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Study Guide Exam 3

by: Kate Notetaker

Study Guide Exam 3 GEOL1005

Kate Notetaker

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About this Document

Everything you need to know for Exam 3.
Historical Geology
Catherine A. Forster
Study Guide
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kate Notetaker on Thursday April 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEOL1005 at George Washington University taught by Catherine A. Forster in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see Historical Geology in Geology at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 04/21/16
Review  Everything that’s going to be on the exam  Laramide / Sevier orogenies o During the Cenozoic o Forms “basin and range”  Mountain ranges dispersed throughout these basins  Oligocene o Isolation of Antarctica  Severs its connections with South America and Australia  Big climatic affect  Circumpolar current  Antarctica starts cooling down and forms ice  Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) o Big rise in global temperatures o Gets really globally hot o Warmest period in the Cenozoic o Carbon cycle  massive addition of 1C-depleted carbon  Mainly 12C o Deep ocean starts to warmed o Acidification of the ocean o Big extinction of benthic forams  Steady cooling through the end of the Eocene  Big drop by the Oligocene o Steady decline in global temperature  until we get to the Pleistocene o Right now, we are coming out of the last glaciation  Mountains are still being built in the Cenozoic o Rain-shadow effect  moisture gets trapped on one side, the other side dries out  North and South America  Central Asia  Begins to form in the Miocene  Ocean circulation patterns  major driver of climate o Water stores heat very well o Stabilizes atmospheric flow patterns  Pleistocene ice ages o 4 recognized glaciation periods  Wisconsinan  Illinois  Kansan  Nebraskan o Happen at high altitude and large latitudes o To make ice  accumulation exceeds melting  Compacting the snow that falls  becomes ice  With the weight of the continually falling snow, there is pressure applied  Thickness builds o Continental glaciers at the poles themselves  frozen to the ground, base does not move  Getting further south  it is no longer attached to the ground o Temperate continental glaciers  they move, the base is not attached to the ground  A lot of power as it goes by  Incorporates a lot of material into themselves  Unsorted debris o Glaciers are filled with the material that they are scraping up  Unsorted material  till o Till can be piled up and deposited in a number of different ways  Terminal moraine  pile of till deposited at the end of the glacier  Furthest extent of the glacier  Recessional moraine  shows the temporary standstill from the retreat of the glacier  Lateral moraine  forms on the side of the glacier  Ground moraine  as the glacier melts back, the till falls onto the ground o Glaciers advance by moving, it retreats by melting o Outwash  sorts the till, can only carry the fine grained material  Carried by water and is deposited out  outside of the terminal moraine  Tends to be sand and finer material  Lies on top of the ground moraine  comes after  Clays and silts  stuff that will be pulverized by the glacier moving over it  Sometimes called till flour o Clays and silts from the outwash will get picked up by the wind  Deposited elsewhere  Loess  fine grained material that is deposited by the wind o Kettle lakes  incredibly common in areas that have been glaciated  When the big chunks of ice during melting breaks off from the glacier  Gets stuck in the ground moraine  Eventually it will melt and leave a big hole  these often fill with water 16 18  Isotopes  O and O o Fractionation  why the ocean is depleted in 1O during times of glaciation  Paleo Biogeography o Cosmopolitan  very widespread o Endemic  restricted to a small area o You can either:  Evolve in place  Dispersal  range extension, environmental tracking and sweepstakes  Vicariance  geographic barrier/tectonics  Great American Interchange  development of the isthmus of Panama that united North America and South America o Due to tectonics o Big interchange of fauna between North and South America  Erection of mountains/large rivers  Tectonic rifting events o K-Pg extinction  Review what goes extinct  Lose Ammonites, mosasaurs, plesiosaurs, many planktonic forams, lost all dinosaurs except birds  Basically all the big stuff goes extinct  everything large  Appears to be very sudden  Linked to a giant asteroid impact  Review the effects of the asteroid impact  Climate change as well approach the end  Some cooling was happening  Sea level drop o Deccan Traps in India  Huge area of basalts being placed on the surface of the earth  CO 2elease  Comes in three pulses  second pulse begins at the K-Pg boundary o Alverezes  Dinosaurs  arise in the Late Triassic o Most go extinct in the K-Pg boundary  Only one pull through to today  birds o Ornithischia  All herbivores  includes all the armored dinosaurs, horned dinosaurs, etc.  Characterized by a particular type of pubis  Reverted  “opisthopuby” o Saurischia  Theropods  carnivores  All are bipedal  Sauropods  herbivores  All are quadropedal o Character that unites all the dinosaurs  open hip socket  No bone backing the hip socket  dinosaur characteristic that they all share o Getting more information out of the fossils  Growth and growth rates  Reproduction o Theropods  evolves into bird lineage  Cenozoic o Evolution of birds o Big evolution of mammals  Mammals are back on top  Placentals  Marsupials  Monotremes  egg  Multituberculates  extinct in the Oligocene  Eocene-Oligocene  very large mammals start to evolve  Miocene  all modern gps evolved  Ungulates  hooved mammals o Placentals o Rain shadows  forested area to a grass land  Spread of grasses o Adaptations for running  elongation of the lower limbs o Phytoliths  hypsodonty  Silica is hard material and will wear down your teeth  Evolved so that there is more teeth to wear down  Pleistocene animals started to get very large o In response to the cold o A lot of them:  Put on a lot of fur  Reduce the size of their extremities  Size  surface to volume ratio  Do a review of La Brea


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