Psychology2501 PSY 2501 - 002
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PSY 2501 - 002
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Upasana Raja on Thursday April 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 2501 - 002 at Temple University taught by Sheree Logue (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see FOUNDATIONS OF BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE in Psychlogy at Temple University.
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Date Created: 04/21/16
1 Chap17- Learning and Memory Learning- the process of acquiring new and enduring information, behavior patterns, or abilities, characterized by modifications of behavior as a result of practice, study or experience Memory- the ability to store and retrieve that information, based on the mental process of learning or coding, retention across some interval of time, and retrieval reactivation of the memory and the specific information that is stored in the brain Patient H.M.- a patent who, because of damage to medial temporal lobe structures, was unable to encode new declarative memories; upon his death we learned his name was Henry Molaison Amnesia- Severe impairment of memory Retrograde Amnesia- Difficulty in retrieving memories formed before the onset of amnesia Anterograde Amnesia- The inability to form new memories beginning with the onset of a disorder Declarative Memory- A memory that can be stated or described Nondeclarartive Memory or Procedural Memory- A memory that is shown by performance rather than by conscious recollection Short Term Memory (STM) - The capacity for holding, but not manipulating, a small amount of information in mind in an active, readily available state for a short period of time. The duration of short- term memory (when rehearsal or active maintenance is prevented) is believed to be in the order of seconds Long Term Memory (LTM) - The final stage of the dual memory model proposed in the Atkinson-Shiffrin memory model, in which information can be stored for long periods of time. While short-term and working 2 memory persists for only about 18 to 30 seconds, information can remain in long-term memory indefinitely Patient N.A.- A patient who is unable to encode new declarative memories, because of damage to the dorsal thalamus and the mammillary bodies Korsakoff's syndrome- A memory disorder, related to thalamus deficiency, that is generally associated with chronic alcoholism Confabulate- To fill in a gap in memory with a falsification; often seen in Korsakoff's syndrome Patient K.C.- A patient who sustained damage to the cortex that renders him unable to form and receive new episodic memories, especially autobiographical memories Episodic Memory- Memory of a particular incident or a particular time and place Semantic Memory- Generalized memory- for instance, knowing the meaning of a word without knowing where or when you learned that word Skill Learning- Learning to perform a task that requires motor coordination Motor Coordination- The combination of body movements created with the kinematic (such as spatial direction) and kinetic (force) parameters that result in intended actions Priming a.k.a. Repetition Priming- The phenomenon by which exposure to a stimulus facilities subsequent responses to the same or a similar stimulus Conditioning- A form of learning in which an organism comes to associate two stimuli, or a stimulus and a response 3 Nonassociative Learning- A type of learning in which presentation of a particular stimulus alters the strength or probability of a response according to the strength an temporal spacing of that stimulus; includes habituation and sensitization Habituation- A form of nonassociative learning in which an organism becomes less responsive following repeated presentation of stimuli Sensitization- A form of nonassociative learning in which an organism becomes more responsive to most stimuli after being exposed to usually strong or painful stimulation Dishabituation- The restoration of response amplitude following habituation Associative Learning- A type of learning in which an association is formed between two stimuli or between a stimuli and a response; include both classical and instrumental conditioning Classical Conditioning- A learning process in which an innate response to a potent stimulus comes to be elicited in response to a previously neutral stimulus; this is achieved by repeated pairings of the neutral stimulus with the potent stimulus Operant Conditioning or Instrumental Conditioning- A learning process first described by B. F. Skinner. In instrumental conditioning, reinforcement or punishment are used to either increase or decrease the probability that a behavior will occur again in the future. For example, if a student is rewarded with praise every time she raises her hand in class, she becomes more likely to raise her hand again in the future 4 Iconic Memory- The visual sensory memory (SM) register pertaining to the visual domain and a fast-decaying store of visual information Sensory Buffer- Only technically a part of memory: it might make more sense to regard it as part of the perceptual system. Information may stay there for about 1/15 of a second, while the brain assembles it to “make sense” Working Memory (WM) - The search engine of the mind. Working memory is the cognitive function responsible for keeping information online, manipulating it, and using it in your thinking Phonological Loop- One of the central concepts of the working memory model. It represents a brief store of mainly verbal information together with a rehearsal mechanism; We use this to rehearse phone numbers Visuospatial Sketch Pad (VSSP) - One of two passive slave systems in Baddeley's (1986) model of working memory; VSSP is responsible for the manipulation and temporary storage of visual and spatial information Episodic Buffer- Component of Baddeley and Hitch's Model of Working Memory; This model holds that the human memory functions as interactive system with a Central Executive function that coordinates the activities of three subordinate or "slave" systems Intermediate-Term Memory (ITM) - A stage of memory distinct from sensory memory, working memory/short-term memory, and long-term memory; A form of memory which last longer than short term memory but not as long as long term memory Primary Effect- The superior performance seen in a memory task for items as the start of a list; usually attributed to long term memory 5 Recency Effect- The superior performance seen in a memory task for items as the end of a list; usually attributed to short term memory Memory Trace- A persistent change in the brain that reflects the storage of memory Encoding- A stage of memory formation in which the information entering sensory channels is passed into short-term memory Consolidation- A stage of memory formation in which the information in short-term memory or intermediate-term memory is transferred to long-term memory Retrieval- A process in memory during which a stored memory is used by an organism Reconsolidation- The return of a memory trace to stable long-term storage after it has been temporarily made volatile during the process of recall Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) - A mental health condition that's triggered by a terrifying event — either experiencing it or witnessing it. Symptoms may include flashbacks, nightmares and severe anxiety, as well as uncontrollable thoughts about the event Object Recognition Memory- Monkey must identify which of two objects was not seen previously, with delay ranging from8 seconds to 2 minutes Cognitive Map- A metal representation of a spatial learning Latent Learning- Learning that has taken place but has not (yet) been demonstrated by performance Learning that has taken place but has not (yet) been demonstrated by performance Place Cell- A neuron within the hippocampus that selectively fires when the animal is in a particular location 6 Grid Cell- A neuron that selectively fires when the animal crosses the intersection points of an abstract grid map of the local environment Border Cell- A neuron that selectively fires when the animal arrives at the perimeter of the local spatial cognition map Standard Condition (SC) -The usual environment for laboratory rodents, with a few animals in a cage and adequate food and water, but no complex situations Impoverished Condition (SC) a.k.a. Isolated Condition- A condition in which laboratory rodents are housed singly in a small cage without complex stimuli Enriched Condition (SC) a.k.a. Complex Environment- A condition in which laboratory rodents are group-housed with a wide variety of stimuli objects Tetanus- An intense volley of action potential Long-Term potentiation (LTP) - A stable and enduring increase in the effectiveness of synapses following repeated strong stimulation Dentate Gyrus- A strip of gray matter in the hippocampal formation Subiculum a.k.a. Subicular Complex or Hippocampal Gyrus – A region adjacent to the hippocampus that contributes to the hippocampal formation NMDA Receptors- A glutamate receptor that also binds the glutamate agonist NMDA (N-methyl-D-asparate), and that is both ligand-gated and voltage gated AMPA Receptors- A glutamate receptor that also binds the glutamate agonist AMPA Protein Kinase- An enzyme that adds phosphate group (PO4) to protein molecules 7 cAMP Responsive Element-Binding Protein (CREB) - A protein that is activated by cyclic AMP (cAMP) so that it now binds the promoter regions of several genes involved in neural plasticity Retrograde Messenger- Transmitter that is released by the postsynaptic region, travels back across the synapse, and alters the functioning of the presynaptic neuron Conditional Knockout- A gene that can be selectively deactivated in adulthood in specific tissues Age-related impairments of memory have several causes- Impairments of encoding and retrieval; Loss of neural and/or neural connections; Problems with cholinergic neurotransmission; Impaired coding by place cells Can the effects of aging on memory be prevented or alleviated?- Living in favorable environmental circumstances; Involvement in complex and intellectually stimulating activities; Having a spouse/partner with high cognitive status
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