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Psych 1101 Final Study Guide

by: Gunawork

Psych 1101 Final Study Guide PSYCH 1101

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These are organized notes from the class lectures, and SI notes, which includes a mock exam to the final chapters we covered after test 2. I hope this is helpful to you and happy studying. :)
Intro to General Psychology
Study Guide
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This 23 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gunawork on Thursday April 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 1101 at Georgia State University taught by Flemming in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see Intro to General Psychology in Psychlogy at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 04/21/16
Psych 1101 Final Study Guide Chapter 7b, 12, 13, 14 INTELLIGENCE (-ability to retain info.; applying info.) (mental potential to learn from experience, solve problems, and adapt to new situations) (highly functional in your daily life) - Fluid vs. Crystallized • It’s about application • Accumulation of facts - IQ à intelligence quotient (mental age / actual age) x 100 - g à Speerman’s g à general (intelligence; solving unfamiliar centers; application of knowledge to now situations) - Gardner’s Multiple Intelligence Theory • 8 independent types of “skills” – intelligence - Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence (multiply intelligence à independent) 1. Analytical à verbal skills, math skills (book smart) 2. Creative à novel application/ generation of new ideas 3. Practical à application to everyday task (street smart) INTELLIGENCE GENERAL INTELLIGENCE g / | \ Numerical Spatial Verbal ability ability ability g / | | \ Verbal Perceptual Working Processing comprehension organization memory speed ASSESSMENT - Wechsler’s adult intelligence scale à recognizing patterns (abstract reasoning) • Reliability à constant over life time • Validity à intelligence – SAT performance (they measure whatever the test is designed to measure = whatever we define intelligence as (Heritability ~ 50%) GROUP DIFFERENCE - Environmental Factors • Malnutrition – neurons don’t function optimally • Poverty – stress – impedes cognitive performance - Test-Taking Factors • Stereo-type threat à too much self doubt influencing test outcome STRESS (-exhaustion –physically & mentally), it’s a response, highly adaptive (weight gain or loss (metabolic, cortisol, heart-rate, & respiration goes UP) à physical arousal), *readiness potential (fight or flight) *need to respond STRESSORS - Event that causes a stress response - Long-lasting / catastrophe’s Examples: 1. Death of spouse/ close friend 2. & 3. Divorce / prison 4. Getting married 5. Having a child STRESS – RESPONSE (General Adaptation Syndrome) 1. Alarm Reaction (reflex) à mobilizing resources 2. Resist à confronting (what do I have to do to make the stressor go away) 3. Exhaustion à resources are depleted STRESS APPRAISAL - Stressor à Appraisal (mindset) à Response… / \ threat challenge | | avoidance solutions Response à (threat) phase 1. Stressed to exhaustion (distracted) (challenge) phase 2. Arousal à focused COPING 1. Problem-Focused à being very objective à confronting stressor for permanent deletion 2. Emotion-Focused à avoid à attend to your emotional needs à thinking of positive things 3. Learned-Helplessness (perceived lack of control) à giving up à made some responses that were not successful à no contingency in behavior; (extinction of all behavior) CONTROL/ LEARNED HELPLESSNESS ANXIETY DISORDERS (-general adaptation syndrome (GAS) that is prolonged) – with no end in sight – no visible turn of events - Panic à momentary/ intense feeling of anxiety - PTSD à with trauma (general disorder) - Phobias à anxiety disorder - Appraisal à prolonged threat appraisal PSYCHOLOGY DISORDERS - Statistically a typical/ uncommon – extraordinary - Dysfunctional – interferes with daily life, on a regular basis Ø Depression –buildup of learned helplessness – frustration à giving up (anger) - “feelings of sadness” –(widespread) Ø Biological perspective Neurotransmitters 1. Norepinephrine - general excitatory neurotransmitter (N.T) – normally increases arousal (keeps you awake) - exercise increases norepinephrine - decreases during depression 2. Serotonin à mood – regulates emotion - Acts directly on the amygdala - Decreases during depression - SSRI (specific serotonin reuptake inhibitor) block reuptake Ø Social – Cognitive Perspective Rumination à overthinking with a fixation of problems (focusing on the negative in life) à being mindful of your overthinking behavior (realize it) Explanatory Style (appraisal) à how you think of your problems Depression Depression à {Stable | Global | Internal} Successful coping à {Temporary(realistic) | Specific | External} Ø Schizophrenia - Paranoia - Delusions - No empathy - False perception/ hallucination Ø Dopamine over-activity – general/ reward excitatory N.T. *6-8 times receptors increases Thalamus (sensory relay); Broca’s (speaking (illogical speech); Wernicke’s (language comprehension (meaning things you don’t hear) *Solution: block dopamine receptors Brain Abnormality - Frontal lobe à higher-level thinking – inhibition – differentiating fantasy/ reality. – Reduced frontal lobe activity (in schizophrenia) - Thalamus – reduced grey matter THERAPEUTIC APPROACHES IN PSYCHOLOGY 1) Psychotherapy (talk therapy) – interpretation of resistance (“metal blocks”) which is a defense mechanism – history focused 2) Biomedical therapy – drugs (psychoactive) – neurotransmitter function HUMANISTIC THERAPY Ø Promotes in terms of identifying problems personal growth & change (self- aware) Ø Client-focused à future-focused ACTIVE LISTENING/ REFLECTIVE SPEECH - How does that make you feel? **feeling turns into thinking(problem-focused) about feeling **gaining a new perspective BEHAVIOR THERAPY – principle of learning **creating new pathway ß concerning the snake example Classical à concrete conditioning à CS + New US - Exposure to US - Systematic desensitization à starting with benign version of the CS Operant à contingency management (cause-effect (Response-Outcome)) - System of reward/ punishment COGNITIVE THERAPY à introducing adaptive ways of thinking à problem-focused Change: Focus: internal à external Appraisal: threat à challenge Perspective: stable à temporary; global à specific Coping à recognition control à showing you how you do/ have had control THERAPEUTIC LIFESTYLE CHANGES Mindfulness à being aware of healthy coping MIND; BODY - Don’t isolate yourself à social communication (support & new perspective) - Nutrition à healthy neurons - Exercise à increase endorphins PROACTIVE/ PREVENTATIVE RESILENCE PRACTICE - Adaptability Practice questions… 2. Although Nicole scored well above average on an academic aptitude test, she frequently loses her temper and needlessly antagonizes even her best friends. Her behavior best illustrates a low level of A) the g factor. B) emotional intelligence. C) street smarts. D) creative intelligence. 4. Training people to actively dispute their own self-defeating ideas best illustrates A) behavior therapy. B) client-centered therapy. C) psychoanalysis. D) cognitive therapy. 5. The intelligence test scores of today's better-fed population ________ the scores of the 1930s population. A) can't be compared with B) are equal to C) are higher than D) are lower than 6. Abnormally low levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin are associated with A) disruptive mood dysregulation disorder. B) bipolar disorder. C) mania. D) depression. 7. Diane is constantly concerned about things at work even when she is at home. She is constantly worried about her home life even when she is at work. Diane's free-floating anxiety leaves her tense and irritable, impairs her concentration, and results in many sleepless nights. Diane suffers from a(n) A) obsessive-compulsive disorder. B) phobia. C) social anxiety disorder. D) generalized anxiety disorder. 9. Benny's mother tries to reduce his fear of sailing by giving the 3-year-old his favorite candy as soon as they board the boat. The mother's strategy best illustrates A) cognitive therapy. B) transference. C) interpersonal psychotherapy. D) counterconditioning. 10. Professor McIntosh emphasizes that depression often involves the interactive influences of self-focused rumination, rejection from others, and low serotonin levels. The professor's emphasis best illustrates A) a biopsychosocial approach. B) genetic influences. C) the medical model. D) the learning perspective. 11. Humanistic therapists are likely to teach clients to A) adapt more readily to social norms and expectations. B) take more responsibility for their own feelings and actions. C) focus more on other people's feelings than on their own. D) imitate the behavior of others who are happy and successful. 14. A perceived loss of control is associated with ________ stress hormone levels and ________ immune system activity. A) decreased; decreased B) increased; increased C) increased; decreased D) decreased; increased 15. A token economy represents an application of the principles of A) classical conditioning. B) operant conditioning. C) systematic desensitization. D) humanistic therapy. 18. A psychological disorder is a syndrome marked by a clinically significant disturbance that A) represents a significant disturbance in a person's cognitions, emotion regulation, or behaviors. B) is biologically influenced, unconsciously motivated, and difficult to change. C) is selfish, habitual, and avoidable. D) is aggressive, persistent, and intentional. 19. Experts would most likely agree that intelligence is a(n) A) multiple array of completely independent adaptive traits. B) inborn ability to perform well on standard intelligence tests. C) mental ability to learn from experience. D) general trait that underlies success on nearly any task. 22. Aerobic exercise has been most closely linked to a decrease in A) cancer. B) problem-focused coping. C) endorphin production. D) depression. 23. Which perspective suggests that explaining our own failures in terms that are global, stable, and internal contributes to depression? A) social-cognitive B) linkage analysis C) biological D) learning 26. Mr. Choi's therapist wants to help him become aware of his conflicting childhood feelings of love and hate for his parents. The therapist's goal best reflects a primary aim of A) systematic desensitization. B) client-centered therapy. C) cognitive therapy. D) psychoanalysis. 27. Reinforcing desired behaviors and withholding reinforcement for undesired behaviors is most central to the process of A) free association. B) behavior modification. C) progressive relaxation. D) classical conditioning. 28. To break the vicious cycle of depression, the social-cognitive perspective suggests that people should be encouraged to explain their failures in terms that are both A) internal and global. B) internal and stable. C) external and temporary. D) external and global. 29. Attempting to alleviate stress directly by changing the stressor is known as A) biofeedback. B) spontaneous remission. C) mindfulness meditation. D) problem-focused coping. 31. A measure of intelligence based on head size is likely to have a ________ level of reliability and a ________ level of validity. A) high; low B) low; low C) high; high D) low; high 32. Schizophrenia is associated with an excess of receptors for A) acetylcholine. B) norepinephrine. C) dopamine. D) serotonin. Chapter 1-5 Humans are very complex beings We are all different in a variety of ways Behavior itself is highly variable Behavior can be very unpredictable because of experience and choice The score that means the most is the MEDIAN 10 genes are coded for the eye color 100s of genes are coded for your personality If identical twins were separated at birth, and were raised in a different household but had similar personalities, we can conclude that personality has a greater biological influence (which is contributed by nature) Adoptive children are more likely to have personality characteristics that are similar to their biological parents All mental activity and behavior ultimately arises from chemical and electrical signaling Dendrite à connects/ receives messages from previous neuron “listening” Axon à sends messages Cell body à keep the cell alive Synapse à synapse is the gap/ space between neurons Neurotransmitter à chemicals that jump the gap Axon terminals à connects to the next dendrites Myelin sheath à covers the axon (lipids/fats) speeds up transmission The frontal lobes contain the (pre)frontal and motor cortices The function of the occipital lobe is vision Temporal is to hearing whereas parietal is to somatosensation (touch, movement) The function of the amygdala is emotional regulation Interpretation of environmental stimuli, top-down processing are not consistent with the concept of sensation. Gustation (act of fasting) and Olfaction (act of smell) are chemical senses and they rely on the binding of molecules at receptor sites. (Perception) Top-Down processing are when 2 people look at the same piece of artwork, one person claims its brilliant while the other think its junk. -Interpretation- (Sensation) Bottom-Up à detection; data driven We perceive a circle and a square because of closure and continuity. We perceive a variety of different types of groupings because of similarity. Receptors for hearing are called cilia. Parallel processing is when a driver drives while talking to a frien d without any impairment to his driving. Parallel processing accounts for unconscious behaviors, fast, autonomic processing. Learning is information acquisition, change in behavior or mental associations and due to experience. Thunder is unconditioned stimulus. Lightning is a conditioned stimulus. In the context of PTSD, what stimulus have been classically conditioned? Gunshots with other mystery stimuli. Why did the little albert show fear toward the bearded man? Stimulus generalization. Main difference between classical conditioning and operant learning one results in a change in behavior, the other does not. A negative reinforcement is when you give a child a toy to shut them up. Waiting for a laundry to be finished in the washer so that yo u can put it in the dryer and getting paid once per week on a salary (no matter how many hours you work) are an example of a fixed interval of reinforcement. Somatic map à maps the motor cortex Retina Rods form b/w Cones form color Genotype à genetic material Phenotype à observable characteristics Polygenic traits à many genes à gene complexes Amygdala à emotions/ regulation Hypothalamus à sex (reward center) Hippocampus à memory-formation ^^^ these 3 make up the Limbic System Corpus callosum à connects the 2 hemispheres Thalamus à sensory rely Sends (increases neurotransmission)à Excitatory NT à Agonist Stops à Inhibitory NT à Antagonist Classical Condition (Pavlov) à relies more on association between stimuli and responses (involuntary reflexive) Operant Condition (Skinner) à changing (voluntary) behaviors Reuptake refers to the reabsorption of excess neurotransmitter molecules by sending neuron To discover the extent to which economic status can be used to predict political preferences, researchers are most likely to Correlational Measures The depolarization of a neural membrane can create a(n) Action Potential Researchers use experiments rather than other research methods in order to isolate Causes from Effects The removal of electric shock is to the receipt of money as Primary Reinforcer is to Conditioned Reinforcer Chapter 10, 11 SELF in SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY - Personality à pattern of behavior thoughts, emotion that are defining of who you are [& that are consistent] PROJECTIVE TESTS - Thematic Appreciation Test (TAT) à ambiguous story lines - Rorschach Blots à ambiguous images to determine how you perceive the world-stimulus that trigger an “unconscious” self HUMANISTIC THEORIES à potential for (Ability/ propensity for change) personal growth (assessing) (self-awareness) - Trait theories - Trait = genetic predisposition for patterns of behavior, etc. - Temperament = characteristic level of reactivity o Extraversion/ introversion – need for external stimulation/ sensitivity o Stability/ instability – ability to seek novelty & change 5 FACTOR TRAIT THEORY OF PERSONALITY Openness à being curios, original, intellectual, creative, and open to new ideas Conscientiousness à being organized, systematic, punctual, achievement oriented, dependable Extraversion à being outgoing, talkative, sociable, and enjoying social situations Agreeableness à being affable, tolerant, sensitive, trusting, kind, and warm Neuroticism à being anxious, irritable, temperamental, and moody v Myers-Briggs personality “types” (indicator) (MBTI) **types are not traits v Heritability à height 85% and personality 50% v Stability à over life-time v Cross-Cultural Consistency PERSON-SITUATION CONTROVERSY - Personality open to change in drastically different - “play the part” - 30% variability across situations - different factors are expressed differently in difference environments SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORY Reciprocal determinism with traits & environment (gene/environment interaction) 1. Different people choosing different environment 2. Personality shapes our interpretation of events 3. Person helps creates situations in which we can react SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY v Attribution Theory à disposition(blame the person(kids are egocentrorm)) situation - Fundamental attribution error v Attitudes à feeling that predisposes us to respond - Central Route - analytical focus - Peripheral Route (social cues) – incidental influences § Cognitive Dissonance à contradictory routes of thinking - Goal is to balance out any conflicting information SOCIAL INFLUENCE • Automatic Mimicry à copy-foundation of (empathy) - Copying emotions = emotion contagion • Conformity à doing & thinking what others do/think • Obedience à “shocking” GROUP BEHAVIOR • Social Facilitation à performance strengthened in presence of others - social “pressure” competition (a little bit of anxiety (arousal) • Social Loafing à in presence of group we feel personally less accountable - responsibility is diffused equally across a group • De-Individuation à losing self-awareness & then self-identity • Group Polarization à enhancement in uniqueness in thought around other similar minded people ANTI-SOCIAL RELATIONS v Prejudice à predisposed attitudes/ emotions about another person/ group - Attitude, emotion - Founded in a social generalization COGNITIVE ROOTS OF PREJUDICE categorization – of “things” v Ingroup Bias à prefer things/ people we can relate to - Safe/comfort – we know about them v Outgroup Homogeneity à everyone that doesn’t look like me, looks the same SOCIAL ROOTS OF PREJUDICE v Social Inequality à not everyone is equal - Need for “Just World” **ratifying the inequality and get out of the ‘Us vs. Them’ mentality US vs. THEM --When we don’t resolve the root of the problem, i t expands to a bigger problem. ALL OF US vs. ALL OF THEM Chapter 6, 7a, 8 MEMORY (active process) RECALL vs. RECOGNITION (types of retrieval) Recallà self-generating of information & more active Recognition stimulus (C.S) & familiarity judgment Processes: 1. Encoding learning… thinking association 2. Storage retaining 3. Retrievalgetting information out Serial Position Curve Primacy effect Rehearsal Recovery effect Short Term Memory (STM) Proactive interferenold info. interferes w/ learning new things Retroactive interferennew learning w/ remembering old info. 3-STAGE MODAL/ MODEL 1. Sensory(buffer) memory è Capacity: unlimited è Duration: 50ms per. sec. 2. Short term memory (STM) è Capacity: 7 +/- 2 items… what is an item? **chunking (group w/ meaning) helps increase the capacity of short-term memory. è Duration: 15-25 sec. Processing: AUTOMATIC & EFFORTFUL è Automatic (implicit association): shallow(relevels of processing è Effortful (effective, conscious w/ a lot of attmaking: deep connection w/ long term memory 3. Long Term Memory (LTM) è Capacity: unlimited è Duration: unlimited TRANSFER to LTM Spaced vs. Massed practice –- Attention & Memory consolidation Spaced –> NOT cramming and it’s more effective Massed –> cramming Attention –> less is transferred to STM Memory –> recognition **Testing effect Retrieval Practice WORKING MEMORY Sensory / \ Phonological Loop Visuospatial Skeptical \ / Central Executive | LTM Phonological Loop – language, auditory, *(repeat words, read, verbal tasks) Central Executive – mediating (mediator) Visuospatial Skeptical – visual info. LTM includes – Sensory, Phonological Loop, Visuospatial Skeptical, and the Central Executive STM includes – Phonological Loop, Visuospatial Skeptical, and the Central Executive MEMORY AT THE NEURAL LEVEL 3 processes • Encoding • Storage • Retrieval Synaptic changesà Wiring together = long term potentiation (w/ repeated stimulation, and the release of neurotransmitters increases) Retrievalà getting information out è Retrieval cues – recognition Context – depend, Memory – encoding specificity --environmentà provides implicit/ retrieval cues (automatic) State – depend/ mood congruency FORGETTING? Encoding failure vs. Retrieval failure • Encoding failure – inattional “remembering” • Retrieval failure – retrieval is constructive “rebuilding” è Storage decay (decreases likelihood of post synaptic firing = forgetting **fades the pathways that were originally encoded è Interference/ construction errors • --Misinformation effect è Misleading past event information (MPI) è Source Amnesia COGNITION – THINKING & PROBLEM – SOLVING Thinking vs. Learning -Making association Memory – recalling association Cognition – processing – interpreting association – making sense – doing something – integrate/ transform CONCEPTS/ VISUAL IMAGERY • Prototypeà averaged form of (mental imagery) that includes necessary features of the concepts (Concepts) general ideal/ collection of facts about an idea semantically PROBLEM-SOLVING • Trial & Error with no information or completely novel situation – inefficient (randomly trying different combinations in no particular order when we tried to spell PSYCHOLOGY when it was CLOOYSPHYG) • Algorithms à meaningful, organized, step by step procedure (carefully checking every single combination beginning with the letter “C” before moving on to a different letter when we tried to spell PSYCHOLOGY when it was CLOOYSPHYG) • Heuristics rule-based on experience (due to likelihood of occurring) (considering logical reasoning’s to solve problems) OBSTACLES TO PROBLEM-SOLVING (prove the disapproving theory) • Mental Set “way of thinking” – default mode of thinking • Functional Fixedness default function from a familiar item • Confirmation Bias looking for information that confirms our beliefs or confirm a rule • Availability Heuristilikelihood of something that is very salient; strongest neural pathway • Over Confidence • Belief Perseveranceholding on to previously told beliefs REASONING -> transformation of information to reach conclusions Inductive Specific---------------------------- ß -------------------General- Deductive THINKING CREATIVITY à producing ideas Convergent à taking facts & arriving at a solution; problem solving (facts) (answers) Divergent à generating ideas based on one particular fact/ assumption (idea) (stimulus) LANGUAGE & THINKING (language influences thinking & thinking affects language) **Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis ^^ LANGUAGE & THE BRAIN • Wernicke’s Area à hearing words (auditory cortex and Wernicke’s area); language comprehension • Broca’s Area à speaking words (Broca’s area and the motor cortex); language production Communication – conveying any kind of meaning Language – infinite “productivity” generativity **UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Receptiveà understanding (what kids do at first) Productiveà producing/ speaking (1) babble: phonemes (sound in language; ^^example. Ma ma) (2) one word: 9 months (3) 2 words: 18-24 months (4) sentences (generating, Broca’s area undergoing rapid development (semantic burst)): 28 months Critical/ sensitive periodnervous system needs input in a variety of modalities in other to grow or develop COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT • When does development begin? Critical period & synaptogenesis (starts in first trimester) < Qualitative vs. Quantitative differences/ changes > Qualitative – different type of ability – new abilities emerge over time in development; “thinking differently” Quantitative – more or less of an ability; “knowing more” v Piaget’s theory of cognitive development is a comprehensive theory about the nature and development of human intelligence. Piaget believed that one's childhood plays a vital and active role in a person's development. Assimilation – become a part of; (applying new to old) Ø Interpreting according to past experience Accommodation – adapting your old way of thinking Ø Adjusting old information to fit new experiences STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT 1. Sensorimotor (stage 0 – 2 years old) à knowledge is based on sensory experience; no interpretation/ “perception”; recognition but recall “out of sight, out of mind” à object permanence – lack it (invisible displacement) 2. Preoperational (stage 2 – 6 + 7 yeaàs lacking logic (abstract thinking)à conservation -**water amount, clay and the M&M examples from clasà egocentrism -only their point of view/ peràptheory of mind -mental perspectives, attribute a different state of knowledge to other individuals 3. Concrete operational (stage 7 – 12 years old) à mental operations -prototypes(transform information) -abstraction of the physical world 4. Formal operational (stage 12+ years) à abstract reasoning(deductive) à mental operations on abstract rules à deductive reasoning SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT • Imprint à bond based on needs being met • Attachment à emotional bond another person Task à storage situation STYLES OF ATTACHMENT à • Secure crying is absence, ceasing cry upon return • Insecure/ Anxion’sà crying in absence, continues to cry – inconstancy/ abandonment; Abuse – needs not being met, being avoided • Avoidant à no crying – ever! ^^^are indicative of how much trust you have Development of … trust, etc.: intimacy, friendships DEVELOPMENT OF SELF-CONCEPT • Mirror self-recognition – 18 months’ infants pass • Self in relation to others – changing relation to others v Erik Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development TRUST à INITIATIVE à COMPETENCE à INTIMACY à INTEGRITY v Kohlberg’s Level of Moral Development Preconventional à reward(good) & punishment(bad) (Follows rules to avoid punishment. Acts in own interest. Obedience for its own sake) Conventional à maintaining social fairness/ justice obey laws (Lives up to expectations of others. Fulfills duties and obligations of social system. Upholds laws) Post-conventional à putting aside the rules/ justified behavior (Follows self-chosen principles of justice and right. Aware that people hold different values and seeks creative solutions to ethical dilemmas. Balances concern for individual with concern for common good) DEVELOPMENT & AGING (60+ years old) - Memory - Neurocognitive disorders • Myelin sheath production goes DOWN • Acetylcholine (NT) goes DOWN (excitatory) - Amygdala response • Responsiveness only to negative events • Old people are happier


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