PSYC 160, Final Exam Study Guide
PSYC 160, Final Exam Study Guide PSYC 160
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brianna Dowell on Thursday April 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 160 at James Madison University taught by Kristen Davidson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Life Span Human Development in Psychlogy at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 04/21/16
PSYC 160 Final Exam Study Guide C HAPTER TWELVE Gender and Sexuality Gender The sense of being female or male Gender Roles Expectations society has about the way you should think and feel according to your sex Gender Identity How you identify yourself (male or female) By what age do kids have a basic sense 2 years of age. Also by 2 years, girls of what it is to be male or female? prefer to interact with other girls and by 3 years, boys prefer to hang out with other boys. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Inherited disorder in which adrenal glands in females limit hormone production. High levels of androgen is produced in females, which leads to having female sex organs and an external male skeleton. 1 out of _______ live births result in 14,000 congenital adrenal hyperplasia Androgen Insensitive Males Inherited disorder in which the body of a genetic male does not produce androgen, so the body appears female Pelvic Field Defect Inherited disorder in which boys are missing their penis, but do have testes and internal sex organs Freud’s Psychoanalytic Approach to Believed gender development is result Gender Development of identifying with the same-sex parent related to biological differences. Oedipal Conflict Around age 5, boys believe all women are castrated, including their mother, and believe their father will castrate them too unless they give up their sexual interests for their moms Penis Envy Girls begin to feel sexual attractions toward their fathers and overcome these feelings by becoming as similar to their mothers as possible Social Learning Approach to Gender Argues that gender roles develop from Development observing our role models (mom and dad) and taking on their roles Social Cognitive Approach to Gender Kids begin to internalize standards Development according to what’s appropriate for their gender Cognitive Approach to Gender We’re active learners, so we search for Development patterns that govern our birth sex. Tend PSYC 160 to rely on superficial characteristics (hair, clothing) Gender Schema Kids form expectations and apply as “rules” about what is appropriate for males and females Cognitive Developmental Theory Individuals start taking up gender roles after they realize their sex is permanent Which group of people hold the least Answer: A traditional gender role beliefs? a. African American females b. Asian American males c. African American males Sexual Orientation A person's sexual identity in relation to the gender to which they are attracted Alfred Kinsey (1894-1956) Best associated with sexuality research, which he published in America in the 1940s. Unfortunately, his research was not well received. Kinsey’s Heterosexual-Homosexual Rating Scale Biological Links to Sexuality In the 2ndto 5 month of pregnancy, the fetus is exposed to hormones, which determine the sex and found that males who are exposed to female hormones grow up to like males Sexuality and the Hypothalamus Heterosexual males hypothalamus’ were found to be 2x larger than that of gay males Born with a Specific Sexual Orientation Used MRIs and PET Scans for a detailed analysis of gay, lesbian, and straight individuals and found that differences originate in the womb during pregnancy Fraternal Birth Order Effect Correlation between a man’s sexual orientation and number of older brothers he has (33% increase with each additional brother) Bisexuality Attraction to both males and females Bisexuality Myths a. They’re more promiscuous b. Don’t get gay bashed PSYC 160 c. It’s just a phase Transgender Refers more to gender identity and gender expression than to sexual orientation or physical sex characteristics Intersex or Hermaphrodites A person who is born with a reproductive or sexual anatomy that doesn't seem to fit the typical definitions of female or male Turner syndrome A chromosomal disorder in which a female is born with only one X chromosome; kids have no ovaries or testes and will usually be raised as girls Homophobia Fear or lack of education when it comes to homosexuality Heterosexism Discrimination or prejudice by heterosexuals against homosexuals Internalized homophobia The involuntary belief by lesbians/gays that the homophobic lies, stereotypes, and myths about them (that are delivered to everyone in a heterosexist / homophobic society) are true C HAPTER THIRTEEN Friends and Family Parenthood The state of being a parent and the responsibilities involved T/F? Parenthood results in period of True. least marital happiness, especially for females and gets worse with each child Divorce The legal termination of a marriage by a court Divorce Statistics a. 50% of all first marriages end in divorce b. The divorce rate for 2nd, 3rd, 4th marriages is 70%, because they didn’t work on themselves and what led to first divorce c. People from lower socioeconomic status have higher rates of divorce due to money issues d. In the case of marriages due to pregnancy, only half of the mothers were found to be living with the father 5 years later Reasons for divorce among men i. She was cheating PSYC 160 ii. Different values and lifestyles iii. Not in love anymore Reasons for divorce among women i. He was cheating ii. Abuse (physical, verbal) iii. Alcohol or drug abuse Infidelity rates in the last 20 years Have risen 20 to 28% for men and 5 to 15% for women On average, how soon do men and Answer: A women remarry? a. 2-5 years b. 5-7 years c. 7-10 years Impact of divorce on kids Children will often blame themselves and feel pressured to choose a side/parent Blended Family A family consisting of a couple and their children from current and all previous relationships _______ remarried people have at least 5 million one stepchild living with them Role ambiguity Uncertainty about expected behavior for a position or role T/F? Stepparents should not punish False. The new spouse needs to be able their stepchildren. to lay down consequences or else the child will walk all over the stepparent Which race tends to rely more on Answer: C extended family and ________ are often the head of the household? a. Hispanic; grandmothers b. African Americans; grandmothers c. Both a and b Cohabitation Living together without being married. 1 out of 10 relationships with people living together won’t last past 5 years. What is the average age that males and Answer: C females marry? a. Males - 25; Females - 27 b. Males - 26; Females - 26 c. Males - 27; Females - 25 Average length of a marriage 7 years Research shows… that kids who smile a lot are likely to grow up to have a happier marriage with a 11% divorce rate and unsmiling, somber individuals have a 31% divorce rate. Adler’s Birth Order Suggests that birth order influences personality PSYC 160 T/F? The psychological situation of each True child in the family is different. T/F? A child’s birth order position False. A birth order position may be remains the same throughout a child’s seized by another child if circumstances life. permit. Influences on personality development Besides birth order, influences include: organ inferiority, parental attitudes, social & economic position, and gender roles. C HAPTER FOURTEEN Schooling, Culture, and Society: Living in a Multicultural World Preschool A nursery school. 75% of children attend preschool in the U.S. Montessori preschools Emphasize child’s active participation, teachers are facilitators, children vary in age and work with advanced peers; excellent reputations Head Start Program Focuses on physical health, self- confidence, and social and emotional development Preschool Around the World a. In France and Belgium preschool is a legal right b. Childcare is provided for parents who work in places like Sweden and Finland c. Russia has a 75% attendance rate for state run preschools d. In China, preschool is viewed as a way of giving kids an academic head start e. The U.S. sees preschool as a way for kids to be independent and reliant f. Japan looks at preschool as an opportunity for kids to be members of the group Homeschool The education of children at home by their parents Result of homeschooling We see similar results when it comes to standardized test scores and college acceptance compared to kids who attend public and private schools T/F? Kids in the U.S. are not as True competitive as kids who attend school year round. Which ethnic group performs best in Answer: B U.S. schools? PSYC 160 a. African American b. Asian American c. Hispanic/Latino Dropout Statistics a. In the U.S., 1 out of 3 teens drop out of public high school b. Those from a lower socioeconomic status are 3x more likely to drop out of college c. Across the world, the U.S. ranks 24th for high school graduation rates d. Dropouts earn 42% less than those who graduate and have a 50% unemployment rate Acculturation When groups of people adapt to a culture; leads to 1 of 4 outcomes (integration, assimilation, separation, marginalization) Integration (bicultural) Embrace dominant culture, but hold on to aspects of their own culture Assimilation Take on values and beliefs of dominant culture and reject own culture Separation Reject dominant culture and hold on to your own cultures values Marginalization Identifying with neither your own culture or dominant culture Ethnic Identity 3 stages Unexamined ethnic identity Accept the norms, beliefs, and attitudes of dominant culture. Don’t necessarily move on to next stage Ethnic identity search Some sort of crisis happens that makes them aware of their ethnicity. Can lead to resentment towards the dominant culture Achieved ethnic identity Fully embracing ethnicity in positive light C HAPTER FIFTEEN Death and Dying Suicide Statistics a. In the U.S., 1 suicide is committed every 13 minutes b. When it comes to teens, 1 suicide is committed every 90 minutes c. For people 65+, 1 suicide is committed per every 4 attempts d. Males take their lives 4x more often than females e. Males have a 79% success rate, PSYC 160 because they are far more likely to use a handgun or hang themselves f. Females attempt suicide 2-3x more often than men g. Among males, 85 years and older have the highest suicide rate h. 85% success rate when using a handgun i. 81% success rate in hanging oneself j. 24% success rate when using pills Over ______ people use handguns to 19,000; thousands commit suicide and _______ more were shot in accidents or domestic homicides. Which country has the highest suicide Answer: C. rate? a. Russia b. China c. Greenland Worldwide, 1 suicide is committed Answer: A. every _______. a. 40 seconds b. 40 minutes c. 40 hours Timeline for Understanding Death Ages 3-5 understand that death happens, but don’t understand that it’s final Ages 5-7 understand death is final Age 9 understand death is universal Middle childhood understand customs associated with death Elkin’s Personal Fable Belief that adolescents are unique and invincible; think that bad things happen to other people so they engage in risky behavior T/F? Middle aged adults fear death the True most, while older adults spend the most time thinking about death. Elizabeth Kubler-Ross (1926-2004) Swiss-American psychiatrist and pioneer in near-death studies and theory on the five stages of grief Kubler-Ross’s Theory People pass through 5 basic steps as they move toward death Denial Resisting the idea that one is going to die Anger Expressing rage at those around them over dying PSYC 160 Bargaining Negotiating your way out of death Depression A deep sense of loss over a life coming to an end Acceptance Full awareness that death is impending and accepting this fact Leading Causes of Death st nd rd th th Age Range 1 2 3 4 5 Infants Congenital Short Sudden Anomaly Gestation Infant ___ ___ Death Syndrome (SIDS) 1 – 4 years Unintention Congenital Homicide al injuries Anomaly ___ ___ or accidents 5 – 9 years Unintention Congenital Homicide al injuries Anomaly ___ ___ or accidents 10 – 14 Unintention Congenital Suicide Homicide years al injuries Anomaly ___ or accidents 15 – 24 Unintention Homicide Suicide years al injuries ___ ___ or accidents 25 – 34 Unintention Suicide Homicide years al injuries ___ ___ or accidents 35 – 44 Unintention Malignant Suicide Homicide years al injuries Cancers ___ or accidents 45 – 54 Malignant Heart Some sort ___ Suicide years Cancers Disease of accident 65+ years Heart Cancer ---- ---- ---- Disease Power of Attorney Authorization to represent or act on another's behalf in private affairs, business, or some other legal matter Living Will A legal document outlining what medical treatments people want or do not want Euthanasia Practice of assisting people who are terminally ill to die more quickly than they would naturally Passive euthanasia Life sustaining devices are withheld and the individual dies a natural death Voluntary active euthanasia When death is deliberately induced Assisted suicide When an M.D. provides a person with the knowledge or means or both required to commit suicide T/F? Assisted suicide is only legal in False. Assisted suicide is legal in Washington state. Oregon, Washington, Montana, Vermont, and New Mexico and known as the Death with Dignity law Around _______ coma cases are reported Answer: C. and only _______ will remain in a coma. a. 230; 30 b. 2,300; 300 c. 230,000; 30,000 Mourning Customs: 1. Irish American 1. party and celebrate 2. Traditional Jewish Family 2. will dedicate a whole week to mourning, immediate family members will wear a black armband for 30 days in the case of a parent dying and 7 days if someone else in the family dies, and 3. Amish custom they will keep the casket closed 3. calls for the entire community to provide support to the family for at 4. Old Chinese custom least a year and will take care of all aspects of the funeral 4. the wealthy would require burial of living servant with master
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