Exam 2 Developmental Psychology Study Guide
Exam 2 Developmental Psychology Study Guide PSY-P 102
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Veronica Bone on Sunday February 22, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY-P 102 at Indiana University taught by Irene Vlachos-Weber in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 488 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology 2 in Psychlogy at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 02/22/15
P102 Exam 2 Spring 2015 STUDY GUIDE Vlachos Weber Weds Feb 25 Teratogens are environmental agents that harm the embryo or fetus can impair development in the womb these are drugs alcohol bacteria viruses and chemicals 0 Alcohol is the most commonly used toxic substance Lead to fetal alcohol spectrum disorders 0 lnterferes with brain dev And can cause permanent brain damage esp to neocortex hippocampus and cerebellum o Affect learning attention behavior memory causal reasoning and motor performance 0 Smoking and drinking are related to the health of the baby and the child s development At 6 weeks display first social smile At 5 12 months can sit without support By 6 months infants have an adult level of auditory functioning At 10 months can crawl At 121 months can walk without assistance By infants first year they start to say first words 0 Telegraphic speech the tendency for toddlers to speak using rudimentary sentences that are missing words and grammatical markings but follow a logical syntax and convey meaning bare bone structure of a sentence all gone or throw ball 18 24 months 0 Childrn sometimes overgeneralize grammer rules they learn For example adding ed to make something past tense so say I runned Or overapply adding s to the end to make it pleural like saying gooses mans They do this because children are able to use language effectively by perceiving patterns in spoken grammar and then applying rules to new sentences they have never heard before Myelination nerve fibers are wrapped with a fatty sheath like plastic coating around electrical wire 0 Increases the speed that fibers are able to transmit signals Synaptic pruning use it or lose it theory when connections between fibers are not used they decay and disappear Sensitive periods certain connections are made more easily at different times so the specific point in development people learn some skills or kinds of knowledge most easily Sensitive time period for language is the first 510 years of life Insecure attachment 0 Avoidant attachment do not get upset or cry at all when the caregiver leaves and prefer to play with a stranger than the parent 0 Ambivalent attachment may cry a great deal when the caregiver leaves the room but then inconsolable when the caregiver tries to calm them down when they return 0 Caregiver qualities o Rejecting or inconsistently responsive parenting styles 0 The hormone oxytocin is related to social behaviors 0 Plays a role in maternal tendencies feelings of social acceptance and bonding and sexual gratification o lnfantile amnesia the inability to remember events from early childhood 0 Don t yet have ability to create autobiographical memory 0 Not enough developed language 0 Can t perceive concepts well enough to encode new info 0 Source amnesia difficulty knowing where they learned something 0 Many of our earliest memories come from looking at photo albums family videos or hearing stories not remembering the actual experience 0 Confabulation make things up to make up different events or things that happened 0 Children do this because of their underdeveloped frontal lobes o Happens more when asked about personal things than general things 0 Theory of mind used to describe the ability to explain and predict another person s behavior as a result of recognizing her or his mental state 0 Ability to understand others intentions is developed by 13 months 0 This relates to the maturation of the frontal lobes o Kohlberg s theory of moral reasoning o Preconventional level awnser in terms of selfinterest or pleasurable outcomes Steal it because then you will have it 0 Conventional level responses conform to rules of law and order or focus on others disapproval You shouldn t steal it You are not supposed to and people will think you are a bad person 0 Postconventional level responses center around comples reasoning about abstaxt principles and the value of life Sometimes people have to break the rule if the rule is unjust o Empathy arises from understanding another s emotional state and feeling what the other person is feeling or would be expected to feel 0 In contrast sympathy arises from feelings of concern pity or sorrow o Empathy is feeling with the person sympathy is feeling for the person 0 Bruce and Brian were born identical twins 0 Bruce had a rare accident while being castrated and lost his penis his parents then decided to sexually reassign him as a girl 0 They raised him as a girl gave him hormone grew out hair encouraged to play with girls changed name to Brenda 0 Brenda did not feel like himself in a girls body he was constantly harassed for acting like a boy didn t feel right 0 His parents told him and he changed him name to David and got an artificial penis got married had kids 0 Gender identity begins very early in prenatal development According to Thomas amp ChessThe most important factor in determining a child s social development is the fit between the child s biologically based temperament or personality and the parents behaviors Prenatal Development a Conception sperm meets ovum 1 ovummonth 1 Ovaries take turns 2 If you lose an ovary you don t lose ability to procreate Ovulation 14 days before next period Fertilization 1 Start with millions of sperm by the fallopian tubes there are 100 s 200 million sperm begin only 50 reach egg 2 Fertilized ovum zygote fallopian tube uterus a Dizygotic twins fraternal twins 2 eggs 2 sperms b Monozygotic twins identical twins 1 sperm and 1 egg that splits into two 3 lt50 zygote survive more females than males survive Men create new sperm every 3 days so they can procreate all through life while females are born with all of their eggs and they only deteriate when they get older so a kid might have birth defects if the mom is older Peak of fertility late teens early twenties Vagina is acidic to fight off infection hostile vagina lose 14th of sperm from this Women defense cells destroy some of them 12 go up the fallopian tube with the egg half of them get lost in the other Sperm is viable for 48 hours b Genetics Cells 46 chromosomes 23 pairs 1 each from mom dad Gametes sex cells sperm ovum 1 Contain only 23 because they combine to make cell with 46 chromosomes 2 22 autosomes 1sex chromosome a Get one from each parent b Mom XX dad XY i Dad determines the sex of the baby because he has both the X and the Y chromosome c Female is XX male is XY c Gestation 38 weeks conception to birth 1 Health issues if stay too long placenta will start to deteriorate 3 periods 1 Germinal from conception to implantation 58 days a Blatocyst fluid inside b Blatocyst will differentiate into placenta and embryo i Life fluid which connects mom to embryo there are stem cells as well 2 Embryo from implantation to 8 weeks a Rapid cell differentiation b Placenta life support system i In nutrients oxygen immunities alcohol drugs tobacco 1 Be careful what you take in as a mom whatever you eat if you are addicted to drugs or alcohol so will your baby ii Out waste c End of 8 weeks i 1 12 eyes ears mouth limbs ii Heart beating iii Brain spinal cord developing 3 Fetus from 8 weeks to birth a Organs functional b Last 7 months refining growing brain cells i 250000 neuronsminute ii Earliest that a baby can be born and survive is 20 weeks lungs take one of the longest to develop so critical when born c Reacts to light amp sound i Can recognize parents voices at birth 0 By 5 months you can tell whether the kid is a boy or a girl before that the genitals to not exist Infant a Physical development i differential proportions 1 a baby s head is M of its whole body while as an adult your head is 18th of your body ii reflexes automatic responses to an event at birth 1 for ex if it is really dark your pupil will get bigger to let in more light 2 We have some reflexes as an infant that don t carry on to adulthood a Rooting when cheek is touched a infant will turn to suck on object b Bibinski stroke a babies foot and their toes will curl in and then spraw out i Our feet would do the opposite because our nervous system is mature c Steping reflex precursor to walking i Why would that reflex return 1 In water because they are more weightless so their fat to weight ratio is off d Moro reflex when a baby is startled or feel like they will fall arms sprawl out and then are brought back in iii control progresses down amp out head down and core out 1 gross motor skills walking come before fine motor skills drawling 2 parent education is important to know the normative expectations for their children what they can control or not b Sensory development i Measurement 1 Habituation stimulus becomes familiar no longer elicits a response for example if you have a highway by your house the noise you will get used to and not realize a Measure by looking time pointing and preference test i Preference test at least 2 things ii Sight 1 What do babies see a Newborns see 8 10 inches in front of them i So they get attached to their parents b By 6 months they have as good vision as an adult 2 Perception a Depth perception when you start moving you will need this infants that get moved and carried everywhere don t need this yet need this for walking and stairs so you don t run into things i Visual cliff a pattern where the infant is then a glass surface above the same pattern a few feet down giving the image of a drop 1 At about 8 months infants will not cross the cliff 2 Animals are born with depth perception because they need it human don t need it so don t have depth perception right away b Color perception 4 months before 4 months prefer black and white i Distinguish primary colors ii Prefer brights v pastels 3 Form perception a Prefer human faces novel patternsgtgt plain color b Why face quotprewired i Promotes attachment ii By 3 months prefer unscrambled likes the contrast iii Hearing 1 test of sucks increasing sucks more they prefer the voice moms voice specifically a prefer mom s voicegt human voices female over male voices love children voices as welgt music i quotmotherese automatically have a higher pitched voices when talking to a baby b Make c Sensitive period i A period of time that it is easier to learn a new language when you are younger ii Phoneme sounds infants can hear and learn while adults can t so it is easier for them to learn a language iii Test for this 1 Baby sits on mothers lap mother has headphones in so they don t react sound changes and then there is a pause for the participate to react 2 Baby listens for these sounds phonemes when it changes the toys light up If the baby looks in the direction of the toys when the sound changes that means they can hear it 3 The 1 year old can t hear the difference in sounds because the 1 year old only looks over when the toys turn on iv Don t need it anymore so lose the ability quotdon t use it you lose it frontal lobe is growing synapses are pruned so that ability is lost c Social Emotional development i 2 fears 1 stranger anxiety negative response to unfamiliar adult 8 months a more people you expose your child to the less that they will experience this i childcare lots of family friends and family 2 separation anxiety distressed behavior when primary caretaker leaves 6 months 2 years 3 separation anxiety disorder is with older children who get anxious about being separated from caretakers bc worried something bad will happen and will be separated forever ii Attachment strong enduring bond that develops bw infant and primary caretaker 1 a acquired over time up to 3 months to become attached a adaptive so they don t just become attached to the first person they see bc the person that births them may not raise them 2 strange situation task 0 14 months old so will have separation anxiety and stranger anxiety a How will she react when a stranger enters the room i The stranger has all of the babies attention when she first comes in she avoids the stranger b How will she react when mom leaves i The baby follows the mom crys and is distressed when mom leaves c How will she react when mom returns reunion most important i She is calmed and stops crying o Securely attached 0 Mom secure base to explore 0 Positive when mom returns 0 Different based on culture if the baby grew up with childcare for instance 3 Institutionalized infant studies 4 important HOW not WHO a care consistent same people b care continuous needs are getting met 5 Daycare 1 Just as attached as those at home 2important factor quality continuous consistent 3pros social cognitive development gives kids a head start 4cons higher aggression not enough good care don t pay daycare workers enough III Childhood A Social amp Emotional Development 1 Gender Identity aware accept being male or female i When should you encourage child to discover what they are Wait until older or younger What you identify with a By 2 know difference own gender b By 6 know gender is stable consistent 2 Gender Role culturally determined appropriate behaviors of female vs male a Sex stereotyped behaviors 1 houseschoolkitchen dressup ect 2 ect By 2 sexstereotype behavior 35 years old is the most stereotypical Nature vs nurture A cultural exposure 0 Watching parents follow through gender roles o Commercials 0 Peers and exposure girls wear pink play With baby dolls Barbie dolls Polly pocket boys wear blue play With legos playstation pokemon figting games b Why sex differneces 1 Biology a Males more active more physical aggression b Girls more responsive talked more relational aggression 2 Environment a Imitation parents peers and media b Reinforcement i Boys praised more punished more ii Much more tolerant of girls acting like guys than guys acting like girls
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