Entom 102 Exam 2 Study Guide
Entom 102 Exam 2 Study Guide 8404
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Irene A. on Saturday February 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 8404 at Washington State University taught by Dr. Owen in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 149 views. For similar materials see ENTOM 102 in Biology at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 02/21/15
ENTOM 102 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE How do drugs work on microbes Drugs block and disrupt the pathways parasites use to get energy and reproduce and prevent it from functioning normally Why do drugs fail hint selection amp evolution Antigenic variation parasites can change their outward appearance Populations have variations as weaker populations are killed off by drugs the drugresistant populations continue to increase This ultimately weakens the effectiveness of drugs and can eventually make them useless What are antibodies How do they protect you Antibodies are molecules with sticky branches produced by the body39s immune system They stick to molecules recognized as foreign or dangerous and disrupt their functions as well as marking its target for death How do vaccines work in the body What are challenges to making them Vaccines introduce parts of a virus or a weakened version of a virus to the body39s immune system This introduction stimulates the immune system39s antibody production allowing the body to prepare a defense before it actually encounters a real threat If the body is infected by a virus that it has been vaccinated for the immune system already has the antibodies necessary to destroy it before the body gets sick Vaccines can be difficult to make because the viruses or parasites that cause illness have multiple targets for antibodies and not every target makes for an effective attack Because there are limits to how many different types of antibodies can be introduced at one time it39s impossible to simply vaccinate for every single target those making the vaccines must figure out which parts of the parasite need to be targeted in order for the immune system39s antibodies to be effective What is required to make vaccines protect a population hint herd immunity Vaccination is a group effort and it is only effective if the majority of a population takes part The concept of quotherd immunityquot means that the people who are vaccinated will protect people who are not or cannot be vaccinated If someone who has not been vaccinated is infected they likely won39t be able to spread it because the majority of the people around them will be vaccinated If a person who has been vaccinated becomes infected their immune system will kill the parasite before it has a chance to reproduce and spread What are barriers to delivering medicine and vaccines Areas lacking a medical infrastructure may not have the supplies or equipment necessary to properly treat people areas undergoing major social or political upheaval tend to difficult and dangerous for health workers to access people living in areas without access to widescale education may not understand how vaccines work and therefore be reluctant to get one religious and cultural norms may also contribute some people may not trust the idea of vaccines based on misinformation ex quotvaccines cause autismquot What do mosquitoes need to complete the life cycle Mosquitoes need water in which to lay their eggs As larvae they live in the water and require a certain amount of warmth in order to grow for food they rely on bacteria and decaying debris drifting in the water As adults they require nectar from owers for sugar and energy and blood Via interaction with hosts for producing eggs Like most other organisms they also need air and shelter What factors in the environment affect mosquito growth and development TemperatureSeasons mosquitoes grow faster in warmer weather Water Mosquito larvae need to live in a wet environment Landscape Larvae need to live in a place that can hold water Why is West Nile virus infection variable across space and time Mosquitoes only occur in places where the weather allows them to survive Many areas do not have yearround conditions that are conducive to mosquito growth and reproduction weather temperature food supply Mosquitoes may only be present in an area for a few weeks or months out of a year What animals are affected by West Nile virus What are the differences Mosquitoes and birds can pass the virus back and forth between them Humans and horses can also be infected but they will not transmit the virus back to the mosquito Most people 80 are asymptomatic 20 experience ulike symptoms and 06 become extremely ill Horses experience a mortality rate of 40 or more ARTICLE quotArctic Temperatures Create Enormous Ice Formations At Niagara Fallsquot 0 freezing air temperatures cause mist from the falls to be frozen in place 0 caused by cold snap hitting US 0 expected to be coldest February on record temperature hasn39t risen above freezing 0 falls can39t completely freeze over too much moving water ARTICLE quotThe World Could Be On The Verge Of Losing A Powerful Malaria Drugquot 0 strain of malaria resistant to highly effective drugs artemisinins is spreading 0 newly appeared in Myanmar Burma 0 already widespread in Cambodia amp other side of Myanmar 0 resistant strain seen near Indian border 0 fears that it could spread to other areas of the world if it reaches India 0 other drugresistant strains have originated in SE Asia amp spread making previous treatments useless 0 researchers predict growing problems as malaria becomes more drugresistant could make current treatments useless as well
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