Benevolent sexism= positive orientation of protection, idealization,  and affection that propels women’s subordinate status to men ∙ Yvonne Brill= rocket scientist who invented a propulsion system to  keep communications satellites from slipping out of their orbits whose  obituary pegged her accomplishments as an after note to her motherly duties

∙ Hostile and benevolent sexism tend to correlate highly across nations;  those who endorsed benevolent sexism also held hostile attitudes  toward women

How are hostile and benevolent sexism related to each other?

∙ Benevolent sexism was a significant predictor of nationwide gender  inequality: places were benevolent sexism was endorsed men lived  longer, had higher literacy rates, made more money, and were more  involved in politics and economics

∙ In experiments women were exposed to statements of hostile sexism  and benevolent, and were found to be less willing to take anti-sexist  action when reading benevolent

∙ System justification= process by which people justify the status quo  & believe that disadvantaged groups no longer face problems

Detours on the Road to Equality  If you want to learn more check out How do you estimate population density by sampling?

∙ Female Jobs: secretaries/ administrative assistants= 99% female, child  care workers= 98% female, registered nurses= 93% female; Male jobs: carpenters/plumbers/electricians= 3% female, mechanics and  repairers= 5% female

What is the system justification tendency?

∙ Gender segregation of work is the concentration of men and women in  diff. jobs

∙ Women make up half of law, medicine, management students, but few  have reached high positions in those fields as men have; women’s jobs tend to be paid less

∙ Women in emotionally demanding jobs suffer from burnout, while  women in male-dominated fields often feel isolated Don't forget about the age old question of What are the three elements that make up music?

∙ Women in traditionally female occupations often lack the co-worker  support they need to succeed, they work hours that lets their husband  be the breadwinner, and their family/friends often don’t support a  new/unconventional occupation

∙ Hiring discrimination: the more expensive the restaurant, the fewer the women servers. In high-priced restaurants women= 35% less likely  than men to get an interview and 40% less likely to get a job offer

∙ Comparable worth= the idea of equalizing pay for the same work  and for work of comparable value We also discuss several other topics like What are acts?

∙ Index of dissimilarity= measures the proportion of women who  would have to change fields in order to be represented across types of  occupations in the same way men are

∙ Surge in women’s education: 1) low wages made in unskilled  women’s jobs don’t offer living wage, 2)by seeking specific credentials  women gain some protection against hiring discrimination, 3) the  educational credentials women get are segregated, which limits the  financial returns they can expect We also discuss several other topics like What is maria on the moon made of?

∙ Proposals to reduce the segregation: enforcement of anti discrimination laws, training programs targeting highly gendered fields, broad consideration of the value of women’s work, restructure working  to make jobs parent-friendly

Mass Shootings and masculinity 

∙   Privileged groups like young white men losing power= a sense of  aggrieved entitlement (associated with women and racial  minorities)

∙   “Suicide by mass murder”= mass shooter (men) usually end their  spree by suicide

∙   gun control laws are a huge part of the problem w/ mass shootings; of at least 69 mass shootings in the last 3 decades, 68 of were  committed by males

∙   Gun advocates use Switzerland and Israel’s low homicide rate and  large access to firearms to argue that more guns do not lead to  more violence If you want to learn more check out What are the psychological changes in the elderly?

∙   Gun laws are stricter and guns have other use (as opposed to  handguns) in foreign countries

∙   Men are more likely to commit mass shootings because 1) “social  identity threat”, “masculine overcompensation thesis”, 2)”angry  white men” where perceived loss of privilege and superiority results  in backlash

Lean in Dad 

∙ In the U.S. women are majority of college grads and advanced-degree  holders, but any are underemployed due to lack of paid maternity  leave and work flexibility

∙ European Union mandated that all member countries allow men and  women to request flexible hours in addition to paid leave; other  countries have high-quality childcare and enables working-age women  to be active in the work force

∙ 15-20% of productivity growth in U.S. over last 5 decades has come  from groups like women into occupations like doctors and lawyers

∙ potential paternity leave to challenge gender roles  Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of amniocentesis?

Families facing untenable solutions 

o 7/10 women are working mothers and work in low paying, demanding  jobs

o “second shift”= women’s juggling of work and family demands o service, retail, care work jobs pay $8-$12/ hour and usually come with  irregular schedules, unpredictable hours, low flexibility

o “cliff effect”=the smallest wage increase can result in los of housing,  healthcare, food stamps from the welfare system

o 3 themes that stand out in low-income families: 1)  inflexible/unpredictable work schedules impacts mother’s ability for  family care, 2) stigma low-income mothers face when they don’t meet  middle class norms of family first, 3)how the norms of major social  institutions demand mothers/children to make untenable choices

o many working mothers forced to leave kids in self-care- 2 fears: harm  could come to the children and CPS would find out

o middle class working moms- operating in world of hurried childhood  where there’s emphasis on academic and social wins; low-income  moms- operating in world of adultified childhood where children help in the heavy lifting of family survival

Unmarried with children 

∙ in 1950 only 1/20 kids was born to an unmarried mother, but now its  1/3

∙ the book Promises I can Keep: Why Poor Women Put Motherhood  Before Marriage the lives of 162 low-income single mothers from  Camden were discussed  

∙ promoting marriage among the poor has become the new war on  poverty; the correlation between marital status and child poverty is  strong

∙ more than 7/10 women w/ children outside of marriage will wed  someone; but the poor have little motivation to time their births ∙ most young mothers believe that their children “saved” them because  it gave their life purpose; children provide social-psychological  resources  

∙ for the poor, marriage is seen as a goal for someone who can support a “white picket fence” lifestyle

∙ mistrust is often spawned by chronic violence and infidelity, drug and alcohol abuse,  criminal activity, and the threat of imprisonment. I 

∙ the convictions that marriage is forever makes poor mothers think  divorce is worse than having a baby outside of marriage

Fighting Back

∙ Maryland has had success in reducing their domestic violence homicide rate by 40% by training officers to use specific screening questions  (lethality screen)

∙ Grassroots movement created protection in the forms of shelters, gun  restrictions for abusers, protection orders, and the U.S. first federal  anti-domestic violence legislation Violence Against Women Act (VAWA)

∙ Overall homicide rates have decreased but victims of domestic  violence have been killed at a constant rate for 15 years

∙ Between 40-50% of female homicide victims are killed by their  husbands, exes, boyfriends; only about half of these cases had police  altered to their previous cases

∙ Era of the “Burning Bed”= nearly as many men (victim AND abuser)  died from domestic violence as women

∙ “Danger assessment” for advocates who deal with abused women to  determine “high-risk” cases; history of hitting partner, choking partner, unemployed men had a higher risk of killing their women

∙ to some people VAWA has a broad definition of violence  

Bonding from Behind Bars 

∙ Because of harsh drug laws and mandatory minimum sentencing, our  prison population has almost quadruples over the past 30 years ∙ U.S. houses more of its citizens in jail than the top 35 European  countries combined; of the estimated 2.3 million inmates in jail, more  than ½ are parents of minors

∙ Blacks kids in poverty are 7 ½ times more likely than white kids to  experience incarceration of a parent

∙ Children of jailed parents are at high risk of serious behavioral  problems, doing bad in school or dropping out, substance misuse,  trouble with the law

∙ 2/3 of prisoners are nonviolent offenders

Environmental Inequalities 

∙ Impact POC, working class, immigrants, and indigenous communities;  many people share their neighborhoods with hazardous waste, toxic  incinerators, and health-threatening chemical contamination

∙ Environmental racism= uneven exposure to environmental risks and hazards along with systematic exclusion from environmental decision making processes

∙ the causes are social and political rather than environmental; gender,  age, class, indigeneity, immigration status/ citizenship play roles too ∙ study on environmental inequality in 1983 examined racial make-up of  communities near 4 major hazardous landfills: ¾were mostly Black ∙ Environmental justice= all ppl and communities deserve equal  protection by environmental health laws and regulations

∙ 2 examples in Chicago: “the Toxic Doughnut” results in blacks  reporting asthma, COPD, skin rashes, cancer from chemicals in the air  & Pilsen and Little Village are mostly Latino and had premature deaths, heart attacks, asthma attacks

∙ Executive Order 12898= develop & implement plans against env.  inequalities  

∙ Clean Power Coalition formed to make Chicago a coal-free city  ∙ Environmental inequalities are explained by economics and  discrimination

o Economic: there’s a need to generate goods, which requires lots  of energy and expansion (creation of wealth AND negative  byproducts) those with little power, voice, and money are  affected by the byproducts

o Discrimination: many whites see blacks as a form of pollution,  which makes it morally easier to pollute already “polluted”  communities  

The Extraordinary Science of Addictive Junk Food 

∙ Topic at the conference with top food companies: the emerging obesity epidemic and how to deal with it

∙ Salt, sugar, Fat= 3 main ingredients that make us crave ∙ 1/3 of American adults were considered obese (1/5 of the adults are  obese) 24million have diabetes and 79 million have pre-diabetes ∙ Mudd proposed that the food industry use scientific expertise to  understand what causes Americans to overeat

∙ “line extension”= spinoffs of a certain product(i.e. Dr. Pepper’s  variables of cherry, vanilla, and Dr. Pepper flavoring)

∙ Dr. Moskowitz- product optimization= food engineers alter variables in  a product to find the most perfect version to appeal to customers  (“bliss point)

∙ Optimization of Prego sauce- Americans tested with plain sauce, spicy  sauce, chunky sauce resulted in large production of chunky sauce;  LOTS OF SUGAR

∙ “mouth feel”= how a product interacts with the mouth ∙ Lunchables born to benefit working moms who had little time to make  healthy lunches; full of salt, sugar, and fat company responses to  critiques say that kids don’t eat Lunchables everyday

∙ Coke extended marketing to poor and vulnerable areas of U.S.--> big  consumers called “heavy users”

o “How can we drive more ounces into more bodies more often?” o marketing in poor Brazilian favelas by making smaller, more  affordable bottles for 20 cents

∙ Dunn used to work for Coca Cola but got fired for speaking up against  unhealthy ingredients; began working for a carrot company “Eat Em  Like Junk Food”

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