Midterm 1 study guide
Midterm 1 study guide HY104
Popular in History beyond 1865
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Popular in History
This 32 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sarah Notetaker on Saturday February 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HY104 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Elmore in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 160 views. For similar materials see History beyond 1865 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/21/15
11215 History 104 Lecture 1 Key Terms 1 Lincoln s Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction 2 Radical Republicans 3 War democrats 4 WadeDavis Bill 5 Thirteenth Amendment 6 Corwin Amendment 7 Andrew Johnson 8 Fourteenth Amendment 9 Freedmen s Bureau 10 Reconstruction Act of 1862 Central Questions 1 Can the country be reunited and if so what will it look like 2 What will freedom look like for 4 million men and women freed from bondage Aftermath of the Civil War 1 Early plans for reunion 18631865 a Lincoln s 10 plan December 1863 i Only 10 of confederate has to pledge their loyalty to the union in order to be readmitted ii Radical Republicans thought Lincoln was being soft 1 They wanted a big government and to protect the black citizens iii War democrats Fought for the union 1 Didn t care about black equality or ending slavery 2 Wants to end war with a union victory b WadeDavis Bill February 1864 i Over 50 of confederates had to pledge loyalty to the US ii Confederate leaders could not hold office or leadership positions in the US iii Bill was vetoed by Lincoln 11 Thirteenth Amendment and Emancipation a 13th Amendment i Passed by Congress January 31 1865 ii Ratified by December 5 1865 iii Outlawed slavery b Corwin Amendment proposed 13th Amendment i Allowed slavery to be ok ii Ratified by Ohio and Maryland prior to the civil war c 179000 blacks served in union forces III Lincoln s Assassination and Presidential Reconstruction under Andrew Johnson 18651867 a Lincoln assassinated April 5 1865 b Andrew Iohnson i Selfeducated ii Democrat iii Held his senate seat during the war iv Poor southerner V Racist not for black equality vi Very lenient on the south c Black Codes and Vagrancy Laws IV Roots of Radical Reconstruction a Radicals pissed about leniency b Renewed Freedman s Bureau in 1866 Test Questions 1 Did the 14th Amendment allow blacks to vote a No It said that if blacks were not allowed to vote by the state than that state could not count them as citizens for house representatives 11415 History 104 Lecture 2 Key Terms 1 Fisk University 2 Reconstruction Acts of 1867 3 Tenure of Office Act of 1867 4 Fifteenth Amendment 5 Hiram Revels 6 Colfax Massacre 7 Liberal Republicans 8 Compromise of 1877 9 Panic of 1873 10 Redemption Exam help Many people think that reconstruction failed but if you look at the early reconstruction successes that lead to the intense backlash seen in the later years of reconstruction Central Questions 1 Why did reconstruction end when it did 11 III Aftermath of the Civil War cont Roots of Radical Reconstruction 18671877 a Renewed Freedmen s Bureau in 1866 b Fourteenth Amendment June 14th 1866 c Reconstruction Acts of 1867 d Tenure of office act of 1867 i Says president can t remove cabinet member with congressional approval ii Violated by Andrew Johnson for removing Edwin M Stanton as Secretary of War on February 21 1868 iii Tried to appoint Ulysses S Grant but he refuses to take the job Andrew Iohnson s Impeachment 1868 a Passed by the house but not the senate by one vote b He violated congressional law Election of 1868 and Radical Reconstruction continues a Republicans pick Ulysses S Grant as their candidate i He was trying to promote peace b Fifteenth Amendment protect black males right to vote i Many people rebel against this because it doesn t include women c 2000 black Americans hold office during reconstruction i Hiram Revels elected in 1870 first black senator in Mississippi IV VI VII VIII IX 1 He fought in the civil war on the union forces ii PBS Pinchback first black governor Louisiana Radical Reconstruction s Success Breeds Southern Democrat Backlash a 1870s The KKK and Vigilante Violence i KKK found in Tennessee in 1866 b Colfax Massacre 1873 Louisiana i Republicans gained much control but there was much tension ii Black militia surrounded government building for protection iii White league attacked with cannons iv Black militia surrendered and over 100 black Americans were shot and killed 1 3 white men were killed c Enforcement Acts of 1871 i Grant wants to use the military to end the violent ii Causes the KKK to go underground in 1872 1 Resurface in the early 1900 s Radical Republicans begin to decline in 1870s a Leaders for black change begin to die off b Liberal Republicans wants to leave the south alone wants to clean up the northern government i Anti big government Presidential Election of 1872 a Democratic and Liberal Republican candidate is Horace Greeley editor of the New York Tribune Decline of Radical Reconstruction and Redemption 18721877 a Whiskey Ring Scandal of 1875 i Tax collectors got paid off to not collect tax from whiskey dealers b An economy in Shambles the Panic of 1873 i Economic crisis due to building railroads to far out places like Montana that can t be paid back Civil Rights act of 1875 a Public places can not be segregated b Declared unconstitutional by supreme court Redemption a States begin to get readmitted to the union b Redemption date white democrats redeem control of the southern states i Completed by 1877 c Removed black southerners and radical republicans from office Official end of reconstruction a Compromise of 1877 b Election of 1876 i Essentially a tie between Rutherford B Hayes and Samuel Tilman 12115 History 104 Lecture 3 Key Terms Gilded age Union Pacific Alexander Graham Bell Thomas Edison Andrew Carnegie Vertical Integration Standard Oil CocaCola PONP SJ39erSNNtquot Central Question 1 What forces encourage big businesses growth during the gilded age A Second Industrial Revolution Fosters a New Gilded Age 1870s to 1890s I The Second Industrial Revolution a Technological transformation Railroads i Railroads are the first big business ii Central Pacific and Union Pacific railroads connect to become first US transcontinental railroad May 10 1869 Promontory Summit Utah iii Created by railroad act of 1862 by Abraham Lincoln 1 Military decision iv Before railroads goods we transported by water and trade ceased in winter months v Railroads made good exchange simpler b Technological transformation Communication i 1861 Western Union invented transcontinental telegraph ii Alexander Graham Bell invented telephone in 1876 1 Immigrant from Scotland iii Thomas Edison 1 Phonograph 1877 2 Light Bulb 1879 3 Electric Power Generator 18805 c New Forms of Business Organizations Monopolies and Trusts i Andrew Carnegie 1 Scottish immigrant 2 Worked in telegraph and railroad industries 3 Carnegie Steel Company 18705 4 Vertical Integration ii John D Rockefeller 1 Standard Oil 1860s 2 Horizontal Integration d Government Aid to Big Businesses i Railroads struggle to create revenue 1 Yellowstone national park ii Government bonds pay 50 million to help build union pacific 1 Also given land grants iii Lax Incorporation Laws in Delaware 1 Business freedoms 2 Tax Preferential treatment e Cheap immigrant labor i Irish immigrants ii Chinese labors 1 Union pacific II The era of Mass Marketed consumer Goods Arrive a Cocacola capitalism i Iohn Pemberton invented CocaCola Atlanta 1886 1 Modeled after French wine laced with cocaine 12615 History 104 Lecture 4 Key Terms 1 CocaCola 2 Battle of Little Bighorn 3 Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 4 Republican and Democratic parties 18805 5 Populist movement 6 Sharecropping System 7 Omaha Platform 8 People s Party Central Question 1 What caused the populist movement and what did the populists want Coca Cola I The era of mass marketed consumer goods a CocaCola capitalism i Produced as a knock off Vin Mariani wine 1 Laced with cocaine until 1903 2 Still use Brazilian coca leaves today ii The government felt that alcohol was causing crime in the south 1 Prohibition in Atlanta 2 Removed the alcohol 3 Changed price from 1 to 005 iii Soda contained 5 pounds of sugar for every 1 gallon 1 Sugar was cheap because of mass production iv Coke became widespread in less than 10 years 11 Beneath the Golden Facade a Dispossessing Native Americans of their land b Battle of Little Bighorn 1876 i Montana and Dakota territories ii Gold was found in the black hills iii Native Americans were victorious but pissed of the US military iv General George A Custer and his 200 forces were killed c Dawes Act of 1887 i Forced the tribes to divide up the land given to them by the US ii Each family was given land they had to farm iii If they didn t farm it the government could take it back iv 67 percent of the land was repossessed and given to white settlers d Wounded Knee 1890 i Lakota Pine Ridge reservation ii Tribes performed a ghost dance and troops were sent to check on them iii 200 Native Americans were shot and killed 1 Hosted a mass burial e Growing wealth inequality i By 1890 there is a richest 1 category Presidential Politics in the 1880s 1 Presidential Politics in the 1880 s a No one remembers the presidents from 18771893 i Era before charismatic campaigning ii Closely contested elections throughout this period iii 80 voter turn out compared to 55 today iv Clear voter platform Reuthford B Hayes James A Garfield assassinated after 4 months in office Chester Alan Arthur Grover Cleveland First democrat at this time Benjamin Harrison 11 R publican Party Platform a High Protective tariff b Gold standard c Pay civil war debt and veterans pensions i Highly supported by union soldiers III Democratic Party Platform a Low tariff b Laissez Faire governance c Soft money silver only partially true i Mostly supported by southerners ii They did not want to import goods from England IV Third Political Faction Emerges by 1890s a Populist Party i Working class people ii Farmers hurt by banks and agricultural price drop b Roots of the Agrarian Problem i Sharecropping in the south 1 Government lent supplies but wanted a certain percentage of crops in return 2 Eventually took almost all the crops ii Global cotton production increased 1 Asia 2 South America iii Farmer s Alliances 1 Subtreasury plan and government lending programs Human a Wanted government to store goods and provide loans until markets improve 2 Regulate railroads 3 In short they wanted populism a Rule by the peoplequot iv Farmers Alliance and Women 1 Anne L Diggs Kansas populist c Populist Movement i Formation of the Peoples party and the Omaha platform 1 Omaha platform a Direct election of Senators b Public ownerships of railroads c Government loans to farmers d Graduated income tax 12815 History 104 Lecture 4 Key Terms 1 People s party 2 Knights of Labor 3 American Federation of Labor 4 Colored Farmers Alliance 5 Election of 1896 6 Jim Crow 7 Poll Taxes Literacy Tests Grandfather clause 8 Plessey vs Ferguson 9 Lynching s 10 Booker T Washington and WEB Dubois Central Questions 1 Why did the Populist Party fail 2 How did Jim Crow Segregation undermine American democracy in the late nineteenth century Populism Surges in Election of 1892 1 Cracks in the populist coalition a Failure to incorporate urban working class agitation b 35000 workers a year died on the job c Knights oflabor 1869 i Combined skilled workers and unskilled workers ii Included blacks and women iii Had 1 million members by 1886 d American Federation of labor 1886 i Much more exclusive e Labor unions begin to cause problems i Haymarket Uprising Chicago 1886 1 Fought for 8 hour work day 2 Strikers were killed by police brutality ii Knights oflabor declined to 100000 by 1890 iii Homestead PA strike 1892 1 Carnegie Steel company 2 24 hour a day operation 3 Low wages iv Pullman strike of 1894 1 Railway car company 2 Fighting for better working conditions 3 President Cleveland sent US troops in f Northern workers don t want to pay higher prices for agricultural products g Fractions along racial lines form i Creation of colored farmers alliance ii Division by race hurt populist movement 11 Election of 1896 a William Jennings Bryan i Governor from Nebraska ii Candidate for both the Democratic and Populist parties iii Platform for free silver 1 Thought it would benefit farmers and reduce debt b William McKinley i Governor from Ohio ii Backed by big businesses 1 Gold standard iii Republican candidate c Beginning of the current quotcampaignquot style d Huge turnout from voters i Some states had as much as 95 III The birth of Jim Crow Segregation a Whites performed parody musicals that made fun of blacks i Iim crow was a popular character b Separation was for the quotmodernquot things contrary to popular belief c The south did everything possible to keep blacks from voting i Poll Tax 1 Had to pay to vote 2 Many poor blacks couldn t afford to vote ii Grandfather Clause 1 If your grandfather could vote than so can you a Most blacks grandparents were enslaved iii Literacy tests 1 Had to answer questions about US history and the constitution 2 Assessed if they were eligible to vote 3 There were different tests for blacks and whites 4 Poll workers basically did whatever they wanted anyways d Alabama Legal Code 1901 i Separate schools for Blacks and Whites 1 Had to teach intolerance young ii Street cars in mobile were segregated iii Chain stores iv Commercial theaters v Unlawful for blacks and whites to play together 1 Birmingham 1950 vi The supreme court never intervened e Plessy vs Ferguson 2215 History 104 Lecture 6 Keywords 1 Seward s Folly Monroe Doctrine Panic of 1893 Frontier Thesis Manifest Destiny Alfred Thayer Mahan SpanishAmerican War USS Maine Insular Cases FPONP P39MPSNN Central Questions 1 Why did America seek imperial expansion overseas in the 1890 s Imperial Ambitions Overseas An American Empire Emerges 18901900 I A troubled nation at home looks to expand 11 America s isolationist past a International Context i Berlin Conference 18841885 1 Decided which nations would control parts of Africa the age of new imperialism 2 The United States was not really involved with this b Seward s Icebox i The United States acquired Alaska ii Named after William H Seward the secretary of state involved with the deal making iii Acquired in 1867 iv Paid 2 cents an acre 7 million total c The Monroe Doctrine 1823 i The western hemisphere is controlled by the US ii A US foreign policy iii Presented by James Monroe 111 Impetus for Expansion a Gilded Age for Economic Expansion 1893 b Panic of 1893 i Unemployment rise to 10 ii Over 600 Banks fail iii Economy is running at 80 of it s capacity 1 Some people think it is because of the currency policy trying to say with the gold standard 2 We were overproducing way more than the market could take supply and demand 3 Railroads were overextending to places where there is nothing a Not producing revenue b Railroad companies begin to go into debt iv Economic collapse c Closure of the American Frontier d Frederick Iackson Turner i Significance of the frontier in American historyquot 1893 ii American Historical Association AHA speech iii US census claims they cannot determine what is what 1890 1 There is no more frontier e Manifest Destiny and the white man s burdenquot i Iohn Gast American Progress 1872 1 Idea that we have Christian culture that is destined to conquer the west maybe even the world 2 Racialized white anglosaxon 3 tradition 4 It was the white mans burden to spread to the world in masses ii Patriotism was on the rise in the 1890 s 1 Flag day was create 2 The pledge of allegiance began to be said in classrooms 3 People wanted to spread anglosaxon tradition around the world f Alfred Thayer Mahan and sea power i In uence of sea power upon history 1890 ii Why don t Americans like peace time army s IV SpanishAmerican War 1898 a Cuba had been in control of the Spanish empire Cubans that were living on the island were reinstating Spanish rule Sugar companies in cuba were good c USS Maine sunk Feb 17 1898 270 Americans die i Drove America to war ii This ship was never actually shot by anyone it was a mechanical error iii William McKinley gives the ok iv Teller Amendment America will not take over cuba d Iohn Hay Secretary of State i A splendid little warquot 1 Admiral George Dewey US Navy 2 Invades Mania Bay Philippines May 1 1898 US goes for the war here a The Manila surrenders in a matter of months e Teddy Roosevelt and the Rough Riders San Juan Hill Cuba i Becomes US president in 1901 ii Him and his group take the hill and that is his upcoming for presidency iii The Spanish American War launched Roosevelt s career 1 He went to war at age 40 iv 2000 black americans fought during the Spanish American war V Treaty of Paris 1898 Dec 10 1898 and the Platt Amendment 1 America gets Puerto Rico as a territory Guam and military control over cuba and Hawaii a Sugar is grown in Hawaii f Legacies of Expansion i Insular Cases 1 This happens in 1901 2 Areas will be territory but may not receive all rights granted by the constitution 3 When black American soldiers come home they came through the south and many of them were spat at 4 Black americans still haven t been including in democracy 2415 History 104 Lecture 7 Keywords 1 Progressive Era 2 New Middle Class 3 The Jungle 4 Pure Food and Drug Act 1906 5 Jane Addams 6 Hull House 7 Tammany Hall 8 City Commission Movement Central Questions 1 What did progressive reformers hope to accomplish in urban America America in the New Millennium I Tough living in Dirty Cities a 1869 only 9 cities had more than 100000 inhabitants i Increased to 28 by 1890 b Boys as young as ten worked in labor factories i No labor laws 11 Roots of Progressivism a A new middle class b Fear of moral degradation contamination and corporate domination i Break up of monopolies III Progressive Era Reforms a Food Safety and Upton Sinclair s The jungle i Chicago s meat packing industry ii Startled people iii Food and Drug Act of 1906 1 Now known as FDA iv Meat inspection Act of 1906 1 USDA inspected all meat packaging factories b Social Justice Jane Addams Victorian ideals and settlement houses i Jane Addams 1 College educated a Studied Christian faith and medicine 2 Settlement house movement a Middle class people moved into poverty communities to help Americanize the immigrants living there 3 Hull House a First settlement house b Chicago 1889 c Immigrants were forced to embrace Americanism 4 She was a promoter of prohibition a Thought alcohol was a big problem b Member of the Women s Christian Temperance Union ii Reforming urban political machines 1 Tammany Hall Ring a Trade political favors to get votes from immigrants b Wards would negotiate with the poor iii City commissions and environmental clean up efforts 1 Setting up water systems a Sewers b Brought water from outside of cities because the water was less polluted 2915 History 104 Lecture 8 Key terms Theodore Roosevelt Square Deal America s First National Bank Gospel of Efficiency US Forest Service Gifford Pinchot John Muir Hetch Hetchy PONP SJ39erSNNtquot Central Questions 1 What did environmental conservation mean to progressive reformers Nature s Nation The conservation Movement and Progressive National Politics 1900 1914 I National Progressive Politics beyond the city a Teddy Roosevelt i 1901 Becomes president because McKinley was assassinated ii 19011909 US President iii One of the first celebrity presidents and he represented the many tough men in America 1 Tough aggressive outdoorsman iv He believed in a strenuous life v Was a sickly kid with asthma vi Born in 1858 to a very wealthy family and wanted to fight for progressive causes throughout his life vii He moved to the Dakotas after his wife died to become a cowboy viii He was a radical in a way that he did not care about his actions he was a pure badass b The three C s Corporate control i Square deal 1 Corporate control fighting the monopolies standard oil and railroad tycoons a He doesn t want companies to exploit middle class 2 Consumer protection a Pure food and drug act 3 Conservation a Fighting to preserve the environmental and the beautiful places in the world 11 The Birth of the Conservation Movement a The Gospel of Efficiency Roosevelt believes in it i The government should be involved in overseeing the use of natural resources so that they do not run out ii Natural resources should be used to succeed and help in every day life iii America s First National Park 1 Yellowstone National Park b Yellowstone National Park 1872 i Idea where the national park would bring the union and everything together that had been fractured by the war ii National P Langford iii Ferdinand Hayden iv Yellowstone will generate revenue and get people to come to the northern pacific region sand it will generate tourism v Yellowstone is the first national park in the world vi By the end of 1900s there will be 4 other national parks III The Preservationists vs The Conservationists a The Conservationists Teddy Roosevelt and Gifford Pinchot i Basically sets aside a country to preserve over 200 some million acres ii Grand Canyon National Movement 1908 iii 1905 Roosevelt creates Forest Service Department of Agriculture iv Gifford Pinchot 1 1St chief of US forest service ivy league graduate 2 Believes in using mass resources for the benefit of the people 3 First principle is development to help with the benefit of the people b John Muir and the Sierra Club 1892 i Needed to do more to protect and preserve ii More of preservationists iii John Muir Scottish came to Wisconsin in 1911 working with a metal file in his late teens and it popped into his eyes 1 Walks form Wisconsin to orida to see the land 1867 1868 2 Contracted Malaria more than likely from a cemetery in Savannah GA Goes to California and goes to the Park 4 Helps find Sierra Club and is one of the first organizations to help the preservation 5 Was really close to Teddy Roosevelt 6 Was considered to be in the world and of it he though engagement was important c The battle over Hetch Hetchy Valley i 1908 the city of San Francisco wants to dam the valley 9 ii 1906 earthquake hits San Francisco 21115 History 104 Lecture 9 Key terms Northern Securities Case William Howard Taft PinchotBallinger Affair Progressive Party Socialist Party New Freedom Roosevelt Corollary Franz Ferdinand Sussex Pledge Zimmerman Telegram QWNQWrPSNNt Central Questions 1 What caused the US to enter World War 1 Making the World Safe for Democracy America During World War I 1 President William Howard Taft a Deviations from Roosevelt i Promised a square deal ii Northern Securities Company vs United States 1904 1 Roosevelt urges that they take up this project 2 This Northern Security company had to be broken up and they were trying to take over Railroads 3 Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 prevents Northern Securities Company from existing any monopoly that contributes to anticompetitive behavior should be broken up iii Roosevelt did not want to seek a third term but eventually does do a third term 1 Roosevelt hand selects his next president iv William Howard Taft wins election of 1908 1 Is hand selected by Roosevelt 2 TAFT AND TEDDY ROOSEVELT WERE VERY DIFFERENT b PinchotBallinger Affair i Richard Ballinger was secretary of interior appointed by Taft he had the power to control land and whether or not it could be used for good or bad ii Pinchot upset with Ballinger because he keeps opening lands in Alaska and stuff and he is mad 11 Election of 1912 a New Nationalism Roosevelt vs New Freedom Wilson i Teddy Roosevelt is furious and he tries to overthrow and try to take Taft s seat ii Roosevelt creates the Progressive Party BullMoose Partyquot he did it because no other party wanted him really plus he was trying to overtake Taft iii New nationalism wants to do more for the economy fights for 8 hour work days social security insurance for unemployed he wants to help 1 Roosevelt supports this iv Woodrow Wilson Democratic Party Nominee 1 Argues for New freedom 2 Belief that government should create freedom and allow competition in the economic market that would help people 3 Wants to use government to create freedom in the market 4 Governor of New Jersey 5 Studies PolySci b Eugene V Debs and the Socialist Party i Socialist party founded in 1901 ii Push for FREE college education improved labor conditions nationalizing railroad so exploitation cannot happen c Why Wilson won 111 A Shaky Democracy Ventures Overseas 19001914 a The Roosevelt Corollary i Commissions 16 new battleships ii US becomes involved with a lot of different con icts in South America b Dollar Diplomacy i Creates networks of partnerships and in uence change in the western hemisphere ii More involved in the world and foreign policy c Woodrow Wilson s Initial Con icts i Defined by international con icts ii it would be an irony of after if my administration had to deal with chiefs of foreign affairsquot Wilson IV Wilson Faces War 19171919 a Preserving Neutrality i June 28 1914 Franz Ferdinand assassinated 1914 Serbian Nationalist kill him was an attempt to deal with aggression ii AustriaHungary said they were going to invade Serbia iii Russia defends Serbia ottoman empire is allied with Hungary Central Empires fighting with Russia Great Britain 1 This all starts because of the assassination iv Wilson wants to stay out of the war 1 Types of people that live in the US a Germany is going to war when the US was already in a war with them Over 3 million Irish c Germany invades Belgium to get to Paris d German UBoats are destroying battleships and merchant vessels 2 May 7 1915 sinking of the Lusitania off the coast of Ireland over 128 US passenger were on board a Wilson still wants to stay out the war i He doesn t want to allie with Russia ii Germany continues to sink ships despite threats to end diplomatic v Sussex pledge 1916 1 Germany s plan to abandon unoccupied German vessels and stop sinking ships 2 Yet they still continue attacks b Election of 1916 He kept us out of the war i He was the peace person ii He wins the election iii Of Jan 1917 Germany engages in Southern warfare V The United States Declares War on Germany April 6 1917 a Zimmerman Telegram i Was trying to encourage Mexico to join Central powers and attack the USpromised Texas and Arizona ii Making the world safe for democracyquot History 104 Lecture 10 last lecture before midterm Keywords 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 21615 Making the World Safe for Democracy Bolshevik Revolution Wilson s 14 Points Treaty of Versailles League of Nations Fordism Margaret Sanger 19th Amendment Harlem Renaissance 0 Marcus Garvey Central Questions 1 How did WWI spark new expressions of freedom and what was the conservative response to these social changes America at War America at War 19171919 a an Going to Battle spring 1917 i Making the world safe for democracy ii America declared war on Germany April 6 1917 iii France and Great Britain have already been at war iv 116000 Americans were killed v 17 million Russians were killed before the US even joined Modern Warfare i Trench warfare ii Tanks iii Machine guns 600 rounds a minute iv Chemical weapons 1 Causes half the casualties v 65000 aircrafts France lost half of the male population between the ages 20 and 32 It was referred to as the great war until WWII Commander John I Pershing i Trained the American Expeditionary Forces AEF in France during the summer of 1917 WE MATTER Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 closes the eastern front i Communist revolution ii Russia wanted to pull out of the war iii Lead by Vladimir Lenin iv Completely pulled out by March 1918 1 Causes 1 million German soldiers to move to the western front against the allied forces 11 Brokering Peace 19181919 a Wilson s 14 points i He called for an international organization to preserve peace b League of Nations i Wilson signs Armistice November 11 1918 ii Versailles Treaty is signed July 28 1919 1 Germany was not invited 2 Italy France US and Great Britain were there 3 No one was happy with the treaty 4 Especially Wilson because of clause 231 because it says Germany caused the whole war and they have to pay everyone who was involved a Afraid this would lead to another war iii Congress did not approve the league of nations 1 Wilson then went on to tour the US promoting the league to convince people so that congress would sign it 2 Wilson had a stroke during one of his speeches a He could not function for the remainder of his term b His wife then did a lot of work behind the scene c The war creates a pessimistic feel in the US d The progressive era began to fade III The Roaring 20s a The post war economy roars after a brief postwar depression b Unemployment rates drop from 11 to 2 c Fordism i Believed you had to pay workers a higher wage so they can buy stuff ii Workers at for made 3x more than other auto companies d General Electric soared i Electrical appliances radios and the movies ii General electric allowed people to pay in installment credits e Tons of jobs were created f Brought people to cities i Urban Nation ii More people live in cities than country side for the first time g Changes in Culture i Dancing ii Women s liberation iii Prohibition iv Speakeasy s h 19th Amendment i Women are given the right to vote in 1920 ii 9 states allowed women to vote by 1912 i Female liberation in the 1920 s i Margaret Sanger 1 Advocate for sexual liberation 2 American Birth Control league founded in 1921 21815 History 104 Lecture 11 Key Terms 1 Marcus Garvey 2 18th Amendment 3 Red Scare 4 Return to Normalcy 5 Calvin Coolidge 6 Herbert Hoover 7 Black Tuesday 8 Great Depression Central Questions 1 What caused the great depression The Economy on a Downward Spiral 1 African Americans Challenge traditional America a Harlem Renissance i Millions of blacks left the south and moved north b African American Freedom Fighters i Marcus Garvey 1 Moved to Harlem in 1916 2 Created the UNIA in Jamaica a Wanted a panAfrican movement b Didn t want to integrate with whites c Unite all blacks internationally d Black pride create their own identity 3 Garvey Movement a Created Black Star shipping line with UNIA i Ships goods only produced by blacks ii Return blacks back to Africa if they wanted b Created the Negro Factories corporation with UNIA i Provided loans to black businesses 4 He was arrested and deported to Jamaica for financial fraud 1 Conservative Backlash a 18th Amendment Prohibition 1919 i AntiGerman vibe in uenced and antibeer vide contributing to prohibition laws ii Underground speakeasy s were formed iii Alcohol lead to violent crime iv Al Capone b The Red Scare 19191920 i Fear that Russian spies in the US were trying to convert people to communism ii US congress limited immigration from Europe to 600000 in 1920 1 Down to 150000 by 1921 iii The act of mail bombs was thought to be a communist threat iv There was widespread hysteria even though there were only 70000 communists in the US v 1 Edgar Hoover 1 Head ofthe FBI 2 Arrested all who were suspected to be communist 3 Deported 300 who were believed to participate in communist activity III Problems Fester in the American Economy a Warren G Harding i Says he wants a Return to Normalcy in his presidential elect speech 1 There would be no more rations America would be more relaxed 2 He looked to reduce tax rates from 77 to 58 1922 to 52 1923 3 He was the fun president 4 He loved whiskey a Threw parties in the white house during prohibition 5 Had a child out of wed lock 6 Died of a heart attack a Speculation his wife poisoned him b Calvin Coolidge i Took over after Harding s death ii Worked to continue reducing taxes 1 25 by 1926 iii Reduced government involvement iv Silent and standoff ish 1 Big proponent of using the radio to communicate with citizens c Herbert Hoover republican i Low tax politics ii Business man mining industry 1 Made millions by age 30 iii Secretary of commerce under Coolidge iv Claimed we conquered poverty in 1928 v Stock Market crashed 7 months after he took office vi Black Tuesday October 29 1929 dow jones drops 100 points 1 Reduced taxes allow people to put more into the stock market 2 Rise in upper middle class people 3 Marginal Trading a Banks loan money to invest in stocks b Stock market is surging 1928 early 1929 c People rushed to sell all their stocks after Black Tuesday d People could not pay back their loans had to sell their stuff cars 4 No government regulation in the stock market 5 75 of American households didn t own stocks vii Run on Banks 1 Banks use deposited money to give out loans a Left people without money when there was nothing left to withdraw 2 Banks failed 3 Federal Reserve act of 1913 a Regional and national bank system that was supposed to manage the banks and loan money to failing banks b They did not bail out any of the failing banks like they were supposed to viii Deeper Problems 1 Too many goods not enough consumers 2 5 of the nation held 1 3 of the nations wealth in 1929 3 Wealth gaps began to form ix Herbert Hoover Wanted to stay out 1 Let volunteer associations take care of America History 104 Midterm 1 Study Guide Key Terms Lincoln s Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction Radical Republicans War Democrats WadeDavis Bill Thirteenth Amendment Corwin Amendment Andrew Johnson Fourteenth Amendment Freedmen s Bureau 10 Reconstruction Act of 1862 11 Fist University 12 Reconstruction Act of 1867 13 Fifteenth Amendment 14 Hiram Revels 15 Colfax Massacre 16 Liberal Republicans 17 Compromise of 1877 18 Panic of 1873 19 Redemption 20 Gilded Age 21 Union Pacific 22 Alexander Graham Bell 23 Thomas Edison 24 Andrew Carnegie 25 Vertical Integration 26 Standard Oil 27 CocaCola 28 Battle of Little Bighorn 29 Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 30 Republican and Democratic Parties 1880s 31 Populist Movement 32 Sharecropping System 33 Omaha Platform 34 People s Party 35 Knights of Labor 36 American Federation of Labor 37 Colored Farmers Alliance 38 Election of 1896 39 Jim Crow 40 Poll taxes Literacy Tests Grandfather clause 41 Plessey vs Ferguson 42 Lynching s FPONP P39MPSNNP 43 Booker T Washington and WEB Dubois 44 Seward s Folly 45 Monroe Doctrine 46 Panic of 1893 47 Frontier Thesis 48 Alfred Thayer Mahan 49 SpanishAmerican War 50 USS Maine 51 Insular Cases 52 Progressive Era 53 New Middle Class 54 The Jungle 55 Pure Food and Drug Act 1906 56 Jane Addams 57 Hull House 58 Tammany Hall 59 City Commission Movement 60 Theodore Roosevelt 61 Square Deal 62 America s First National Bank 63 Gospel of Efficiency 64 US Forest Service 65 Gifford Pinchot 66 John Muir 67 Hetch Hetchy 68 Northern Securities Case 69 William Howard Taft 70 PinchotBallinger Affair Progressive Party 71 Socialist Party 72 New Freedom 73 Roosevelt Corollary 74 Franz Ferdinand 75 Sussex Pledge 76 Zimmerman Telegram 77 Making the World Safe for Democracy 78 Bolshevik Revolution 79 Wilson s 14 points 80 Treaty of Versailles 81 League of Nations 82 Fordism 83 Margaret Sanger 84 19th Amendment 85 Harlem Renaissance 86 Marcus Garvey 87 18th Amendment 88 Red Scare 89 90 91 92 93 Return to Normalcy Calvin Coolidge Herbert Hoover Black Tuesday Great Depression Central Questions 9 10 11 12 13 Can the country be reunited and if so what will it look like What will freedom look like for 4 million men and women freed from bondage Why did reconstruction end when it did What forces encourages big businesses growth during the gilded age What caused the populist movement and what did the populists want Why did the populist party fail How did Jim Crow Segregation undermine American democracy in the late nineteenth century Why did America seek imperial expansion overseas in the 1890 s What did progressive reformers hope to accomplish in urban America What caused the US to enter World War I How did WWI spark new expressions of freedom and what was the conservative response to these social changes What caused the great depression What did environmental conservation mean to progressive reformers Exam Help 1 Many people think that reconstruction failed but if you look at the early reconstruction successes that lead to the intense backlash seen in the later years of reconstruction Essay Question Outline Thesis During Reconstruction 0 13th 14th 15th Amendment 0 Racism o Radical Republicans o Freedman s Bureau Gilded Age 0 Big Buisnesses o Populists I The people s party William Jennings Party Omaha Platform Progressive Era o Ecological change 0 John Muir I National Parks I Hetch Hetchy I US forestservice Citizen s Rights
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