Study Guide for the test this Friday!
Study Guide for the test this Friday! Crm_J 101
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alicia Wasisco on Saturday February 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Crm_J 101 at Washington State University taught by Jason Dunbar in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 105 views. For similar materials see Criminal Justice in Criminal Justice at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 02/21/15
Criminal Justice Study Guide 0 Overall topics for the test 0 Fundamentals of Criminal Justice 0 Foundations of Law and Crime Theories on Crime and Measuring Victimization Ethical Essentials Police Organization Structure and Functions Police at Work Patrolling and Investigating Police Methods and Challenges Law of Arrest Search and Seizure Court Organization and the Trial Process Notes for the test 0 Research the case about how the Officer in Spokane Tasers and kills an innocent man 0 Basic information A Officer in Spokane says that a man was going to attack him so he tasered him for a long period of time and when the medics came and put a breathing mask on the man the officer took it off which resulted in the man to die Also there is no video from this event because the police threatened the storeowners not to give it up 39Scape goat 39Why did he take the breathing mask off 39Will the victim talk and tell his side of the story These are things to consider when evaluating the case Underlined words are important key words 0 Justice of the peace minor justice official who oversees lesser Criminal trials one of the early English judicial functions 0 Collect fees for their services 0 3 eras of US policing 0 Political era 18401930 s police were tied closely to politics and politicians dependent on them for being hired promoted and assignments all which raise the potential for corruption 0 Reform era 1930 s1980 s police sought to extricate themselves from the shackles of politicians and lading to the crime fighter era with greater emphases being placed on number on arrests citations response times and so on 0 Community Era 1980 spresent a time when the police retrained to work with the community to solve problems by looking at their underlying causes and developing tailored responses to them 0 Department of Justice official legal arm of the government 0 Federal Bureau of Investigation I Top 3 priorities 1 Protect the US from terrorist attacks 2 Protest the US against foreign intelligence operations and espionage 3 Protect the US against cyberbased attacks and high tech crimes 0 Bureau of Alcohol Tobacco Firearms and Explosives I Deals with alcoholtobacco smuggling and Bomb and Arson tracking systems 0 Drug Enforcement Administration coordinate and enforce federal drug laws 0 US Marshals Service Transport federal prisoners and track fugitives while protecting federal judges prosecutors and witnesses and deal with natural disasters and civil disturbances 0 Other Federal Agencies 0 Central Intelligence agency nations security and warrants 0 Internal revenue service Monitors and collects federal income taxes 0 State Agencies 0 Patrol Police and Investigative Organization I State Police state agency responsible for highway patrol and other duties as delineated in the states statutes some states require their police to investigate crimes against persons and property 0 EX highway patrol traffic control crash investigation I State Bureau of Investigation State agency that is responsible for enforcing state highway laws and investigating crimes involving state statues may also be called in to assist police agencies in serious criminal matter and often publish state crime reports 0 Deal with criminal and civil cases 0 Other Special Purpose State Agencies I Enforce 0 Alcoholic beverage laws 0 Fish and game laws 0 State statutes and local ordinances on college and university campuses 0 Agricultural laws 0 Commercial vehicle laws 0 Municipal police department police force that enforces laws and maintains peace within a specified city or municipality 0 Organizational structure or chart diagram of the vertical and horizontal parts of an organization showings it chain of commands lines of communicating division of labor and so on 0 Staff series and auxiliary services 0 Chain of command Vertical and horizontal power relations within an organization showing how one position relates to the other On Guard The Private Police 0 As a result of 911 everything has been highly security minded 0 Security officers are not police officers so they don t have to follow the Miranda decision 0 Private policesecuritv all nonpublic officers including guards watchmen private detectives and investigators they have limited powers and only the same arrest powers as a regular citizen 0 Most officers are uneducated and are not trained very much 0 Major question Should they be armed or not Tasks of police 0 Prevent crime 0 Investigating crimes 0 Maintain Order 0 Providing misc services I Policie should focus more on the last 2 but due to politics and the media there is more emphasis on investigating the crimes Calls into the police on average how many calls on each topic are called in Violent crimes 300 less than 2 percent 0 Nonviolent crimes 2000 O Interpersonal con icts 750 0 Medical Assistance 400 0 Traffic problems 1200 O Dependent persons 350 0 Public Nuisances 1500 O O O O O Suspicious circumstances 600 Assistance 1500 Citizen wants information 3000 Citizen giving information 1000 0 Internal operations 300 Vague choices 0 Not black and white 0 You can agree and disagree with something that happened during a police case Crime fighter v Realities of Policing 0 Police services study 0 Vagueness of police work 0 How do police balance crime control and due process these are the biggest problems Social control 0 Private informal social control best way 0 Parochial community organizations 0 Public government organizations Police and social control 0 Gatekeepers of criminal justice system 0 Important part of social welfare system 0 Police are an important part of the political system Central role of patrol 0 The majority of police officers as assigned to patrol O Marked patrol cars and uniformed police officers are the visible symbols of police 0 Patrol officers first decision makers of entire system 0 Experience on patrol is formative part of police officers career assignments are based on seniority Kansas Patrol Experiment 0 This study shows that patrols do nothing Imperfections what are police doing on patrol O 60 of the time police are doing nothing on patrol Phantom effect police assume police are always there Science will prove things wrong but politics will always win Recruit training 0 Academy training trained in the basic functions laws and skill required 0 Sixth sense notion that an officer can sense or feel when something is not right as in the way a person acts talks and so on After this training then they become a field training officer which is one who is to oversee and evaluate the new police officer s performance as he or she transitions from the training academy to patrolling the streets Allows it to transition from the academy to the streets 3 phases of FTO 0 Introduction phase 0 Training and evaluation phases 0 Final phase 4 types of police personalities enforcers making good arrests idealists individual rights and due process realists little emphasis on social order or individual rights optimists individual rights Traits that name a good officer enthusiasms good communication skills good judgments sense of humor creativity selfmotivation knowing the job and the system ego courage understanding discretion tenacity thirst for knowledge 4 basic tasks 0 Enforce the laws 0 Perform welfare tasks ex Deliver death messages 0 Prevent crime 0 Protect the innocent 3 policing styles James Q Wilson 0 Watchmen order maintenance is their primary function using the law to give people what they deserve O Legalistic style soldier purpose of the law is to punish 0 Service teacher uses informal sanctions Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment found out that having more police around had no effect on crime or citizens fear of crime Traffic function aggregate of motor vehicles predestinations streets and highways for which police must investigate and apply laws to provide safe travels for citizens in their jurisdiction Discretion authority to make decisions in enforcing the law based on one s observations and judgment rather than the letter of the law 0 Myth all laws are enforced equally 0 When police officers see a suspicious activity they think 1 Whether to intervene 2 How to intervene 0 Several variables enter into the officer s decision 1 The law 2 Officers attitude 3 Citizen s attitude 0 Flexible and less trainedless discretion Forensic science study of causes of crimes deaths and crime scenes physical evidence Criminalistics one branch of forensic science police crime scene analyst or laboratory examines skilled in criminalistics or forensics aspects of investigation Physical evidence corpus delicti body modus operandi method of operation linking a suspect with a victim linking a person to a crime scene disapproving or supporting a witnesses testimony identification of a suspect Locard s exchange principle notion that offenders both leave something at the crime scene and take something form it the crime scene analyst or investigators job is to locate that evidence and use it in the investigation Basic investigative stages 0 Preliminary investigation 0 Continuing investigation 0 Reconstructing the crime 0 Focusing the investigation Detectivesinvestigators police officer who is assigned to investigate reported crimes to include gathering evidence completing case reports testifying in court To be a successful investigator unusual capability for observation and recall extensive knowledge of the law rules of evidence scientific aids and laboratory services power of imagination and a working knowledge of social psychology DNA is the most sophisticated and reliable type of physical evidence Potential abuse of discretion 0 Discrimination 0 Denial of process 0 Systematic under enforcement of the law 0 Poor personnel management 0 Inconsistent policy Discretion definition 0 Official action 0 Based on individual judgment for best action Proper exercise of discretion Use of good judgment Efficient use of scarce police resources Individualized justice 0 Sound public policy I Police services study domestic violence 0 45 calls to police 0 2 or more people 0 Married or divorced live in couples and first dates 0 33 involved violence 0 Use of force 0 Use of force continuum guide for deciding which level of force is appropriate for a police officer to deploy based on the actions for the suspect I Right of self defense the power to control those for Whom one is responsible and unrestricted authority of police to use force as required 0 Dynamic resistance response model 000 Deadly resistance re arms Resistance Passive I I resistance rm Aggressnve reSIstance grip contr0 Stun gunpersonal holds pressure weapons 0 O O O 0 Police brutalitv unnecessary use of force by police against citizens resulting in injury 0 When failing the public trust you turn to civil liability Which is the basis for Which a cause of action is made to recover damages Torts civil wrong or infraction the remedy will be damages awarded in civil trial negligence intentional and constitutional torts I Intentional torts battery abuse of process and etc I Constitutional torts constitutional rights and privileges Negligence failure to perform a duty False arrest unlawful physical restraint by a police officer for no valid reasons Section 1983 allows a legal action to be brought against a police officer or other person in position of authority who used his position to violate one s civil rights I Came from the Ku Klux Khan Act of 1871 Vicarious liabilitv legal doctrine whereby responsibility rests upon one person for the actions of another and is to exercise reasonable and prudent care in supervising that person General areas of liability O O O O Proximate cause factor that contributed heavily to an event such as an auto crash or death Persons in custody and safe facilities I Duty of care have the legal responsibility to see that persons in their custody are free from harm given necessary medical assistance when necessary and treated humanely Failure to protect situation where police place someone in jeopardy such as giving out the location or names of victims Vehicle pursuits are one of the most critical decision because it puts 3rd parties at risk Challenge in the system recruiting women and minorities Benefits of having women police 0 O O O 0 They are more competent They are less likely to use excessive force Implement communityOoriented policing Improve law enforcements response to violence against women Reduces problems of sex discrimination and harassment within a law enforcement agency Police technologies has expands and changed rules of patrol officers 0 000000 0 Wireless technology Crime mapping Locating serial offenders Smartphones Electronic control devices Robotics Traffic functions Databases for fingerprints and mug shots Political Era 1830 51900 0 Between ethnic con icts and morality and abolishing slavery Riots Lack of standards Politics causes political error PoHUcalconnchons Not enough police Invasion of work 100000 people homeless 0 Lots of corruption Professional Era 19001960 0 August Vulmer emphasizes academy training First police academies and formal training 1932 LAPD chief of police Specialized units Riots 1964 officers shoots an innocent African American 1965 because of a traffic stop 0 Same problems as last era Community policing era 1980 s1990 s o Ongoing riots so need legitimacy police Limitations of police Order maintenance not crime ghting Coproducers of crime prevention need citizens Don t have police legitimacy then you don t have effective policing 90 of crimes are solved by confessions Broken window theory 0 DisorderlerarDWithdrawalleredatory BehaviorSpiral DecHne o 2 types of disorder Social drunks prostitutes Physical vandalism graffiti Chicago Alt Policing Strategy 19962007 0 Learned that citizens need to be the coproducers of crime prevention 0000 0000000 0000
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