BIOL 1040 | FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE
BIOL 1040 | FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE BIOL 1040
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sarah Stewart on Thursday April 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1040 at Clemson University taught by Dr. William Surver in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 71 views. For similar materials see General Biology II in Biology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 04/21/16
BIOL 1040 | Final Exam Study Guide Chapter 45: Population and Community Ecology Population - a group of individuals of a single species that occupy the same general area Population dynamics – the interactions between the biotic (living) and abiotic (nonliving) factors causes variation in population sizes Population density – the number of individuals of a species per unit area or volume • Sampling techniques include capture-recapture method – must know how to calculate Dispersion pattern – the way individuals are spaced within an area; can be clumped, nearly uniform, or random Life history pattern – a set of adaptions that influence survival, fertility, and the age at first reproduction • Summarized in life tables and survivorship curves • Must know types of survivorship curves and their characteristics Exponential growth model vs. logistic growth model – know equation and difference between them Intraspecific competition – individuals of the same species compete for limited resources, limits growth in natural populations • What are density independent factors? Life history – the traits that affect an organism’s reproduction and death make up its life histories • What are the main life history traits? • What are the differences between R-selected and K-selected life history? What are the current trends in human population? Know how to analyze population distribution graphs Ecological footprint – an estimate of the amount of land required to provide the raw materials an individual/nation consumes; includes food, fuel, water, housing, and waste disposal Community ecology – concerned with factors that influence species composition/distribution of communities and factors that affect community stability Biological community – an assemblage of all the populations of organisms living close enough together for potential interaction; described by its species composition Habitat – the place where an organism lives; characterized by physical and chemical features and the array of other species living in it • What are factors that shape community structure? Niche concept – the sum of activities and relationships in which a species engages to secure and use resources necessary for survival and adaption – know difference between this and habitat • 2 types: fundamental and realized Community interactions: • Commensalism – one benefits, the other is not affected • Competition – can be intraspecific and interspecific between species o Be familiar with Gause’s Principle of Competitive Exclusion • Predation – where the predator is the feeder and the prey is the feed o What are some defenses prey use to protect themselves? 2 kinds of Ecological Succession: 1. Primary succession 2. Secondary succession Climax community – stable array of species that persists unchanged over time; does not always move predictably towards a specific climax community Chapter 46: Ecosystems Ecosystem – an association of organisms and their physical environment, interconnected by an ongoing flow of energy and a cycling of materials through it Participants: • Primary producers – autotrophs that can capture sunlight energy and incorporate it into organic compounds • Consumers – heterotrophs that feed on the tissues of other organisms Trophic levels – hierarchy of energy transfers; “who eats whom” – what are each of the levels and what do they encompass? Food chain – a simple sequences of who-eats-whom; interconnected to become food webs Energy flow – in terms of productivity, gross primary productivity is the ecosystem’s total rate of photosynthesis; net primary productivity is the rate of energy storage in plant tissues in excess of the rate of respiration by the plants themselves – what’s available to be passed down the food chain Biological magnification – when substances become more and more concentrated in the tissues of organisms at higher trophic levels
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