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Research Unit 2 Vocabulary

by: Alyssa Steves

Research Unit 2 Vocabulary HD 310

Marketplace > Washington State University > HD 310 > Research Unit 2 Vocabulary
Alyssa Steves
GPA 2.94
Research Approaches to Human Development
Noriko Porter

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Unit 2, Chapters 5-7 of textbook including vocabulary and theory analysis
Research Approaches to Human Development
Noriko Porter
Study Guide
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alyssa Steves on Friday February 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HD 310 at Washington State University taught by Noriko Porter in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views.


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Date Created: 02/20/15
Methods Unit 2 Ch 57 CHAPTER 5 o alternate forms reliability 0 p 102 0 assessment of reliability by administering two different forms of the same measure to the same individuals at two points in time 0 concurrent validity o p 108 o the construct validity of a measure is assessed by examining whether groups of people differ on the measure in expected ways 0 construct validity o p 105 o the degree to which a measurement device accurately measures the theoretical construct it is designed to measure 0 content validity o p 107 0 an indicator of construct validity of a measure in which the content of the measure is compared to the universe of content that defines the construct o convergent validity o p 108 o the construct validity of a measure is assessed by examining the extent to which scores on the measure are related to scores on other measures of the same construct or similar constructs o Cronbach s alpha 0 p 103 0 an indicator of internal consistency reliability assessed by examining the average correlation of each item question in a measure with every other ques on o discriminantvalidity o p109 0 the construct validity of a measure is assessed by examining the extent to which scores on the measure are not related to scores on conceptually unrelated measures 0 face validity o p 107 o the degree to which a measurement device appears to accurately measure a variable 0 internal consistency reliability 0 p p 103 o reliability assessed with data collected at one point in time with multiple measures of a psychological construct A measure is reliable when the multiple measures provide similar results interrater reliability 0 p 104 0 an indicator of reliability that examines the agreement of observations made by two or more raters judges interval scale 0 p 111 o a scale of measurement in which the intervals between numbers on the scale are all equal in size itemtotal correlation o p 104 o the correlation between scores on individual items with the total score on all items of a measure measurement error 0 p 100 o the degree to which a measurement deviates from the true score value nominal scale 0 p 110 o a scale of measurement with two or more categories that have no numerical less than greater than properties ordinal scale 0 p 111 o a scale of measurement in which the measurement categories form a rank order along a continuum Pearson productmoment correlation coefficient 0 p 102 o a type of correlation coefficient used with interval and ratio scale data in addition to providing information on the strength of relationship between two variables it indicates the direction positive or negative of the relationship predictive validity o p 108 o the construct validity of a measure is assessed by examining the ability of the measure to predict a future behavior ratio scale 0 p 112 o a scale of measurement in which there is an absolute zero point indicating an absence of the variable being measured An implication is that ratios of numbers on the scale can be formed generally these are physical measures such as weight or timed measures such as duration or reaction time o reactivity o p 109 o a problem of measurement in which the measure changes the behavior being observed 0 reliability 0 p 100 o the degree to which a measure is consistent o splithalf reliability 0 p 103 o a reliability coefficient determined by the correlation between scores on half of the items on a measure with scores on the other half of a measure 0 testretest reliability 0 p 102 o a reliability coefficient determined by the correlation between scores on a measure given at one time with scores on the same measure given at a later time 0 true score 0 p 100 0 an individual s actual score on a variable being measured as opposed to the score the individual obtained on the measure itself 0 measurement scales table 52 p 110 0 Nominal I categories with no numeric scales I impossible to define any quantitative values andor differences betweenacross categories I ex malesfemales introverts extroverts college majors o ordinal I rank ordering numeric values limited I intervals between items not known I ex twothree and fourstar restaruants ranking tv programs based on popularity star rating scheme 0 interval I numeric properties are literal assume equal interval between values I no true zreo I ex intelligence aptitude test score temperature Fahrenheit or Celsius I zero indicates absence of variable measured I can form ratios someone wieghs twice as much as another person I reaction time weight age frequencies of behaviors physical measures such as time reaction time rate of responding and duration of response 0 indicators of a contrsuct validity of a measure 0 table 51 p 106 c three strategies for assessing reliablity 0 figure 52 p 104 o testretest reliability I a measure is taken two times the correlation of a score at time 1 with the score at time 2 represents testretest reliability called alternate forms reliabiity when two forms of teh measure are used 0 internal consistency reliability I Cronbach s alpha correlation of each item on teh measure iwth every other item on the measure is the cronbach s alpha reliability coefficient I splithalf reliability the correlation of total score on half of a measure with teh score on the other half of the measure represents splithalf reliability 0 interrater reliability I evidence for reliability is present when multiple raters agree in their observations of the same thing Cohen s kappa is a commonly used indicator of interrater reliabilty CHAPTER 6 o archival research 0 p 126 o the use of existing sources of information for research Sources include statistical records survey archives and written records 0 case study 0 p 125 o a descriptive account of the behavior past history and other relevant factors concerning a specific individual 0 coding system 0 p 123 o a set of rules used to categorize observations 0 content analysis 0 p 128 o systematic analysis of recorded communications 0 naturalistic observation 0 p 119 o descriptive method in which observations are made in a natural social setting 0 field observation 0 participant observation 0 p 121 o a technique of observing a situation wherein the observer takes an active role in the situation 0 psychobiography o p 125 o a type of case study in which the life of an individual is analyzed using psychological theory 0 reactivity o p 124 o a problem of measurement in which the measure changes the behavior being observed 0 systematic observation 0 p 123 o observations of one or more specific variables usually made in a precisely defined setting CHAPTER 7 o closedended questions 0 p 138 o a limited number of response alternatives are given 0 more structured approach 0 easier to code and the response alternatives are the same for everyone 0 more likely to be used when the dimensions of the variables are well defined 0 cluster sampling 0 p 151 o a probability sampling method in which existing groups or geographic areas called clusters are identified Clusters are randomly sampled and then everyone in the selected clusters participates in the study 0 computerassisted telephone interview CATI o p 145 0 interview system in which the interviewer s questions are prompted on the computer screen and the data are entered directly into the computer for analysis 0 confidence interval 0 p 148 0 an interval of values within which there is a given level of confidence eg 95 where the population value lies 0 facetoface interview 0 p 145 0 interview that requires that the interviewer and respondent meet to conduct the interview 0 the interviewer usually travels to the person s home or office 0 tend to be expensive and therefore used when the sample size is small 0 focus group o p 145 0 an interview with a group of about 6 to 10 individuals brought together for a period of usually 23 hours 0 often selected because they have a particular knowledge or interest in the topic graphic rating scale 0 p 140 0 requires a mark along a continuous 100millimeter line that is anchored with descriptions at each end 0 a ruler is then placed on the line to obtain the score on a scale that ranges from 0100 haphazard convenience sampling 0 p 151 o selecting subjects in a haphazard manner usually on the basis of availability and not with regard to having a representative sample of the population a type of nonprobability sampling interviewer bias 0 p 145 o intentional or unintentional influence exerted by an interviewer in such a way that the actual or interpreted behavior of respondents is consistent with the interviewer s expectations mail survey p 143 surveys that can be mailed to individuals at a home or business address inexpensive way of contacting the people who were selected for the sample a drawback because of potentially low response rates can be easily placed aside and forgotten among all the other tasks that people must attend to at home and work nonprobability sampling 0 p 149 0 type of sampling procedure in which one cannot specify the probability that any member of the population will be included in the sample online survey 0 p 144 o surveys conducted online 0 easy to design a questionnaire for online administration using one of several online survey software services open and closed ended questions can be included the responses are immediately available to the researcher after the questionnaire is completed 0 one study found that online surveys had an 11 lower response rate than other strategies which could directly impact the validity of the data generated by such a survey openended questions 0 p 138 0000 respondents are free to answer in any way they like require time to categorize and code the responses and are therefore more costly to conduct and more difficult to interpret can yield valuable insights into what people are thinking most useful when the researcher needs to know what people are thinking and how they naturally view their world panel study 0 p 146 0 research in which the same sample of subjects is studied at two or more points in time usually to assess changes that occur over time population 0 p 147 o the defined group of individuals from which a sample is drawn probability sampling 0 p 149 0 type of sampling procedure in which one is able to specify the probability that any member of the population will be included in the sample purposive sampling 0 p 152 o a type of haphazard sample conducted to obtain predetermined types of individuals for the sample quota sampling 0 p 152 o a sampling procedure in which the sample is chosen to reflect the numerical composition of various subgroups in the population A haphazard sampling technique is used to obtain the sample random sample 0 p 150 o researchers commonly have a computer randomly generate a list of telephone numbers with the dialing prefixes used for residence in the city or area being studied 0 members of the sample are chosen at random rating scale 0 p 139 0 ask people to provide how much judgments on any number of dimensions amount of agreement liking or confidence 0 have many different formats that depends on factors such as the topic being investigated response rate 0 p 154 o the percentage of people selected for a sample who actually completed a survey response set o p 134 o a pattern of response to questions on a selfreport measure that is not related to the content of the questions 0 sampling 0 p 147 o the process of choosing members of a population to be included in a sample 0 sampling error 0 p 148 0 margin of error 0 when you study one sample the obtained result may deviate from the true population value because of sampling error 0 sampling frame 0 p 154 o the individuals or clusters of individuals in a population who might actually be selected for inclusion in the sample 0 semantic differential scale p 140 a measure of the meaning of concepts that was developed by Osgood and his associates 0 respondents are asked to rate any concept persons objects behaviors ideas on a series of bipolar adjectives using 7point scales 0 virtually anything can be measured using this technique things places people ideas and behaviors 0 concepts are rated along three basic dimensions I evaluation 0 goodbad wisefoolish kindcruel O O I activity 0 activepassive slowfast excitablecalm I potency o weakstrong hardsoft largesmall 0 simple random sampling 0 p 150 o a sampling procedure in which each member of the population has an equal probability of being included in the sample 0 survey research 0 p 133 o employs questionnaires and interviews to ask people to provide information about themselves including attitudes and beliefs demographics age gender income marital status etc and other facts and past or intended future behaviors o telephone interview 0 p 145 0 interviews conducted over the phone and are less expensive than facetoface interviews and they allow data to be collected relatively quickly because many interviewers can work on the same survey at once 0 computerized telephone survey techniques lower the cost of telephone surveys by reducing labor and data analysis costs 0 yeasaying and naysaying o p 137 0 when you ask several questions about a topic a respondent may employ a response set to agree or disagree with all the questions 0 the problem is that the respondent may in fact be expressing true agreement but alternatively may simply be agreeing with anything you say


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