Complex Carbohydrates (pgs, 258; (296-297); (541-542); (611-616); (803-805)
1. Fiber = Food that our digestive enzymes cannot break down.
a) Sources: vegetables (cellulose and lignin), fruits, wheat bran
b) 2 types of fiber
i) Soluble: Makes intestinal contents thicker; slowing absorption ii) Insoluble: Provides bulk in intestinal contents, thus making bowel movement easier
2. Sugar Preserves: Increasing the sugar content
a) Sugar eliminates moisture; no bacterial formation
b) Pectin = Long chains of sugar-like subunits in the cell walls of plants i) Restoring pectin
1) Add sugar to reduce water content
2) Boil mixture to further condense
3) Increase the acidity to bond pectin chains together (lemon)
a) Staling = Loss of moisture causes dry, crumbly, and hard bread. i) Reheating reverses staling
ii) Avoid the refrigerator because loses moisture in cold temperatures. b) Spoilage
i) Don’t keep bread at room temperature in a plastic bag because it allows moisture to collect on surfaces. If you want to learn more check out What is rule 201 all about?
4. Starch: Long chains of glucose linked together
a) Amylose: long straight chains
b) Amylopectin: short, branched, bushy chains
c) Thickening: Granules leak amylose and amylopectin into the surrounding liquid
i) Cooling: longer amylose chains form stable bonds among We also discuss several other topics like What is the probability that a pregnancy in this group of women will result in a congenital malformation?
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d) Thinning: Granules break by increased acidity
i) Oligosaccharides: several unit sugars
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1) Starch: a chain of glucose sugars
2) Pectins: Jelly-like cement, used to thicken fruit syrups into
jams and jellies.
3) Gums: Thickening and gelling liquid foods and produce