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Flashcards / general computing terms

general computing terms

general computing terms

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Algorithm

A special method for solving a specific kind of problem

Application Software

Software that performs a specific data=processing function

Backup

Copying or saving data to a secure location to prevent loss of data in the event of a disaster

Bluetooth

A technical industry standard that facilitates communication between wireless devices such as personal digital assistants, handheld computers, and wireless enabled laptop computers or desktop computers

Booting

Everything that happens between the time the computer is turned on, performs the operations necessary to get all components functioning, and the operating system loaded

Central Processing Unit (CPU)

Brain of the computer that performs instructions defined by software

Compact Disk (CD)

Portible and tranferable read-write or read-only data storage device. Sometimes called a CD-ROM, CD-RW, or compact disk. Capacity is 1-8 gigabytes of data. Optical drive unit is required to read-write data from the disk

Cyberspace

Reference to the nonphysical space of binary computer communication

Data Storage Device

Device capable of permanently or temporarily storing digital data

Data Storage Memory

Permanent memory not part of the motherboard. Uses any suitable data storage device. Can be read-only or read-write type of memory

Defragmentation

Reorganization of information of a hard disk to store files as continuous units rather than as small packets. A computer with little fragmentation of files operate at a higher speed

Digital Video/Versatile Disk (DVD)

An optical disk that holds 4.7 to 9.0 gigabytes of data depending on the format

Documentation

sometimes known as the manual

Driver

Computer program designed to convert data output from one device to a format compatible with another device

Ergonomics

Scientific study of work and space, including factors that influence worker productivity and that affect workers' health

Ethernet

References the networking of computers using metallic conductors or hard wires

Firewall

Hardware device or software program designed to prevent unauthorized access to a computer system

Flash Drive

Solid-state data storage device

Hard Drive

Non-volatile storage device that stores digitally encoded data on rapidly rotating rigid disks with magnetic surfaces. The capacity is approximately 100 GB. The device is either permanently installed within the computer case or can be portable

Hardware

Physical equipment used by the computer system to process data

Hard-Wired Network

Networks connected by metallic conductors or cables

Input Device

A device used to input data into a computer

Internet

The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless and optical networking technologies

License

Permission statement authorizing the use of copyrighted computer software

Local Area Network (LAN)

Network of computers usually in one office or building

Magnetic Disk Drives

Memory storage device that uses the magnetic state of ferrous coating to record data

Mainframe Computer

Large computer system capable of processing massive volumes of data

Memory

Refers to storage of computer data. Can be volatile (lost when computer is turned off) or nonvolatile (permanently written to storage device)

Microcomputer

Personal or desktop computer

Minicomputer

larger than a microcomputeer and smaller than a mainframe

Motherboard

Printed circuit board on which the CPU, ROM, and RAM chips and other electronic circuit elements of a digital computer are frequently located

Network Interface

Software, servers, and cable connections used to link computers

Networking

Connecting two or more computers together to share files and hardware

Operating System (OS)

Software used to control the computer and its peripheral equipment

Output Device

A device used to output data from a computer. Includes printers, faxes, data storage drivers, screens, and plotters

Patch

Modification to software to fix deficiencies in the software. Frequently downloaded from the software supplier's Web site or from floppy disks provided by the supplier

Personal Computer (PC)

Any computer whose price, size, and capabilities make it useful for individuals to use with no intervening computer operator

Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)

An electronic tool for organizing data, a handheld computerized personal organizer device

Phishing

To try to obtain financial or other confidential information from Internet users, typically by sending an e-mail that looks as if it is from a legitimate organization, usually a financial institution, but contains a link to a fake Web site that replicates the real one.

Random Access Memory (RAM)

A type of computer memory that can be written to and read from. RAM usually pertains to the internal memory of a computer. RAM is usually a fast, temporary memory area where data and programs reside until saved or until the power is turned off

Read-Only Memory

Permanently stored computer data that cannot be overwritten without special devices. Store instructions required to start uo the computer. Located on the motherboard

Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID)

A data storage scheme that uses multiple hard drives to share or replicate data among the drives

Server

Computer with massive hard drive capacity that is used to link other computers together so that data can be shared by multiple users. A computer system in an ambulatory care facility is likely linked or networked with a central server

Software

Equivalent of a computer program or programs

Supercomputer

Fastest, largest, and most expensive of the four classes of computers currently being manufactured

Surge Protection

Protection of the fragile electronics from spikes in electrical voltage that occur on electric distribution lines

System Software

Software used to control the computer and its peripheral equipment

Tape Drive

Data storage device that uses magnetic tape as the storage media

Total Practice Management System (TPMS)

A category of software that deals with all the day-to-day operations of a medical practice

Universal Serial Bus (USB) Port

A type of data entry portal or bus for computer data

Wide Area Network (WAN)

Connecting together of computers on a large area for the purpose of sharing data

WiFi Connections

Connection via a universal wireless network standard that uses radio waves

Wireless Local Area Connection (WLAN)

A type of local area network that uses high-frequency radio waves rather than wires to communicate between nodes

Wireless Network

Any type of computer network that is not connected by cables of any kind