SPAU 3305: Exam 4 Review
SPAU 3305: Exam 4 Review spau 3305
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kimberly Notetaker on Thursday April 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to spau 3305 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by E. Touchstone in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views.
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Date Created: 04/21/16
ASSESSMENT Overview: In order to assess a child’s reading and written language abilities, there are certain factors that an educator NEEDS TO KNOW. o Letter knowledge o Letter sound awareness o Decoding abilities o Accuracy o Rate o Fluency o Comprehension NTK: Letter Knowledge - Is this a letter? (test using letter/symbol array) - Is this a capital letter? - Is this a consonant or a vowel? Letter-Sound Awareness - View grapheme, say letter, produce phoneme - Isolation of sounds in words o Positions o Initial o Final o Medial Decoding - Sound out words - Sound out nonsense words – rules should still apply Accuracy - Identify numbers of errors in print. Compare to national norms. (what is the % of accuracy?) Rate - Record reading speed and compare to national norms. Fluency - Combine scores for accuracy and rate. Compare to national norms. Comprehension - Interpretation of words that have been read aloud. - Difference in comprehension between silent and oral reading… Early Language Abilities- Basic Preschool Language Scale (PLS-5) » Auditory Comprehension » Expressive Communication Benefits: can be used with very young children (ages birth to 6), easy to administer, quick Drawbacks: not through enough to adequately detect early literacy differences Early Language Abilities- Detailed Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF) o Preschool and Elementary school versions Examines: o Core language o Receptive language o Expressive language o Language content o Language structure o Working memory (elementary only) Benefits: through test with add-ons for early reading abilities and phonological awareness, as well as social communication Drawbacks: takes more time, more complex scoring Pre-Reading Measures Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP) Phonological Awareness Test (PAT) Different approaches investigating similar skill sets Both investigate letter sound awareness, sound/syllable/word segmentation, early decoding abilities Reading Measures Gray Oral Reading Tests (GORT-5) » Accuracy » Rate » Fluency » Comprehension Narrative Language Measures Test of Narrative Language Investigates comprehension of language structures – comprehending and formulating structured narratives. Test of Written Language (TOWL-4) Narrative language in written form » Vocabulary » Spelling » Punctuation » Logical sentences » Sentence combining » Compositions Writing Skills o Dysgraphia – fine motor disorder that affects handwriting and manual manipulation abilities » Often occurs with dyslexia o Testing: Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities (WRAVMA) Design Copying Visual Spatial Matching Pegboard Tasks INSTRUCTION Use the “Invitation Approach Who? » Age, grade, gender, individual differences What? » What are your goals? When? » Frequency, time of year Where? » School, home, indoors, outdoors, etc. Why? » Why is the work you are doing important? How? » How will you track progress? GOAL: Letter Knowledge - Discriminate between letter or other symbol Letter-Sound Awareness - View grapheme, say letter, produce phoneme - Isolation of sounds in words o Positions o Initial o Final o Medial Decoding - Sound out words - Sound out nonsense words – rules should still apply Accuracy - Identify numbers of errors in print. Compare to national norms. (what is the % of accuracy?) Rate - Record reading speed and compare to national norms. Fluency (practice improves fluency) - Combine scores for accuracy and rate. Compare to national norms. Comprehension Improve comprehension: Refer to language testing – identify strengths and weaknesses Address language differences - Especially semantics - Also phonology, morphology, syntax Improve fluency Practice Written Expression Pencil grasp Practice with non-word forms Letter knowledge-grapheme and phoneme Single word proficiency Start with minimal pairs and build patterns » words that vary by only a single sound (cat, bat, rat, etc) Sentence construction (play with color) Free writing: Allow spelling errors until patterns are fully learned Repair spelling categories: Apel’s 5 Blocks » Phonemic Awareness » Orthographic Pattern Awareness » Mental Graphemic Representation (MGR’s) » Morphological Awareness » Semantic Awareness Integrate the components of written language Content o Semantics-lexicon (wordstock) Organization o Shape writing o Temporal information; transition words o Syntax Mechanics (the monitoring phase) *done last! o Spelling o Punctuation o Capitalization MOTIVATIONAL ISSUES To Teach Effectively Teachers need: o Knowledge of normative age trends o Factors that promote growth in skills Factors associated with learning outcomes: Family variables: o SES, parent education, parenting style, parent involvement Student characteristics: o Motivation, intelligence (are they teachable?) School variables: o Curriculum, instructional practices o The Teacher! (can’t underestimate the value of a good teacher) Success increases based on 2 conditions: o Exposure Condition (if children are readily available to reading material, chance of success increases); number of books in home study o Propensity Condition (how likely are you to take advantage of exposure) Motivation Ability (can increase or decrease motivation); i.e., swimming: Scandinavian adults less likely to know how to swim Motivation: Motivation: explains intention, direction and intensity of an individual’s behavior Engagement: being an active, attentive, curious and willing participant in the learning process Extrinsic Motivation (search for reward); important when little Intrinsic Motivation (Long Term Goal); far more effective GOALS o Nature of the goals: why people do what they do… o Types of goals: Learning (get something out of the process) vs. Performance (did I win) Proximal (short-term) vs. Distal (longer-term) Academic vs. Social ((go together – depends on the kid)) Process (interested in strategies) vs. Product (interested in the result) o Effects of goals: Depends on your approach – type of goal KNOWLEDGE o Know what you want and know how to get it. Re-think goals. o Intelligence is the ability to: Solve problems Learn from experiences Adapt (most of the time kids are better than adults at this) METACOGNITIVE PROCESSES o Monitoring of progress (keep it all in fact – so kids see the value of their action(s) not the value of their product(s) o Appraisal of actions: (evaluate the actions you have performed) Personal standards (what do you think is good enough?) Control beliefs (mindset kicks in; do you believe you have control over the outcome) Self-efficacy (belief that you can succeed; most kids have a high one) Ability beliefs (incongruence between self-efficacy & ability beliefs); some disconnect between what you think you can do; how self-aware you are Interests o Appraisal of outcomes: Expectations (how well do you manage your expectations) Causal attributions (requires you to think about yourself and admit your faults); intentionally looking backwards to figure out what you did wrong/right to change your behaviors in the future Values (do your outcomes match what’s important to you) Emotions (how do these outcomes make you feel emotionally) Facilitating Motivation Ames (1992) Focus on effort & learning Intrinsic over extrinsic Attribute success to effort and effort-based strategies Employ effective learning strategies Engage with students Demonstrate positive affect on high-effort tasks Demonstrate feelings of belongingness Develop appropriate levels of failure tolerance SOCIOCULTURAL ISSUES Gender Differences - What are you perceptions on gender differences? » Preschool: o Boys and girls have similar levels of vocabulary (McCarthur CDI) o Girls have more complex sentence constructions o Syntactic advantages did not translate into reading comprehension superiority - Time spent reading to children (all data by parents’ report); parents spend more time reading to little girls - Teacher attitudes? » Elementary: o Verbal fluency (boys) orthographic fluency (girls) compositional fluency (girls) » Adolescence: o Writing quality and quantity (girls); become wordier writers Reason for Gender Differences: o Genetics/biology? o Educator attitudes? o Motivation? SES: (*The #1 risk factor for low SES – single mother with kids) o Per research – SES is a “powerful determinant” for: » Spoken language » Reading » Writing Motivational Issues: o Exposure condition (less opportunity for exposure) o Propensity condition Motivation Ability Ethnicity: o Differences are present BUT… o Please, beware of ethnic gloss when you infer that all members of an ethnic group share similar experiences, culturally or otherwise Dyslexia (doesn’t discriminate) - Equally affects girls and boys - Equal distribution among ethnicities - What about the SES determinant vs. dyslexia? » The exposure condition has limited reading ability; tells you it’s flexible
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