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Psych final

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by: Allie McLaughlin

Psych final Psych 420

Allie McLaughlin
GPA 3.2

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These notes cover all the notes for the final.
Developmental Psychology
Ms. Guy
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 29 page Study Guide was uploaded by Allie McLaughlin on Thursday April 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 420 at University of South Carolina taught by Ms. Guy in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 04/21/16
Chapter 11: physical and cognitive development in adolescent  Hormones and puberty  Increased release of GH and thyroxine  Increased release of sex hormones - Boys: androgens; testosterone - Girls: estrogen and adrenal androgens  Sex differences on Growth  Growth spurt - B= 12.5-17.5 years - G=10-16 years  Proportions - B= shoulders broaden, legs lengthen - G=hips broaden  Muscle-fat makeup - B= increase in muscle - G= increase in fat  Sexual maturation  Primary sexual characteristics - Maturation of reproductive organs - G= menarche - B= spermarche  Secondary sexual sex characteristics - Visual changes that signal sexual maturation - G= breasts - B= voice change, facial hair - Both= underarm, pubic hair  Reactions to puberty  Education - Changes since 1950s  Culture - View as milestone - Tribal ceremonies  Adolescent brain development  Synaptic pruning continues….prefrontal cortex… advances in: attention, planning, integrating info, self regulation  Expansion of synaptic connections/ myelination….link cortical regions… advances in: attention, planning, integrating info, self regulation  Neurotransmitter response changes….more sensitive to excitatory messages…increased responsiveness to: stress and pleasure  Sleep habits  Need about 9 hours of sleep but go to bed later - Phase delay - Social habits  Lack of sleep - Depressed mood - Poor school achievement - High risk behavior  Parent child relationships  More conflict, less closeness - Mundane issues  Similar across N.A subcultures - Adaptive value….prepare adolescents for independence  Gender differences - Girls more conflict  Timing of puberty  Early maturing  Girls: - Less popular, withdrawn, low confidence - More deviant behavior - Negative body image  Boys: - Popular, confident, independent - Positive body image  Late maturing  Girls: popular, sociable - Positive body image  Boys: unpopular, anxious, attention seeking - Negative body image  Reactions to timing of puberty  Cultural ideas of attractiveness - Girls: thinner, smaller - Boys: bigger  Fitting in with peers - Prefer similar level of physical maturity  Nutrition in adolescence  Calorie need increased  Poor food common: - Skipping breakfast - Eating fast food  Family meals associated with healthier diet  Risk of eating disorders  Increased with: - Early puberty - Home environment stressing weight and thinness  Anorexia Nervosa  Starvation due to compulsive fear of becoming fat - Lose 25-50% of body weight - Approx. 1% of teenage girls affected - 10% of cases male  Increase body hair, brain damage, bone mass loss are results  Body dismorphia: see body as being different then actually looks in reality  Genetic influence….monozygotic twins more likely to share compared to dizygotic twins  Means of rebellion...controlling parents  Treatment= difficult - Family therapy, medication, behavioral modification - Only 50% recover - 6% die  Bulimia Nervosa  Binge and purge cycle  Strict diet and exercise  2-4% of teenage girls  Treatment: support groups, education, medication  Genetic influence….monozygotic twins more likely to share compared to dizygotic twins  Adolescent sexuality  North American cultures - Attitudes relatively restrictive - More liberal in past 40 yrs, conservative in past 10 yrs - Little discussion between parents and adolescents - Info gathered from friends, media, and internet  Characteristics of Sexually Active Adolescents  Personal - Early puberty, impulsivity, weak sense of personal control  Family - Step/single parent, or large family - Weak monitoring, poor communication  Peer - Sexually active friends/family  Educational - Poor performances, low educational goals  Adolescents and STDS  STD rates high in adolescence - Especially high in US 1/5-6 sexually active teens affected  AIDS most serious - Manifest 8-10 years later  Education improving  Adolescent contraceptive use  Recent increase in use  Still 20% do not use  Reasons for not using: - Concern about image - Adolescent risk taking - Social environment - Forced intercourse  Teen pregnancies  US has second highest rates  727,000 in last year - 12,00 younger than 15  ¼ end in abortion  87% to unwed mothers  Risks for teen mothers  Less educational achievement  More time as single parents across lifetime  Decreased marriage rate  Economic problems  Pregnancy and birth complications  Lack of parenting skills  Prevention strategies  More sex education  Skills for handling sexual situations  Promoting abstinence  Info and access to contraceptives  Academic and social competence  School involvement  Homosexuality  2-3% LGBT  Genetics - MZ vs. DZ twins - X-linked in males possibly  Early experience - Girls: high prenatal androgen/estrogen exposure - Boys: older brothers  Sequence of coming out: - 6-12 years: report feeling different - 11-15 years: experience confusion - End of adolescence: self-acceptance o Adolescent Substance Abuse  By 10 grade - 33% tried cigarettes - 58% tried drinking - 37% at least one illegal drug  At end of high school - 11% smoke cigarettes regularly - 27% recent heavy drinking - 25% highly addictive/ toxic drug use  Decline since 1990s o Substance Use vs. Abuse  Minimal experimenters - Dabble in drug use - Not at risk of addiction  Substance abusers - Younger at 1 use - Use drugs regularly - Require increasing amount/ harder substance to achieve same effect  Impact of adolescent drug use  Impair brain development  Fail to learn effective coping strategies  Increased anxiety, depression, antisocial behavior  Earlier to enter “adult” world and more likely to fail  Prevention and treatment  Prevention programs - Teach skills to resist peer pressure - Reduce social acceptability of drugs - Emphasize health and safety  Interventions - Prevent harm - Family and individual therapy o Piaget’s formal operational stage  11 years +  Abstract, systematic, scientific thought  Hypothetico-Deductive reasoning  Hypothesis based  Deduce logical, testable inferences  Test through isolation and combination of variables  Piaget’s pendulum problem  Q: What influences speed of swing?  Variables: - Length of string - Weight - Height released  A: Only string length influences speed at which it swings  Propositional thought  Propositions- verbal statements  Evaluating logic of propositions without referring to real-world events  Task involved poker chips - Poker chip in hand is green or not green… True - Poker chip in hand is green and it is not green….False  Follow up on formal operations  School age children show beginnings  Adolescents more competent - Consider more variables - Grasp logical necessity  Formal operations may not be universal - Training, context contribute - Often fall back on easier thinking o Gains in info processing  More selective attention  Inhibition improves…ignoring potentially distracting stimuli  Knowledge increased  Greater metacognition  Improved self-regulation  Faster thought  Greater processing capacity o Consequences of abstract thought  Imaginary audience  Personal fable…feeling special and unique  Idealism and criticism...if things don’t work out how imagined increased critical views on world  Difficulty in decision making…overwhelmed with to many options o School transitions in Adolescence  Decline in grades - Higher academic standards - Less supportive teaching-learning environment  Decrease in academic self esteem and motivation  Helping adolescents in transitions  Parental support - Monitoring - Emphasizing mastery  Maintenance of close friendships  Small units in large schools  Same ethnicity peers  Homerooms  Academic achievement  Child rearing practices - Authoritative - Joint decision making - Involvement in education  Peer influences - Valuing high achievement  School characteristics - Warm, personal teaching - Classroom learning experiences - Opportunities to break out of low academic tracks  Factors related to dropping out  Low grades and self esteem  No extracurricular involvement  Uninvolved/ uneducated parents  Large, impersonal schools  Drop out prevention  Remedial instruction  Personalized counseling  High-quality vocational training  Extracurricular participation Chapter 12: Emotional and social development in adolescents o Erikson’s theory  Identity - Define who you are, values, and direction in life - Make commitments - Exploration, resolution of “identity crisis”  Role confusion - Lack direction and self definition - Earlier psychosocial conflicts not resolved - Society restricts choices - Unprepared for challenges of adulthood o Self-concept in Adolescence  Unify separate traits into abstract descriptors  May include contradictory traits  Emphasis on social virtues o Self-esteem in Adolescence  Gains new dimensions  Generally rises  Drops at school transitions  Parenting style affects quality and stability o Identity development  Inspired by Erikson - Consider level of exploration and commitment  Identity statuses - Combination of exploration and commitment - Fit into 1 of 4 statuses  Transitions possible  Identity status  Commitment/ Explorations  High C/ High E= identity achievement  Low C/High E= identity moratorium  High C/Low E= identity foreclosure  Low c/Low E= identity diffusion  Identity achievement  High explorations and commitment  Have explored and now committed to a clear set of goals  Feelings of psych well being, confidence in future  Identity moratorium  Exploring, not yet committed  Gather info in an effort to find values and goals for life  Identity foreclosure  Committed without exploration  Have values and goals, but have not explored alternatives  Accept identity chosen for them  Identity diffusion  Not exploring or committed  Lack clear direction  May be overwhelmed  Identity and well being  Achievement and moratorium healthy routes to identity - High self-esteem  Long term diffusion and foreclosure maladaptive - Adjustment difficulties - Foreclosed: inflexible - Diffused: “I don’t care” attitude, least mature  Factors that affect identity development  Personality  Parenting  Peers interactions  Schools, communities  Culture o Gender intensification (not a positive aspect of development)  Increased gender stereotyping  Move to more traditional gender identity  Not universal, more common in girls o Friendships  Fewer “best friends”  Tend to be similar  Identity statuses  Political views  Deviant behavior  Educational views  Sex differences in friendships  Girls - Emotional closeness - Get together to just talk - Self-disclosure, support  Boys - Shared activities - Achievement, status - Competition, conflict  Benefits of friendships  Opportunities to self-explore  Develop deep understanding of another  Foundation for mature relationships  Help cop with stress  Improved school attitudes and involvement  Cliques and crowds  Cliques - Small groups: 5-7 - Good friends - Similar in background, attitudes, values  Crowds - Larger: include multiple cliques - Membership based on reputation Chapter 13 o Biological aging  Senescence  Begins in early adulthood  Influenced by genes and environment o Motor performance  Athleticism - Peak early 20s-30s - Gradually decline until 60s/70s  Continued training - Slows loss - Retain capacity, muscle, response speed o Immune system  Declines after 20  Stress weakens immune response - Psychological stressors - Physical stressors o Reproductive Capacity  Delayed child bearing more common  Fertility risk increase with age - For women: - Reduced number and quality of ova - Increase sharply 36-44 years  For men - Decreased sperm volume and motility - Increased % of abnormal sperm - Gradual increase at 35 o Nutrition  Choices overwhelming  Eating based on schedule  Nutritional problems: - Overweight and obesity - High fat diet  Causes of overweight/obesity  Heredity  Ethnicity  Decline in physical activity  Decline in basal metabolic rate with age  Increase in calorie, sugar, fat intake  Consequences of Obesity  Health problems: - Heart disease - Diabetes - Cancer - Early death  Social discrimination - Finding partners - Housing - Education and careers  Mistreatment  Treating obesity  Lifestyle changes - Diet - Exercise  Record keeping - Social support - Problem solving skills - Extended intervention  Benefits of exercise  Reduce fat, build muscle  Boost immune system  Cardiovascular benefits  Mental health benefits  Longer life o Substance use  Peaks 19-25 years  12% men and 6% women are substance abusers - Cigarettes and alcohol most common  Cigarettes  About 19% US adults smoke - Slowly declining  Greater in: - College students - High school drop outs - Men  Deathly health risks  Hard to quit, but benefits are strong  1/3 of smokers will die from health related disease  Alcohol  10% men, 3% women heavy drinkers  1/3 of these alcoholics  Affected by genes and culture  Leads to mental and physical problems  High cost to society  Difficult to treat o Sexuality  Most have had sex by 25 - 65% at end of high school  Many sexual and lifestyle choices  Heterosexual attitudes and behavior  Most sex within relationship  Parents similar  Most meet conventionally  More partners over lifetime than past generations  Sex less frequent then media reports  Most report sexual satisfaction  Homosexual attitudes and behavior  Public acceptance growing  3.5% in US homosexual/bisexual  Behavior similar to heterosexual  Tend to live in larger cities and college towns  Sexual coercion  18% of US women raped - Tied to perpetrators characteristics and culture, not victim  7% of men victims  Factors related to sexual coercion  Perpetrator characteristics - Manipulative, remorseless - Approve of violence against women - Accept rape myths - Misinterpret social cues - Sex abuse as child - Sexual promiscuity - Alcoholism  Cultural forces - Men taught to be dominant, competitive - Women taught to be submissive - Accept violence - Dulled to media, pornography  Consequences of sexual coercion  Immediate - Shock, confusion, with-drawl  Long-term - Fatigue, depression, substance abuse, social anxiety, suicidal thoughts  Prevention and treatment  Community services - Underfunded - Few for victimized men  Therapy important - Validation of experience - Safety planning o Psychological stress  Related to:  Social conditions  Traumatic life events  Daily hassles  Caused or worsened by low SES  Associated with: - Overweight/obesity - Cardiovascular and gastrointestinal problems - Decreased immunity  How does cognition change in early adulthood  Structure of thought  Acquire advanced knowledge in specific are  Structural changes in thought  Piaget’s theory - Post-formal thought  Perry’s theory - Epistemic cognition  Labouvie-vief’s theory - Pragmatic thought - Cognitive-affective complexity  Epistemic cognition  Reflections about how we arrive at facts, beliefs, ideas  Stages: - Dualistic: Right and wrong - Relativistic thinking: Multiple truths - Commitment within relativistic thinking: Synthesize multiple truths  Pragmatic thought and cognitive- affective complexity  Pragmatic thought- advance in logic as tool for solving real-world problems  Cognitive- affective complexity: awareness of conflicting thought and coordinating into complex, organized structure  Expertise and creativity  Expertise- extensive knowledge in specific field  Necessary for creativity  Ask meaningful questions  Peaks 30/40s o College experience  Formative  “Developmental testing ground”  Reasoning improves  Problems with no clear solution  Identify strengthens and weakness of opposing points  Broaden attitudes and values  US drops out rates Chapter 14 o Emerging adulthood  Explore alternatives in: - Education - Work - Personal values  Paths to adult responsibility vary in: - Timing - Order  Self-concept more complex  Only privileged experience  “Generation me” - To focused on finding self - Increased narcissism and materialism  Volunteering and community service  Voter turnout  Risk and resilience  Exploration extends earlier risk-taking  Personal factors and social support foster resilience - Planning and decision making - Positive self esteem - Sense of responsibility - Secure relationship with parent  Erickson’s theory  Intimacy - Make permanent commitment to intimate life partner - Identity achievement positive association with fidelity and love  Isolation - Loneliness, self-absorption - State of searching - Identity moratorium negative association with fidelity and love  Levinson’s seasons of life  Interviewed 35-45 year old men and women  Create distinct “seasons” separated by transitions  Early adult transition guided by “dream”  “Age 30 transition” - Men “settle down” - Women remain unsettled  Valliant’s adaptation to life  Followed development of 250 men born in 1920s  Interviewed in college adulthood  20s: intimacy concerns  30s: career consolidation  40s: Generativity  50/60s: “keepers of meaning”  70s: spirituality and reflection  The social clock  Age graded expectations for life events  Less rigid than in earlier generations  Distress associated with not following or falling behind o Romance: selecting a mate  Tend to be similar to self  Gender differences: - Woman emphasize earning power and emotional commitment - Men emphasize youthfulness, health, and sexual attraction  More gender equity in younger generations  Sternberg’s triangular theory of love  Intimacy - Warm, tender concern  Passion - Sexual attraction - Strong at beginning of relationship - Later more companionate love  Commitment - Decision in love to maintain love  Friendship  Usually similar in age, sex, SES, interests  Enhance self esteem and well being  Social media and proximity  Women more intimate  Other-sex friendships increase  Siblings as friends o Leaving home  Age of leaving > past 50 years  Financial dependence  More than 50% leave, than return briefly  Culture/ SES effects ability and interest  High commitment from parents with transition o Trends in marriage  Marry later  More diversity in marriages  Legalization of same sex marriage  Fewer marriages total  Traditional and egalitarian marriages  Traditional - Clear division of role - Woman: cares for husband, children, home - Man: head of household, responsible for economic well-being  Egalitarian - Partners as equals - Share power and authority - Balance attentions to work and family o Parenthood  Fewer married couples have kids  US: 70% vs. 78% ist1970s  Delay having 1 child  Decline in family size - US; 2.1 kids per woman vs. 3.1 in 1950 o Decision to have children  Advantages - Warmth, affection - Stimulation, fun - Growth, learning experiences - Carry on a legacy - Sense of accomplishment  Disadvantages - Loss of freedom - Time demands - Financial strain - Impinge on career goals o Diversity of adult lifestyles  Singlehood  8-10% remain single for life  Gender differences: - Woman more likely to stay single - Single woman more educated, single men less educated  Cohabitation  More unmarried, sexually intimate couples living together  Entry into committed partnership  Alternative to marriage  Childlessness  Increasing  Involuntary - No partner - Infertile - Causes dissatisfaction  Voluntary - Usually college educated and career committed - Equal satisfaction to those who have kids  Divorce  Most within 7 years of marriage  Most commonly due to ineffective problem solving  Strongest predictors:  Infidelity, money issues, substance abuse  Background factors:  Young age, low religious involvement, previous divorce  Individualistic culture Chapter 15 o Physical development  Vision  Hearing  Skin  Muscle-fat makeup  Reproductive changes  Visual changes  Begin around 40  Presbyopia: “old eyes” - Around 60 - Lose ability to adjust focus to varying distances  Poorer in dim light  Glaucoma risk  Hearing changes  14% of middle adults suffer hearing loss  Presbycusis: “old hearing”  Less sensitive to high frequencies  Decline earlier and more rapid in men  Skin changes  Wrinkles - Epidermis separates from dermis - Less fat in hypodermis  Sagging face, arms, legs  Increase in age spots after 50 - Faster with sun exposure and for women….women’s skin is a little thinner then men’s  Muscle-Fat makeup  Middle age spread - Men gain fat in upper abdomen and back - Women in waist and upper arms  Gradual muscle decline  Preventable - Low-fat diet - Exercise o Reproductive changes  Climacteric - Midlife transition when fertility declines - Women: end of reproductive capacity - Men: diminished fertility  Menopause: - Age range: late 30s-late 50s - Drop in estrogen - Menstruation eventually stops - Reactions varied  Reproductive changes in men  Decrease in fertility  20s: decreased sperm volume and motility  40s: decreased semen  Gradual decline in testosterone  Erection difficulties more common  Sexuality  Frequency declines slightly among married couples - But stability is typical - Best predictor of frequency is marital happiness  Intensity of response declines due to climacteric  Sex still important and enjoyable to most o Illness and disability  Middle age: cancer and cardiovascular diseases= leading cause of death  Injury= lowest cause of death  Men have higher chances  Cancer  Accounts for 1/3 midlife deaths - Most common= lung - Men are more affected than women - Higher rates in low SES  Complex interaction of heredity and environment  Nearly 60% cured  Cardiovascular disease  Causes 25% of middle aged deaths  “Silent killers” - High blood pressure, cholesterol, atherosclerosis  Heart disease symptoms - Heart attack, arrhythmia, chest pain  Gender differences…less of concern for women then men  Osteoporosis  Severe bone loss  Causes: - Normal ageing - Heredity, body type - Lifestyle  Gender differences…women lose estrogen and lowers calcium levels  Prevention - Vitamin d and calcium - Strength training o Hostility and health  Type A behavior associated with heart disease - Extreme competitiveness - Impatience - Angry out bursts  Hostility predicts: - Cardiovascular arousal - Artery plaque buildup - Heart disease  Stress  Many changes can be sources of stress, however: - Become more effective at coping with stressors - Stress management can limit and reduce severity of illness  Managing stress  Re-evaluate situation  Focus on controllable events  View life as fluid  Consider alternatives  Set reasonable goals  Exercise regularly  Use relaxation techniques  Constructively reduce anger  Seek social support  Exercise  Benefits: - Stress management - Reduce disease risk  Barriers to getting started: - Time, energy, health convenience, lack of facilities  Double standard of ageing  Negative stereotypes of ageing more likely to applied to women then men - Youthfulness tied to sexual attraction - End of fertility  Negative double standard in decline o Cognitive development  Past research indicated intelligence declined in middle adulthood - Cross-sectional  Recent research indicates increase - Sequential - Cohort effects  Fluid and crystallized intelligence  Fluid - Depends on basic info-processing skills Begins to decline in 20s  Crystallized - Depend son accumulated knowledge and experiences - Influenced by culture - Increases through middle adulthood  Changes ins peed processing  Neuronal network view - Neurons in brain die, break neural connections - Brain forms new, but less efficient connections  Information-loss view - Information lost as it moves through cognitive system - Whole system slows to inspect and interpret information  Changes in attention  More difficulty - Multi-tasking - Focusing on relevant info - Switching attention - Inhibition  Tied to decline in processing speed?  Experience and training help compensate  Changes in memory  Working memory declines 20s-60s - Reduced use of memory strategies - Slower processing, attention difficulties  Better when self-paced  Factual and procedural memory unchanged  Changes in creativity  More deliberate and thoughtful  Less spontaneous, emotional  Sum up or integrate ideas  Less focus on new ideas  Goals more altruistic o Becoming a student  39% of US college students are over 25; 60% of them are woman  Reasons are diverse: - Job changes - Life transitions - Personal achievement  Concerns: - Age and gender stereotypes - Role overload Chapter 16 o Erickson’s theory  Generativity - Give to and guide next generation - Extend commitment beyond self and partner - Realized through family, work, mentoring  Stagnation - Self-centered, self-indulgent - Lack interest in young people and work productivity - Focus on getting, not giving  Highly generative adults  Low in anxiety, depression  High in autonomy, self-acceptance, life satisfaction o Levinson’s Seasons of life  Young-old - Find ways to remain youthful - Find positive meaning in ageing  Masculinity-Femininity - Increase balance between masculine and feminine qualities  Destruction-creation - Cope with past hurtful actions - Desire to advance human welfare and create legacy  Engagement-Separateness - Balance attention to external world and internal self o Valiant adaptation to life  Keeper of meaning - Guardians of culture  “Pass the torch” to next generation  Focus on long term, less personal goals  Midlife crisis?  Self doubt and stress associated with 40s - ¼ affected - Prompts change  More common in those unable to fulfill personal needs in adulthood  Better psych adjustment with life changes  Self concept  Self-description more complex and integrated  In diverse cultures, see increase in: - Self-acceptance - Autonomy - Environmental mastery  Gender identity  Increase in “masculine” traits in women and “feminine” traits in men  Parental imperative  Life experiences  Big 5 personality traits  Openness  Conscientiousness  Extroversion  Agreeableness  Neuroticism  Changes in personality  Individual differences large and stable  General changes do occur with age: - Increase in agreeableness and consciousness - Decline in neuroticism - Extroversion and openness may decrease slightly o Relationships  Often closer than in any other period - Ties to older and younger generations - Well established friendships  Middle adulthood liberating - Opportunity to strengthen relationships  Marriage  Martial satisfaction strong predictor of psych well-being  Supported by financial well-being  Divorce  Divorce rate for 50-65 doubled over past 20 years  Adapt more easily than younger adults  Contributes to feminization of poverty  Parenthood  Launching: - Decline in parental authority - Continued contact, affection, support - Adjust to in-laws - Kinkeepers: promote family traditions  Grandparenthood  On average, begins early 50s  Significant milestone  Grand-parenting styles impacted by - Proximity, age, gender, SES, ethnicity Chapter 17: physical and cognitive development in late adulthood o Functional Age  Actual competence and performance  May not match chronological age o Average life expectancy  Age to which a person born in a specific year can expect to live - US: 76 for men, 81 for women  Affected by: - Gender …women live 2-7 years longer than men do - Nationality …developing nations have a lower life expectancy - SES….higher SES has a higher life expectancy - Heredity….identical twins die 2-3 years of each other o Maximum life span  Species-specific biological limit  Oldest verified human 122 years old  Upper bound of longevity?  Goal is quality, not quantity o Ageing and the nervous system  Loss of brain with accelerates in 60s  Neurons lost - Prefrontal cortex - Corpus callosum - Cerebellum  Autonomic nervous system less efficient  Brain can overcome some decline o Ageing systems of the body  Cardiovascular/ respiratory systems - Heart muscle becomes more rigid - Heartbeats less forceful, slower…leads to less oxygen provided to tissues - Lung tissue loses elasticity - Lung capacity reduced by half  Immune system - Effectiveness declines - More infectious, autoimmune diseases - Healthy diet and exercise help protect - Obesity aggravates and enhances this decline of functioning o Sleep and ageing  Total sleep needs remain constant  Earlier bedtime, earlier wake time  Sleep difficulties - Insomnia - Nighttime waking  Consistent bedtime and regular exercise will help this o Factors in good health and ageing  Self-efficacy  Optimism  SES  Ethnicity  Sex  Nutrition  Exercise o Dementia  Impairments of thought and behavior disrupting everyday life - 13% over 65 years - 22% between 85-89 years - Over 50% over 90 years  Most common forms - Alzheimer’s disease - Cerebrovascular dementia (strokes)  Alzheimer’s Disease  Incidence - Increases with age - 60% of dementia cases  Symptoms - Forgetting, personality change, motor problems, delusions, speech problems  Risk factors - Genetic predisposition - High-fat diet - Lifestyle factors  Diagnosis - Physical exams and psych testing - Aim to rule out other causes of dementia - Confirmed postmortem with brain autopsy  Brain changes in Alzheimer’s  Neurofibrillary tangles - Result of collapse inside neurons  Amyloid plaques - Dense deposits outside neurons cause synapses to malfunction  Tissue loss  Caring for dementia  No cure  Family intervention best  Assistance for caregivers  Education about disease and coping strategies  Avoid dramatic changes in living conditions if possible  Protective factors  Education, active lifestyle  Mediterranean diet  Active social life o Cognitive development  Selective optimization with compensation - Select: choose valued activities - Optimize: devote limited resources to valued activities - Compensate: find ways to overcome limitations o Remote and prospective memory  Remote - Autobiographical memory - Reminiscence bump for events of adolescence, early adulthood  Prospective - Remembering to engage in planned actions - Event-based easier than time-based - Risk of repetition of actions - Reminders help o Old age and wisdom  Breath and depth f practical knowledge  Ability to apply knowledge to improve own life  Ability to listen and evaluate others concerns  Transmit useful knowledge to younger people  What contributes to wisdom?  Life experience  Age  History of overcoming adversity  Education and physical health Chapter 18 o Erickson’s theory  Ego Integrity - Feel whole, complete, satisfied with achievements - View life in context of all humanity - Associated with more favorable psych well-being  Despair - Feel made wrong decisions - Time now to short for change - Unaccepting of death - Expressed as anger, contempt for others o Peck’s tasks of ego integrity  Attaining ego integrity involves 3 tasks: - Ego differentiation - Body transcendence - Ego transcendence  Body and ego transcendence increase with age o Joan Erickson’s gerotranscendence  Beyond ego integrity  Cosmic, transcendent perspective  Directed forward and outward, beyond self  Heightened inner calm, contentment  Quiet reflection o Labouvie-Vief’s emotional expertise  Gain in affect optimization - Maximize positive emotions, decrease negative ones  More vivid emotional perceptions - Expert at reflecting on own feelings - Skillful use of emotion –centered coping o Personality changes  Shifts in some traits: - Gain in agreeableness - Decline in extroversion - Greater acceptance of change  Resilience promotes adaptive functioning o Religiosity  Religion very important to majority 65 and older  More open to other religious perspectives  Associated with: - Increased psych and physical well being  Life changes and depression - At high risk for negative life changes - Multiple negative changes test coping skills - -Lead to stress, depression - -Increased suicide risk  Social support promotes well being - Important to take personal control of social support o Marriage  Satisfaction peaks - Fewer stressful responsibilities - More fair in household tasks - Joint leisure - Greater emotional understanding and regulation o Gay and lesbian partnerships  Most report happy, highly fulfilling relationships  Healthier and happier than those living alone  Earlier oppression may strengthen coping skills o Divorce, remarriage, and cohabitation  Divorce - Few divorces in late adulthood, but rate increasing  Remarriage - Rates low, decline with age - Higher for divorced than widowed  Cohabitation - Growing trend - More stable than at younger ages o Widowhood  Mot stressful life event for many  1/3 older adults widowed  More common in women and harder for men  Adaptation depends on age, social support, and personality o Never-married, childless elderly  About 5% of older Americans  Most develop alternative meaningful relationships  Men more likely to be lonely, depressed o Friendships  Increasing importance  Friends provide: - Intimacy, companionship - Acceptance - Link to community - Help with loss  Choose similar friends and sex differences continue o Relationships with adult children  80% seniors in US have kids  Relationship quality affects physical and mental health in elderly  Seniors provide financial and practical support  Kids provide emotional support o Elder maltreatment  Rates reported from 3-28%  Includes: - Physical abuse - Physical neglect - Emotional abuse - Sexual abuse - Financial abuse  Risk factors for maltreatment  Dependency of victim  Dependency of perpetrator  Psychological disturbance and stress of perpetrator  History of family violence  Institutional conditions  Preventing maltreatment  Prevention programs offer caregivers: - Counseling - Education - Respite services  Intervention involves immediate protection for senior and health services for caregiver o Retirement  Most adapt well  Martial happiness increases  10-30% report adjustment difficulty  Expand meaningful leisure and community service activities  Politically involved Chapter 19 o Attitudes toward death  Death anxiety-fear and apprehension of death - Decreased with deep faith in higher force - Higher in depressed and anxious - Declines with age - Greater in women than men o Kubler-Ross Stages of dying  Brought attention to psych needs of dying  Theory includes 5 stages: 1. Denial 2. Anger 3. Bargaining 4. Depression 5. Acceptance  Evaluating Kubler-Ross theory  Stages not fixed sequence and not universal  May lead to caregiver insensitivity  Best seen as coping strategies  Important to consider thoughts ad feeling sin context o Appropriate death  A death that make sense in terms of lifestyle ad values, preserves significant relationships, and minimizes suffering o Selecting a place to die  Home - Preferred by 80-90% - Only 25% die at home  Hospital - Can be depersonalizing - 40%  Nursing home - 20% o Hospice approach  Comprehensive program for dying and their families  Interdisciplinary team  Palliative care  Home/homelike setting  Bereavement services o Right to die and types of euthanasia  Passive - With-drawl of treatment, die naturally - Widely supported and used  Voluntary active - Act to end life at patients request - Controversial  Assisted suicide - Provide way for patient to end own life - Remains controversial o Bereavement and the grief process  Bereavement: experience of losing loved one by death  Grief process: - Avoidance: “emotional anesthesia” - Confrontation: most intense grief - Restoration: cope with loss  Resolving grief  Give self permission to feel loss  Accept social support  Be realistic about course of grieving  Remember the dead  When ready, invest in new


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