U.S. Hist: Modern MIDTERM Study Guide
U.S. Hist: Modern MIDTERM Study Guide US History: Modern
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US History: Modern
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madeline Mitchell on Saturday February 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to US History: Modern at Kent State University taught by Dr. Hongshan Li in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 217 views. For similar materials see U.S. History: Modern Period in History at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 02/21/15
US History Modern Period Midterm Study Guide Prof Hongshan Li Kent State University Ku Klux Klan Was a white terrorist organization in the South founded in 1866 They wanted social control of the black population Sharecroppers extracting better terms from landowners or uppity black people were whipped or worse The Klan s main purpose was to destroy the political party and nearly all the killings were of Republicans and also black The Black Codes Laws passed by southern states that restricted the rights and liberties of former slaves The legislatures of the reconstructed states had to define the rights of former slaves because after the war the South blackwhite relations were left in a state of limbo The Black codes prevented blacks from leasing land voting testifying against whites interracial marriage and punished them more harshly Sharecropping Working land in return for a share of the crops produced instead of paying cash rent Mostly black families System was established around 1865 The Homestead Strike Union members went on strike in Homestead in 1892 because Carnegie had frequent wage cuts Carnegie and Frick were determined to break the country s strongest union so they were preparing to use a dispute over wages and work rules to close and reopen with nonunion workers Pinkertons and strikers got violent and the union was crippled after someone tried to murder Frick After the strike Union went from 24000 members to 7000 0 The Dawes Severalty Act 1887 Dissolution of Indian tribes as legal entity It offered Indians citizenship and 160 acres of farmland or 360 acres of grazing land as long as they were severed from their tribe It was a disaster for Indians because they lost most of the land they got to whites from fraud or misrepresentation In addition the Act prevented Indian religious practices or storytelling and the land they got was almost impossible to farm on AND they weren t given sufficient training or tools The American Federation of Labor 1885 Led by cigar market Depended more on skilled workers focused on better wages hours and conditions Recognized importance of strikes accepted capitalism and talked with employers Aimed to make union partners in industry and had over a million members by 1900 Horizontal Integration Was the merge of companies that were making the same products Trust had to be formed to run the business and Rockefeller s Standard Oil was part of horizontal integration 1870 s 1900 s Andrew Carnegie Built a giant Carnegie Steel empire after the civil war He contributed a very important innovation to 19thcentury business that was The Relative Poverty 1880 s Many suffered Income met most basic needs but did not match economic growth The Knights of Labor 1869 National Union open to all workers unskilled black women Their main goal was to get 8hour days using the method of strikes They were declined after Haymarket 511886 The Battle of Little Bighorn Warriors wiped out a cavalry of men because goldseekers were in the Black hills of western Dakota Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse wiped out Custer and 7th Cavalry In retaliation Sheridan crushed the Sioux and Cheyenne The Farmer s Alliances Were born in Lampasas County TX in 1877 Spread to the rest of the US after 1885 and had 15 million members by 1890 They ran coops in a new way pooled credit from members They ended up failing because of lack of financial resources William McKinley Launched 1896 quotfrontporch campaignquot that portrayed Bryan as a wild man whose monetary schemes would wreck the economy while he would maintain the gold standard revive business confidence and end the depression William Jennings Bryan 1896 election gave 30 speeches a day focusing mainly on the free silver issue His nomination created turmoil in the People s Party He also supported income tax Family Planning Susan Brownell Anthony Women s rights activist who went to poll in 1870 and was arrested for trying to vote in NY This was a huge act in the women s rights movement and she was also the head woman of a women s rights newspaper The Jim Crow Laws Laws that mandated racial segregation in all public areas Plessy vs Ferguson later made it necessary for the black and white facilities to be equal which never were The Tuskegee Movement Booker T Washington founded Tuskegee Institute and gave complex and canny speech about how a new era of industrial progress was upon them and that he wanted to cement the friendship of the races This led to different reactions from people The 15th Amendment Prohibited states from denying the right to vote based on race color or previous servitude Extended equal suffrage to the Border States and to the North In 1870 the Constitution became truly color blind for the first time in US history The Radical Reconstruction The Radical Republicans said if the freed people are landless provide them with land by confiscating the plantations of leading Confederates as punishment for treason The Chinese Exclusion Act 1882 Suspended Chinese laborers for 10 years and banned them from becoming citizens White mobs killed hundreds of Chinese This was a major stab at the Chinese because they could be told apart from other immigrants from Europe because of how theylooked The Compromise of 1877 Hayes promised his support as president to rebuild wardestroyed levees on the lower Mississippi and federal aid for a southern transcontinental railroad He received promises of fair treatment of freed people and respect for their constitutional rights The Scientific Management 1880 s By Frederick W Taylor urged to subdivide jobs to speed production used machines instead of skilled workers implemented time motion studies and made workers fit the needs of machines The results were higher efficiency less control for workers and led to the assembly line and mass production Thomas Edison Used carbonized filament for a light bulb 1979 built first power station that would end up serving 85 families 1898 set up factories building bulbs General Electric 1885 Result was new power source products technology that improved the economy The Vertical Integration 1870 s 19th century innovation by Andrew Carnegie Holding companies were set up and control firms were making parts of a product It was unprecedented consolidation The 14th Amendment Defined all nativeborn and naturalized persons including blacks as American citizens and prohibited states from abridging the quotprivileges and immunitiesquot of citizens and from depriving quotany person of life liberty or property without due process of lawquot and denying them quotequal protection of the lawsquot Farreaching consequences Most important provision in the constitution for defining and enforcing civil rights The Grange Movement Rose in NW in 1867 and had 15 million members by 1875 Farmer s organization that aimed to avoid middlemen Opened in cooperative stores and forced states to pass railroad fair rate law It declined in the mid1870 s The Populist Party Had success in 1890 election There was a lack of action from the Republican Party Supported graduate income tax for all Americans national ownership of RR amp TT systems subtreasury plan for farmers unlimited coinage of silver 8hour days and adoption of initiative and referendum Defeated when McKinley won 1896 The SubTreasury Plan Farmer s Alliance most important objective was the establishment of subtreasuries federal warehouses for the storage of crops with government loans at 2 interest on those crops The Sherman AntiTrust Plan 1890 Banned combination restricting competition and showed power of the farmers Tried to declare quotrestraint of tradequot illegal but was so vague it was almost useless in prosecution towards corporations Weak federal government The Direct Primary 1902 Progressives introduced reforms designed to undermine the party quotbossesquot restore sovereignty to quotthe peoplequot and encourage honest talented individuals to enter politics This was a mechanism that enabled voters rather than party bosses to choose party candidates The Standard Oil 1870 and 1880 s Rockefeller s Standard Oil He had low prices until every other competitor was bankrupt Was part of horizontal integration Eventually was part of vertical integration to gain control and had control of 90 of oil business
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