Exam 1 Study Guide- Cooper
Exam 1 Study Guide- Cooper MGT 304
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This 23 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily Drazinakis on Saturday February 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MGT 304 at University of Miami taught by Cecily Cooper in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 159 views. For similar materials see Management: Organizational Behavior in Business at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 02/21/15
Quiz 1 Study Guide Chapter 1 Henri Faon said 5 management functions 0 Planning organizing commanding coordinating and controlling We say 4 management 0 Planning organizing leading and controlling Planning de ned goals establishes strategy Organizing determines what needs to be done who is to do it how the tasks are grouped who responds to whom and where Leading motivating employees directing and resolving con ict Controlling monitoring activities to ensure they are being accomplished Mintsberg Interpersonal Figurehead symbolic head Leader motivator Liason maintains network of ppl Informational Monitor serves as nerve center Disseminator transmits info from outside to inside Spokesperson transmits info to outside Decisional Entrepreneur nds opportunities and starts projects Disturbance handler corrects action for unexpected disturbances Resource allocator makes or approves signi cant organizational decisions Negotiator represents organization at negotiations Interpersonal Roles ceremonial and symbolic Informational Roles collecting info Decision Roles making choices Technical skills specialized knowledge or expertise Human skills ability to work with and motivate other people Conceptual skills analyzing and diagnosing complex situations 0 Effective managers communicate the most and network the least 0 Traditional management communication human resource management networking Organizational behavior eld of study that investigates the impact individuals groups and structure have on behavior within organizations in order to improve organizations effectiveness 0 Behavior is generally predictable but systematic studies can make it more accurate Systematic study looking at relationships attempting to attribute cause and effect and drawing conclusions base don scienti c evidence Evidence Based Management basing managerial decisions on the best available scienti c evidence 0 Both SS and EBM add to intuition Big Data extensive use of statistical complication and analysis 0 Just like how amazon knows customers preferences Disciplines that contribute to OB 1 Psychology seeks to measure and explain behavior 2 Social Psychology blends 3 Sociology people in relation to environment culture 4 Anthropology study of societies Contigency Variables situational factors 0 X leads to y but only under 2 conditions ChaHenges Temporary workers are not loyal Resbondind to Globalization 0 Increased foreign assignment 0 Working with people from different cultures Overseeing movement of jobs to countries with lowlabor cost 0 Adapting to differing cultural and regulatory norms Good Mangagers Manage workforce diversity 0 Improve customer service 0 Improve people skills 0 Work in network organizations 0 Enhance employee wellbeing at work 0 Create positive work environments 0 Improve ethical behavior Model an abstraction of reality a simpli ed representation of real work phenomenon It proposes three variables 0 Inputs processes outcomes lnputs variables like personality group structure and organizational culture Processes actions that individuals groups and organizations engage in as a result of inputs Outcomes key variables you want to explain or predict Attitudes evaluations employees make about objects people events Stress psychological response that occurs in reponse to environmental measures Task performance combo of effectiveness and ef ciency at doing core task Citizenship Behavior discretionary behavior like going above and beyond Withdrawal Behavior set of actions employees take to separate themselves from the organization Group cohesion extent to which members of a group support and validate one another at work Group functioning quantity and quality of a work group s output Productivity effectiveness and efficiency Effectiveness meeting needs of customers Efficiency lowest cost Survival if a company is able to exist and grow Chapter 3 Attitudes have three components Cognition Affect Behavior 0 Cognitive belief segment of an attitude 0 Affect emotional or feeling segment of an attitude 0 Behavioral intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something 0 Lean Festinger thinks attitudes follow behavior 0 Cognitive dissonance incompatibility between 2 or more attitudes 0 Important attitudes re ect our fundamental values selfinterest or identi cation Majorlob Attitudes Job satisfaction positive feelings about ones job results from evaluation of its characteristics job involvement degree to which a person identi es with a job participates considers performance important to selfworth Psychological empowerment beliefs in the degree to which they in uence work environment Organizational commitment the degree to which an employee identi es with a particular organization and its goals and wants to remain a member Perceived Organizational Support the degree to which employees believe an organization values their contribution and cares about their wellbeing Employee engagement an individuals involvement with satisfaction and enthusiasm for the work he or she does Managers identify employees as Enthusiastic stayers Reluctant stayers Enthusiastic leavers planning to leave Reluctant leavers not planning to leave but should WNl l Job Satisfaction Interesting jobs that provide training variety independence and control satisfy most employees 0 Research shows people who have positive core selfevaluation who believe in their inner worth and basic competence are more satis ed There are 4 different responses to dissatisfaction Exit direct behavior in leaving the organization Voice responds actively and attempts to improve conditions Loyalty passive but speaks up for organization Neglect passively lets situation get worse 0 Happy workers tend to be more productive Satis ed employees increase customer satisfaction o If employees do not like their environments they will somehow respond in a negative way Emotions and Mood Chapter 4 Emotions are more eeting than moods Emotions are reactions to a person or event Affect broad range of feelings o Emotions or Moods Emotions are speci c events brief facials expressions and action oriented Mood causes are general and unclear last longer cognitive in nature The way we experience emotion is different than the way we show it Six universal emotions 0 Happy surprise fear sadness anger disgust You can classify emotions as positive or negative Emotions cannot be neutral because that means unemotional Negative emotions are likely to become negative moods Positivity Offset at zero input most individuals experience mild positive moods If you exhibit emotion you are likely to act irrationally Phineas Gage received pole through brain no emotion Sources of Emotions and Moods Personality affect intensity the strength with which individuals experience emotions o Affectiver intense people experience positive and negative emotions more deeply Time of the day at about 12 hours after wake up positive offset drops Day of the week best moods on weekends 0 Highest on Friday Saturday but less on Sunday Weather has no effect on mood o Illusory correlation when we associate two events that have no connection Stress more stress worsens moods Social Activities social activities increase positive mood o Depends if it is formal or informal Sleep sleep quality affects mood Exercise exercise increase positive mood Age as we get older we experience fewer negative emotions Sex women experience more emotions Emotional Labor Emotional labor a situation which an employee expresses organizationally desired emotions at work Emotional dissonance inconsistencies between emotions people feel and emotions they project Surface acting hiding inner feeling and displaying another Deep acting trying to modify inner feeling based on display rules Affective Events Theory employees react emotionally to things that happened to them at work and this reaction in uences job performance and satisfaction 0 Theory begins with emotions as a response to an event in the work environment 0 Emotional swings lowerjob performance Emotional Intelligence 0 El is the ability to 1 Perceive emotions in the self and others 2 Understand the meaning of these emotions and 3 Regulate these emotions Cases against El 0 Researchers do not agree on de nitions 0 El cant be measured 0 Personality Regulating o Acknowledging emotions Venting about emotions Appendix 0 Case Study in depth analysis of one setting 0 Thorough descriptions rich in detail 0 Info through observations 0 DRAWBACKS Can be bias and subjective to observer Makes it difficult to prove or reject hypothesis 0 Field Survey where a sample of respondents are selected to represent larger group under examination Questionnaire or interview Data is easily quanti ed analyzed and summarized Less costly to sample a population DRAWBACKS Mailed questionnaires do not get 100 responses People say what researcher wants to hear Quality of generalizations Breadth economic efficiencies Lab experiment 0 Arti cial environment is created by researcher o Researcher manipulates independent variable under controlled conditions 0 DRAWBACKS Arti cial setting doesn t show natural stuff 0 FieldExperiment 0 OOO o Performed in real organizations 0 Natural setting enhances validity o DRAWBACKSL Lacks control Organization selection bias But is MOST VALID METAANALYSIS synthesizes all studies Chapter 5 Personality and Values What is Personality Personality is the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others Personality tests are useful in hiring decisions and help manages forecast who is best for a job The most common way of measuring personality is by ilf report surveys in which individuals evaluate themselves on a series of factors Observerratings survey provide and independent assessment of personality 0 Here is when an observer or coworker does the rating Is it environmental or hereditary o Heredity refers to factors determined at conception biological o Heredity by genes not parenting Personality traits are enduring characteristics that describe an individual s behavior 0 The consistency over time and frequency of expression in diverse situations indicates how important the trait is for the individual The Myer s Briggs Type Indicator Most widely used personality assessment instrument in the world lOOquestion personality test that asks people how they feel in certain situations Extraverted or introverted sensing or intuitive thinking or feeling and judging or perceiving o Sensing sensing types are practical and prefer routine o lntuitive rely on unconscious processes and look at big picture 0 Feeling rely on personal value and emotions 0 Judging want control and prefer order 0 Perceiving exible and spontaneous These classi cations describe l6 personalities The Big Five Personality Model Big Five Model that ve basic dimensions underlie all others and encompass most of the signi cant variation in human personality Big Five Factors 0 Extraversion captures our comfort level with relationships Gregarious assertive and sociable o Agreeableness refers to an individual s propensity to defer to others Conscientious measure of reliability 0 Emotional Stability taps a person s ability to withstand stress High calm selfcon dent and secure 0 Openness to experience addresses range of interests Employees who score higher in conscientious develop higher levels ofjob knowledge Conscientious people live longer because they take better care of themselves Extraverts tend to be happier in their jobs and in their lives Extraversion usually are strong leaders 0 The Dark Triad The Big Five traits are socially desirable except for neuroticism There are also some undesirable traits known as the Dark Triad Dark Triad is a constellation of negative personality traits consisting of Machiavellianism narcissism and psychopathy Machiavellianism the degree to which an individual is pragmatics maintains emotional distance and believes that ends can justify means o Pragmatics maintains emotional distance and believes ends can justify means 0 Manipulation Narcissism describes a person who has a grandiose sense of selfworth requires admiration has a sense of entitlement and is arrogant o a certain degree of narcissism are more charismatic than others 0 they think they are better leaders but are actually worse Psychopathy lack of concern for others and a lack of guilt or remorse when their actions cause harm ApproachAvoidance Approachevidence framework the framework by which individuals respond to stimuli whereby approach motivation is attraction to positive stimuli and avoidance motivation is our aversion to negative stimuli o Organizes traits may predict work behavior Other Personality Traits Core SelfEvaluation are bottom line conclusions individuals have about their capabilities competence and worth as a person 0 People with positive CES are effective capable and in control 0 People with negative CES tend to dislike themselves and question their capabilities o SelfMonitoring is a personality trait that measures an individual s ability to adjust his or her behavior to external situational factors 0 Are highly sensitive to emotional cues and can behave differently in varying situational factors Proactive Personality identify opportunities show imitative take action and preserve until meaningful change occurs 0 Higher levels ofjob performance and career success 0 Good work teams Personality and Situations SituationStrength Theory a theory indicating that the way personality translates into behavior depends on the strength of the situation 0 The degree to which norms cues or standards dictate appropriate behavior 0 There are four elements Clarity the degree to which cues about work duties and responsibilities are clear Consistency extent to which cues regarding work duties and responsibilities are compatible with one another Constraints extent to which an individual s freedom to decide or act is limited by forces outside their control Consequences the degree to which decisions or actions have important implications for the organization or its members 0 Trait Activation Theory a theory that predicts that some situation events or interventions activate a trait more than others 0 Commission based salary makes a person work harder to be more extraverted Together situation strength and trait activation theories show that the debate over nature versus nurture might best be frames nature and nurture 0 They interact with one another and affect behavior Values 0 Values represent basic convictions that a quotspecific mode of conduct or endstate of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or endstate of existencequot 0 Values contain a judgmental element because they carry an individual s ideas about what is right good or desirable When we rank values in terms of intensity we obtain that person s value system 0 Value system is a hierarchy based on a ranking of an individual s values in terms of their intensity 0 Many of the values we hold are established in our early years by parents 0 Values lay the foundation for our understanding of people s attitudes and motivation and in uence our perceptions Terminal values desirable endstates of existence the goals a person would live to achieve during his or her lifetime 0 Instrumental values preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving one s terminal values Linking lndividual s Personality to Workplace Personalityjob t theory identi es six personality types and proposes that the t between personality type and occupational environment determines satisfaction and turnover oHe proposes that satisfaction and the propensity to leave depends on how well individuals match their personalities to a job Chapter 6 Perceptions and DecisionMaking Perception oPerception means to organize and interpret sensory impressions to give meaning to a person s environment 0 Attribution Theory Determines whether behavior is internally or externally caused Keey s model makes attributions based on 3 dimensions 0 Distinctiveness different behaviors in different s ua ons 0 Comparison across tasks Consensus do others react the same way in that situation o Comparison across other people 0 Consistency Does the person respond the same way over time 0 Comparison over time Fundamental Attribution Error Tendency to underestimate external factors and overestimate internal factors SelfServing Bias Tendency to attribute personal success to internal factors and blame failure on external factors Perceptual Shortcuts Selective Perception o The tendency to selectively interpret what one sees on the basis of one s interests background experience and attitudes 0 Halo Effect 0 Drawing a general impression on the basis of a single characteristic 0 Contrast Effects 0 Evaluating a person based on comparisons of other people 0 Stereotyping 0 Judging by the group of which the individual belongs to 0 During interviews the interview can make an impression within a tenth of a second based on rst glance o SelfFul lling Prophecy Characterizes that peoples expectations of other become reality DecisionMaking Managers have to make decisions that require them to interpret and evaluate information Rational Model v Bounded Rationality o Rational decision makers have complete information are able to identify all relevant options in an unbiased manner and choose option with highest utility Most decisions do not follow rational model 0 Bounded decision makers respond to a complex problem by reducing the problem to a level at which it can be readily understood Simplifying but taking essential features People SATISFICE meaning they take solutions that are sufficient and satisfactory o lntuition is the least rational way of decision making An unconscious process created from experience Common Biases and Errors in Decision Making Overcon dence 0 We tend to be overcon dent about our abilities and the ability of others 0 Anchoring Bias o A tendency to xate on initial information and fail to adequately adjust for subsequent information 0 Con rmation Bias 0 We seek out information that reaffirms our past choices and we discount information that contradicts them A case of selective perception 0 Availability Bias 0 Our tendency to base judgments on information that is readily available Escalation of Commitment 0 Refers to staying with a decision even if there is clear evidence it is wrong 0 Tendency to support previously unsuccessful courses of actions because they have sunk costs invested in them 0 Randomness Error 0 Our tendency to believe we can predict the outcome of random events 0 Risk Aversion o The tendency to prefer a sure gain of a moderate amount over a riskier outcome even if the riskier outcome might have a higher expected payoff 0 Hindsight Bias 0 Tendency to believe falsely after the outcome is known that we would have accurately predicted it Implications for Managers 0 People should be aware of how perceptual errors can in uence appraisals and judgments at work 0 Managers need to reduce decisionmaking errors such as escalation of commitment Chapter 7 Motivation Concepts DefiningTheories of Motivation 0 Motivation is the processes that account for an individual s intensity direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal 0 Focus on organizational goals 0 ntensity how hard a person tries High intensity is unlikely to lead to favorable job performance 0 Effort directed toward and consistent with the organization s goals is important 0 SelfDetermination Theory 0 A theory of motivation that is concerned with the bene cial effects of intrinsic motivation and the harmful effects of extrinsic motivation In other words if something that was once more previously enjoyed now becomes an obligation then it may undermine motivation o The cognitive evaluation theory hypothesizes that extrinsic rewards will reduce intrinsic interest in a task 0 Selfconcordance is a theory that considers how strongly people s reason for pursuing goals are consistent their interests and core values 0 The selfconcordance theory considers how strongly people s reason for pursuing goals are consistent with their interests and core values 0 job Engagement is the investment of an employee s physical cognitive and emotional energies into job performance 0 Does the employee believe it is meaningful to engage in work 0 Leadership behaviors that inspire works to a greater sense of mission also increase employee engagement There could potentially be a darkside to engagement where you are too involved and family responsibilities become tedious Goal Setting Theory 0 A theory that says that speci c and difficult goals with feedback lead to higher performance 0 People are motivated by difficult goals because they require more attention and energize us because you have to work harder to attain them 0 People do better when they get feedback on how well they are progressing 0 Three other factors in uence goals goal commitment task characteristics and national culture The individual belives he or she can achieve the goal WANTS to achieve the goal 0 Goal Commitment is most likely occur when goal are made public when the individual locus of control selfset rather than assigned and where goals are based at least partially on individual ability 0 Goals seem to affect performance more strongly when tasks are simple rather than complex well learned rather than novel independent rather than interdependent and on the high end of achievable goals Assigned goals appear to generate greater goal commitment in high than in low power distance cultures 0 People fall into two categories if the way they differ during goal pursuit Promotion focus people strive for advancement and accomplishment and approach condition that move them closer toward desired goals Prevention focus people strive to ful ll duties and obligations and avoid conditions that pull them away from desired goals 0 How do managers make goalsetting theory operational 0 Management by Objectives A program that encompasses speci c goals participatively set for an explicit time period with feedback on goal progress 0 Set goals are tangible veri able and measureable Four objectives goal speci city participation in decision making an explicit time period and performance feedback 0 All of these are similar to goalsetting theory SelfEf cacy Theory 0 0 Also known as social cognitive theory or social learning theory Refers to an individual s belief that h e or she is capable of performing a task The higher your selfef cacy the more con dence you have in your ability to succeed Goal setting theory and selfef cacy complement one another THERE ARE FOUR WAYS SELFEFFICACY CAN BE INCREASED The most important source of increasing selfef cacy is enactive mastery or gaining relevant experience with the task or job Vicarious modeling becoming more con dent because you see someone else doing the same task Verbal persuasion becoming more con dent because someone convinced you that you have the skills necessary o The best way for a manager to use verbal persuasion is through the Pygmalion effect or the Galatea effect 0 Similar to the selfful lling prophecy if they thing you are smart they will give you more challenging assignments Arousal an energized state that psychs you up for better performance 0 Reinforcement Theory 0 O O Takes a behavioristic view argues that reinforcement conditions behaviors Behavior is a function of its consequences Reinforcement theorists see behavior as environmentally caused Does not focus on inner state of individual but rather what happens when the individual takes certain actions One component of Reinforcement theory is Operant Condition Theory 0 People learn to behave to get something they want or avoid something they don t want 0 Conditioned by reinforcement or lack of reinforcement Behaviorism 0 A theory that argues that behavior follows stimuli in a relatively unthinking manner 0 This rejects feelings thoughts and other states of minds o It stats that people learn to associate stimulus and response but their conscious awareness of this association is irrelevant Reinforcement is an important in uence on behavior but scholars are skeptical to say it is the only one Individuals can learn by being told or by observing what happens to other people and through direct experiences SocialLearning Theory 0 The view that we can learn through both observation and direct experience 0 Four processes determine their in uence on an individual 1 Attentional processes recognize and pay attention to critical features a We are most in uenced by models that are attractive repeatedly available important to us 2 Retention processes how well the individual remembers the model after the model is not there 3 Motor reproduction processes watching being converted into doing 4 Reinforcement processes There is motivation to exhibit the model behavior is positive incentives or rewards are provided 0 Equity TheoryOrganizational Justice 0 A theory that says that individuals compare theirjob inputs and outcomes with those of others Ratio comparing their pay promotion to what they put into it such as effort education Employees who perceive inequity will make one of six choices Change inputs less effort Change outcomes Distort perceptions of self I work harder than everyone else Distort perceptions of others Choose a different referent 6 Leave the eld quit 0 Organizational justice An overall perception of what is fair in the workplace Distributive justice 0 Perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals Procedural Justice Examines with how outcomes are allocated Informational Justice 0 The degree to which employees are provided truthful explanations for decisions 0 Interpersonal Justice Re ects whether employees are treated with dignity and respect 0 Interpersonal justice is unique in that it can occur in everyday interactions between managers and employees 0 Why does justice have positive effects Fair treatment enhances commitment Employees who are fairly treated trust their supervisors more Fair treatment elicits positive emotions which prompts behaviors like citizenship o Fairness is often subjective 01h WNH 0 Expectancy Theory 0 Argues that the strength of our tendency to act a certain way depends on the strength of our expectation of a given outcome and its attractiveness o The strength of our tendency to act a certain way depends on the strength of our expectation of a given outcome and its attractiveness o Focuses on three relationship 1 Effortperformance relationship the probability perceived by the individual that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to performance 2 Performancereward relationship the degree to which the individual believes performing at a particular level will lead to the attainment of a desired outcome 3 Rewardspersonal goals relationship the degree to which organizational rewards satisfy an individual s personal goals or needs and the attractiveness of those potential rewards for the individual 0 Explains why employees aren t motivated and do only minimum necessary to get by Chapter 8 Motivation Concepts and Applications The Job Characteristics Model oWe can describe any job in terms of ve core job dimensions 0 Skill Variety is the degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities so the worker can use specialized skills and talents 0 Task identity is the degree to which a job requires completion of a whole and identi able piece of work 0 Task signi cance is the degree to which a job affects the live or work of other people 0 Autonomy is the degree to which a job provides the worker freedom and in discretion in scheduling work and determining procedures for carrying it out 0 Feedback is the degree to which carrying out work activities generates direct and clear information about your own performance 0 We can combine the core dimensions into a single predictive index called motivating potential score 0 MP5 Skill Variety Task Identity Task Signi cance3 Autonomy Feedback oJob Rotation is the periodic shifting of an employee from one task to another 0 Reduces boredom increases motivation and helps employees understand their work contributions 0 Also known as crosstraining o Drawbacks are that it requires more time and training Job Enrichment expands jobs by increasing the degree to which the worker controls the planning execution and evaluation of the work Using Rewards to Motivate Employees 0 Variable pay program is a pay plan that bases a portion of an employee s pay on some individual or organizational measure of performance 0 PieceRate is a pay plan in which workers are paid a xed sum for each unit of production completed 0 Meritbased pay plan is a pay plan based on performance appraisal ratings Chapter 9 De ning and Classifvind Grouos o A group is two or more individuals interacting Formal group is a designated group de ned by an organization s structure 0 An informal group is a group that is not formally structured or organizationally determined in response for a need for social contact 0 Our tendency to take personal pride or offense for the accomplishments of a group is the territory of social identity theory 0 Social identity theory proposes that people have emotional reactions to the failure or success of their group because of their selfesteem 0 Social identities help us understand who we are and where we t in with other people but they can have a negative side a well 0 Beyond feelings of schadenfreude ingroup favoritism occurs when we see members of our ingroup being better than other people and people not in our group as all the same 0 Seven characteristics make a social identity important to a person 1 Similarity same values or characteristics Distinctiveness identi es that show how they are different from other groups Status linking themselves to highstatus groups Uncertainty reduction membership in a group helps people understand who they are and how they t into the world Stages of Group Development The vestage groupdevelopment model characterizes groups as proceeding through the distinct stages of forming storming norming performing and adjourning Forming Stage the rst stage in group development characterized by much uncertainty Storming Stage characterized by intragroup con ict decides who will be leader of the group Norming Stage close relationships develop and the group demonstrates cohesiveness the group structure solidi es and assimilates to a common set of expectations Performing Stage The fourth stage in group development is when the group is fully functional and accepted they are past getting to know each other Adjourning Stage if the group is temporary this is the last step where they wrap up activities and prepare to disband Temporary Groups 0 Temporary groups do not follow usual stage instead 0 They follow the punctuatedequilibrium model which is a set of phases that temporary groups go through that involves transitions between inertia and activity Group Properties Roles Norms Status Size Cohesiveness and Diversity Group Property 1 Roles Group Property 2 Norms Group Property 3 Status Group Property 4 Size Group Property 5 Cohesiveness Role is a set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit Our view of how we re supposed to act in a given situation is role perception Role expectations are the way others believe you should act in a given context o In the workplace we look at role expectations through the perspective of the psychological contract 0 an unwritten agreement that sets out what management expects from an employee and vice versa 0 When compliance with one role requirement may make it dif cult to comply to another the result is role con ict 0 All groups have established norms which are acceptable standards of behavior shared by their members that express what they ought and not ought to do under circumstances 0 The impact of the group pressures for conformity which is the adjustment of one s behavior to align with the norms of the group 0 People conform to the important groups to which they belong or hope to belong These important groups are reference groups in which a person is aware of other members de nes himself or herself as a member or would like to be a member 0 Deviant Workplace behavior is a voluntary behavior that violates signi cant organizational norms and in doing so threatens the well being of the organization to its members 0 Status is a socially de ned position or rank given to groups or group members by others which permeates every society 0 According to status characteristics theory status tends to derive from one of three sources 1 The power a person wields over others 2 A person39s ability to contribute to a group39s goals 3 An individuals personal characteristics High Status and Norms highstatus people are able to deviate from norms Status and Group Interaction highstatus people tend to be more assertive group members Status lnequity Group members must believe the status hierarchy is equitable Status and Stigmatization The status of people with whom you are af liated can also affect other s views of you Group Size 0 Groups with a dozen or more members have diverse input 0 Social loa ng is the tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than alone Cohesiveness Cohesiveness is the degree to which members are attracted to each other and motivated to stay in the group Diversity 0 Diversity is the degree to which members of the group are similar to or different from one another 0 Diversity appears to increase group con ict especially in the early stages of the group 0 One possible side effect in diverse teams is faultlines Faultines are perceived divisions that split groups into two or more subgroups based on individual differences such as sex race age work experience and education Group Decision Making 0 Strengths groups generate more complete information and knowledge offer increase diversity of views and acceptance of a solution Weaknesses group decisions are time consuming conformity pressures group decisions can be dominated by certain members and there is an ambiguous responsibility GroupThink Groupthink relates to norms and describes situations in which group pressures for conformity deter the group from criticay appraising unusual minority or unpopular views Groupthink is a disease that attacks many groups and can dramatically hinder performance Groupshift describes the way group members tend to exaggerate the initial positions they hold when discussing a given set 0 alternatives and arriving at a solution Group DecisionMaking Techniques 0 Interacting groups are typical groups in which members ineract with each other face to face Brainstorming is an ideageneration process that speci cally encourages any and all alternatives while withholding any criticism of those alternatives 0 The nominal group technique is a group decisionmaking method in which individual members meet face to face to pool their judgments in a systematic but independent fashion
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