Science of Human Nutrition Exam 3 study guide
Science of Human Nutrition Exam 3 study guide 23511
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Layne Henwood on Thursday April 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 23511 at Kent State University taught by Carmen Blakely-Adams in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 457 views. For similar materials see Science of Human Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 04/21/16
What are the essential amino acids Histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, valine What is PKU A birth defect that causes an amino acid called phenylalanine to build up in the body What is sickle cell anemia, what are the complications and whom are the groups of people that are at risk of developing sickle cell anemia Single error in the amino acid sequence of the protein hemoglobin, no cure for this o Hemoglobin usually has an oval shape, becomes a crescent shape At risk o Ancestry of Africa American, Middle Eastern, Indian or Mediterranean o If inherited from only 1 parent will have the sickle anemia trait o In the US more common in African Americans; 1 in 500 Mutation results in the insertion of an incorrect amino acid (valine) for the correct amino acid (glutamic acid) during translation Calculate the calories and grams of protein 200 lbs- what are protein needs? 200/2.2=91 91x.8=73 grams of protein 85 kg- what are protein needs? 85x.8=68 grams of protein What is protein complementation such as rice and beans Having an incomplete matched with a complete protein What are incomplete proteins Missing one or more amino acids What are primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary proteins Primary structure o How many amino acids in each link and what is their sequence o Critical to function of protein Secondary structure o Shape o A-helix (alpha helix) Looks like a spiral staircase o B-pleated sheet (beta folded) Look like a folded fan Tertiary structure o Folding due to R-group interactions R-groups coil around each other Quaternary structure o Two or more peptide chains come together o In all of the protein there is a non protein element (called Heme) o Prosthetic groups How do we digest and absorb protein Chemical digestion begins in the stomach HCI o Disrupts secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures o Converts pepsinogen to pepsin Pepsin o Breaks bonds between amino acids What is food allergy, food intolerance and their signs and symptoms Food allergy o An immune system reaction that occurs after eating certain foods o Digestive problems, hives, swollen airways, etc. Food intolerance o Detrimental reaction (often delayed) to a food o Goes beyond just an allergy How is protein denatured Disruption of secondary and tertiary structures but primary structure stays the same In response to high temperature or drastic pH change What are the functions of protein Structure: basic structure of tissue, bones, teeth and skin Catalysis: enzymes Movement: found I muscles, ligaments and tendons Transport: movement of substances across cell membranes and within the circulatory system Communication: protein hormones and cell-signaling proteins Protection: skin proteins and immune proteins Regulation of fluid balance: regulate the distribution of fluid in the body Regulation of pH: maintain the pH of the body Gluconeogenesis: synthesis of glucose How are proteins made-up/down regulation, chromosomes, genes, mRNA, ribosomes, tRNA mRNA- messenger RNA, what copies DNA to code for protein Ribosomes- where proteins are made tRNA- transfer RNA, translates code from mRNA to make the protein What binds amino acids together Peptide bonds What is protein turnover, urea excretion and deamination Protein turnover is regulated by hormones o Balance between protein synthesis and protein degradation Urea excretion o Found in urine, excreted in the form of uric acid Deamination o The removal of an amino group from an amino acid or other compound What is the AMDR of protein 10-35% should be from proteins How many grams of protein is needed? 2000 kcals with 15% protein 2000*.15=300 300/4=75 1800 kcals with 30% protein 1800*.3=540 540/4=135 1200 kcals with 10% protein 1200*.1=120 120/4=30 What are the vegetarian diets Lacto-ovo-vegetarian o Will consume dairy products and eggs Lactovegetarians o Will consume dairy products but not eggs Vegans o Do not eat any animal sources at all o Deficiency risks Protein Calcium Vitamin B12 Iron Zinc Key to a healthy vegetarian diet o Wide variety of foods in moderation o Knowing what kind of vegetarian diet you are going to follow What is marasmus/kwashiorkor malnutrition Marasmus Adults and children Severe, chronic, overall malnutrition Look very skinny, skin and bones Kwashiorkor Edema and ascites Protein deficiency is even worse So depleted they look bloated Excess fluid creates this Happens a lot in third world countries Reduce by increasing protein intake When are protein recommendations increased Athletes, if you have been cut or burned, trying to heal a wound Food safety information from the video shown in class and is on Blackboard Video 1- Foodborne Illness 48 million people in US get a foodborne illness yearly Most are infections, some are poisoning During growing, production, or handling (usually when contaminated) Can occur at the time of slaughtering of animals, like salmonella Foodborne illness is completely avoidable o Better sanitation o Public health surveillance o Food processing improvements Elderly and young children and more at risk Norovirus causes over 50% of infections in the US yearly Industry takes financial hits o Lawsuits o Food recalls Video 2- Malnutrition Kills more than malaria and AIDs combined Project Peanut Butter Treating children in remote villages with severe malnutrition Mothers take the peanut based formula and treat their kids at home o Easier, safer, less disruptive to family life o Doesn’t spoil, can be given in small amounts o Milk powder, vegetable oil, peanuts, minerals, vitamins o 95% of children are recovering, as opposed to 25% in hospitals o One child only costs project 25 dollars Started in 2004 Treated over 100,000 children Long term goal is for locals to run the program on their own Made primarily from locally grown ingredients 12 months after treatment 96% are still cured Lipids What are the essential fatty acids Linoleic acid 18 carbons, two cis double bonds W-6 fatty acid Linoleic acid 18 carbons, three cis double bonds W-3 fatty acids What are the signs and symptoms of essential fatty acid deficiency Signs and symptoms Very dry, flaky skin Can become irritated or itchy Catching a lot of colds, frequently getting sick Poor wound healing If you have cystic fibrosis, because body cannot absorb it Can happen while hospitalized High risk if suffering from anorexia What are EPA and DHA In salmon, meats, eggs What is amphipathic Both hydrophilic and hydrophobic Hydrophobic Don’t like water Fatty acids Hydrophilic Love water Polar head group Because it has a phosphate group (PO4) What are chylomicrons Transport long chain fatty acids (over 12 carbons) How are short chain, medium chain and long chain fatty acids transported in the blood stream Occurs in 2 ways o Albumin- protein that helps transport short (less than 8 carbons) and medium (8-12 carbons) chain fatty acids o Chylomicrons- transport long chain (over 12 carbons) fatty acids Released into lymph What is a stroke, TIA, atherosclerosis Due to brain not getting enough oxygen Can have a mild (mini or small) stroke that is recoverable and treatable TIA or transient ischemic attacks Stop what you're doing and go into kind of a stare then come back to normal Major stroke can cause death Devastating stroke- can survive but may have difficulty speaking, could be partially paralyzed All depends on what part of the brain is affected What is modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors of heart disease Nonmodifiable risk factors Can not do anything about it Age factors, genetics, sex, prior stroke or heart attack, low birth weight Modifiable risk factors Can do something about it, not always easy Smoking, diabetes, excess alcohol intake, stress Hypertension (high blood pressure) Elevated blood lipids LDL: Less than or equal to 100 mg/dL HDL: want this as high as possible, greater than or equal to 60mg/dL Best way to get it up is aerobic exercise Antioxidants Vitamin A, Vitamin E, Vitamin C, Selenium Body shape Physical inactivity Most days a week (6-7 days) Independent risk factor Diabetes Either type Controlling blood glucose levels How is heart disease diagnosed EKG Look at the rhythm of your heart Cardiogram Look at chambers in heart Anatomy of heart Angiogram Give you a dye to see what arteries and vessels look like What are the different symptoms of heart attacks with women and men men: chest pain, pain in/down arm women: can have flu like symptoms instead of or in addition to chest pains
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