Study Guide for Exam 3
Study Guide for Exam 3 GEOL 110
Long Beach State
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This 25 page Study Guide was uploaded by Elizabeth Rubio on Thursday April 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEOL 110 at California State University Long Beach taught by Ewa Burchard in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Natural Disasters in Geology at California State University Long Beach.
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Date Created: 04/21/16
Energy Behavior Temperature depends on amount of energy absorbed or reflected • Reflection depends on albedo – Describes the reflectivity of surfaces – Dark woodlands reflect 5 percent to 15 percent – Light grasslands reflect 25 percent • Absorption – Energy that is not reflected is absorbed – Different objects absorb different wavelengths – Hotter objects radiate energy more rapidly and at shorter wavelengths 9.3 Atmosphere Thin gaseous envelope that surrounds Earth – Gas molecules – Suspended particles of solid and liquid – Falling precipitation • Causes weather experienced every day • Responsible for trapping heat that keeps the Earth warm • Knowledge of structure and dynamics critical to understand severe weather Composition of the Atmosphere Composed mostly of nitrogen and oxygen – Smaller amounts of argon, water vapor, and carbon dioxide – Other trace elements and compounds • Water vapor – Important for cloud formation and circulation – Comes from evaporation off of Earth’s surface – Humidity describes amount of moisture in atmosphere at particular temperature • Relative humidity is the ratio of water vapor present to the amount that saturates the air • Increases at night because of cooler temps, decreases during the day due to heating Structure of the Atmosphere Water vapor content and temperature vary from Earth’s surface to it’s upper limits • Troposphere – All of Earth’s surface is within this layer – Upper boundary is tropopause – Temperature decreases with increasing altitude – Most visible characteristic is presence of clouds • Made from very small water droplets or ice crystals that condense from the atmosphere • Cumulus: puffy fair weather clouds • Cumulonimbus: tall, dark storm clouds – Contains most of the atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane Cloud Type Associated with Severe Weather Four aspects of atmosphere directly related to severe weather – Atmospheric pressure and circulation patterns – Vertical stability of the atmosphere – Coriolis effect (is a result of the earth's rotation. As air moves from high to low pressure in the northern hemisphere, it is deflected to the right by the Coriolis force.) – Interaction of different air masses Atmospheric Pressure and Circulation Atmospheric pressure also called barometric pressure – Weight of a column of air above a given point – Force exerted by molecules on surface • In the atmosphere, pressure decreases with increasing altitude – Nearly all of the weight of the atmosphere is in the lower atmosphere – Density and pressure decrease rapidly as you go to higher elevations Cont. Changes in air temperature and air movement are responsible for horizontal changes in pressure – Temperature influences pressure because cold air is more dense and exerts greater pressure on surface – Global variations in temperature cause global winds • At equator, air is warm and low in density – Creates low pressure zones at the equator – Air rises, condenses, forms clouds and rain – Cooler, drier air sinks at latitudes around 30° causing deserts – Similar vertical circulation cells observed at middle and high latitudes Cont. Jet streams – Midlatitude air masses of different temperatures colliding near tropopause • Westerly winds encircling the globe due to Coriolis effect • Greater the temperature difference, faster the flow Northern Hemisphere has two jet streams – Polar jet stream • Stronger of the two and boundary between cold arctic polar and warm subtropical and tropical air masses – Subtropical jet stream • Weak during the summer months but strongest in winter when temperature gradient between lowlatitude and midlatitude air masses is greatest CHAPTER 8 SUBSISTENCE AND SOILS A particular event that is an example is the subsidence aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in Louisiana. NASA investigated this particular state to investigate the soil and land from this state, and prevent and predict possible hazards. Venice is Shaking •Beautiful and famous city in Italy –Subsiding (sinking) at rate of 1.5 mm (~0.06 in) per year in some areas –Built on 118 small islands in a coastal lagoon –Extremely prone to flooding •Has been happening naturally for millions of years –However, over pumping of groundwater significantly increased rate of subsidence –Human response has been to raise buildings and streets •Frequency of floods has increased SOLUTION Mose System, which is building huge engineering barriers when there is an increase of tide Soil and Hazards •Soil –Solid earth material that has been altered such that it can support rooted plant life –Any solid earth material that can be removed without blasting Helps evaluate natural hazards •Soil is produced through weathering –Physical and chemical breakdown of rocks –Changed by residual or transported activity of soil organisms Residual/ Transported Soil and Hazards cont. •Soil development depends on: –Climate –Topography –Parent material •The rock or alluvium from which the soil is formed –Time •Age of the soil –Organic processes •Activity of soil organisms Soil Horizons •Soil profile –Created from vertical and horizontal movements –Distinct layers parallel to the surface •Layers in a profile are soil horizons –O: organic materials –A: mineral and organic materials –E: forms zone of leaching with the A layer –B: enriched in clay, iron oxides, etc., resulting from leaching •B:tenriched with clay materials •B k accumulation of calcium carbonate (kjust CaCO3), (caliche CaCO3 layers/lenses/ chunks) –C: partially altered (weathered) parent material –R: unweathered parent material HardpanImpermeable, clayCaCO3/ Iron Oxide/ Silica •Can be an important diagnostic tool for analyzing a soil profile, but can be misleading –O and A horizons are dark Soil Color Continued –E horizon is white –B horizon varies from yellowbrown to light redbrown to dark red –K horizon may be almost white •Soil color can also indicate drainage –Welldrained are aerated: red color –Poorly drained are wet: yellow color Soil Texture •Defined by proportions of sand, silt, and claysized particles –Clay: less than 0.004 mm –Silt: 0.004 to 0.074 mm –Sand: 0.074 to 2.0 mm –Gravel, cobbles or boulders: greater than 2.0 mm •Estimated in the field and refined in laboratory •Particles cling together in peds or aggregates Soil analyses help to recognize hazards (This image is used to analyze the texture of soil ) (This visual describes the description of each soil horizon ) Relative Soil Profile Development •Soils differ in development –Weakly developed soil •A horizon directly over a C horizon (without B) •Few hundred to several thousand years old –Moderately developed soil •A overlying an argillic B ttat overlies the C horizon •More than 10,000 years old (at least Pleistocene) –Welldeveloped soil •Btredder, more translocation of clay to B, andtstronger structure •Between 40,000 and several hundred thousand years and older •Soil chronosequence: youngest to oldest –Give information about the recent history of an area Water in Soils Properties of Soil •Saturated –All the pore spaces in a block of soil are completely filled with water –Unsaturated otherwise •Moisture content –Amount of water in a soil –Important to strength of soil and potential to shrink and swell •Water flow –Saturated flow if all the pores are filled with water –Unsaturated flow otherwise (more common) (this image shows the air relationships when there are solids near each other along with water ) Classifying Soils •Soil taxonomy –Used by soil scientists –Based on physical and chemical properties of soil profile Classifying Soils (cont. ) –Useful for agricultural and land use •Engineering classification of soils –Used by engineers (and for hazards) –Based on particle size or the abundance of organic material Soil Erosion as a Hazard •Can agricultural systems maintain and improve soil fertility while minimizing erosion? –Appears many practices are mining the soil –Could erode foundation of our civilization •Soil Erosion –Grainbygrain removal of mineral and organic material by wind and/or water –Removal of soil material at an unacceptable rate –Removal of soil material at a rate faster than it is being produced Cont. •Problem in urban environments –Vegetation often removed prior to development –Persists where protection is not a high priority •Rates of soil erosion –Most concerned with top, organically rich soil •Takes about 500 to 1000 years to form 50 mm (~2 in) of soil •Rate of soil for agricultural land is 0.05 to 0.1 mm per year •Accelerated erosion can remove centuries of soil in less than a decade –Rates measured as volume, mass, or weight •Amount removed from a location within a specified time and area •Can predict soil moved from original location through Universal Soil Loss Equation Introduction to Subsidence and Soil Volume Change •Subsidence –Ground failure characterized by sinking or vertical deformation of land associated with •Dissolution of rocks beneath the surface: karst topography •Thawing of frozen ground •Compaction of sediment •Earthquakes and drainage of magma •Soil volume change –Result from natural processes •Changes in water content of soil •Frost heaving –These are probably not life threatening, but is one of the most widespread and costly natural hazards Kru st •Rocks are dissolved by surface or groundwater –Evaporites: rock salt and gypsum, dissolved by water –Carbonates: limestone and dolostone and marble, dissolved by slightly acidic water •Acid comes from carbon dioxide from plant and animal decay •Common in humid climates •Rocks are dissolved and groundwater level drops, leaving behind caverns and sinkholes –Pits in that are near surface •Sinkholes in large numbers form a karst plain (This image shows a formation of Karst Topography) Krast (cont.) •Sinkholes –Vary in size from one to several hundred meters in diameter –Can open up extremely rapidly •Two Basic types –Solutional sinkholes •Acidic groundwater becomes concentrated in holes in joints and fractures in the rock •Water is drawn into a cone above the hole in the limestone –Collapse sinkholes •Develop by the collapse of material into an underground cavern GEOL 110 Ch8 323 Karst, cont. •Sinkholes –Vary in size from one to several hundred meters in diameter –Can open up extremely rapidly •Two Basic types –Solutional sinkholes •Acidic groundwater becomes concentrated in holes in joints and fractures in the rock •Water is drawn into a cone above the hole in the limestone –Collapse sinkholes •Develop by the collapse of material into an underground cavern •Cave systems –Formed when dissolution produces a series of caves –Related to fluctuating groundwater table –Groundwater seepage causes flowstone, stalagmites, stalactites Some caves can also contain crystals forming from waterreach ions Karst, Cont. Characteristics of Karst Topography •Tower Karst –Large, steep limestone “towers” –Created in highly eroded karst regions •Disappearing Streams –Streams that suddenly disappear into cave openings –Actually flow directly into the groundwater system •Springs –Places where groundwater naturally discharges at the surface Thermokarst •In polar or high altitude regions, permafrost exists –Sediment remains frozen throughout the year –Soil or sediment cemented with ice for at least 2 years •When permafrost thaws it can create land subsidence within the land •Extensive thawing creates uneven soil called thermokarst Sediment and Soil Compaction •Fine sediment –Sediment collapses when water is removed –Common on river deltas –Flooding replenishes sediment, thwarting collapse •Collapsible soils –Dust deposits, loess, and stream deposits in arid regions are bound with clay or water soluble minerals –Water weakens bonds causing soil to collapse •Organic soils –Wetland soils contain large amounts of organic matter and water –When water drained or soil is decomposed, soils collapse Earthquakes •In subduction boundaries, when fault is locked, land can become uplifted •After an earthquake, the land subsides Underground Drainage of Magma •Magma –Uplifts the land during an eruption –Afterwards land subsides •Lava tubes –Form when molten lava drains out from underneath cooled surface lava –Leaves void near the surface that is susceptible to collapse Expansive Tools •Expand during wet periods and shrink during dry periods –Common in clay, shale, and clayrich soil containing smectite –After expansion, soils can have cracks and popcornlike texture •Often will produce wavy bumps in surfaces –Causing tilting and cracking of sidewalks, foundations, utility poles, and headstones Geographic Regions at risk for Subsidence and Soil Volume Change •Karst topography composes about 10 percent of Earth’s surface –About 25 percent of United States •Region through Tennessee, Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania •Southcentral Indiana and westcentral Kentucky •SalemSpringfield plateaus of Missouri and northernmost Arkansas •Edwards Plateau of central Texas •Most of central Florida •Puerto Rico •Permafrost covers more than 20 percent of world’s land surface –Most of Alaska and more than half of Canada and Russia Cont. •Compaction of sediment –World’s marine deltas •Organicrich clays in coldregion wetlands –New England –Washington State –Alaska •Coastal wetlands –Florida Everglades –SacramentoSan Joaquin Delta in California –Costal Louisiana and North Carolina •Expansive soils –Western United States and Canada –Swelling clays found in all 50 states •Frost heaving –Alaska –Northern contiguous United States and Canada •Seismicrelated –Alaska –Hawaii –Pacific Northwest Effects of Subsidence and Soil Volume Change •Karst formation and soil expansion and contraction cause significant economic damage each year •Problems include –Sinkhole formation –Changes in groundwater conditions –Damage caused by melting permafrost –Coastal flooding and loss of wetlands –Damage caused by soil volume change 8.7 Human Interaction with Subsidence and Soil Volume Change •Humans can contribute to problems associated with subsidence and soil volume change –Withdrawal subsurface fluids –Excavate underground mines –Thawing frozen ground –Restriction of deltaic sedimentation –Alter surface drainage –Use poor landscaping practices 413 9.7 Linkages with other Hazards Shortterm events – Flooding • Slowmoving thunderstorms producing a lot of rain in a relatively short time • Stagnation of thunderstorms – storms track over the same area – Mass movements – Wildfires • Can start from lightning strikes • Longterm changes in global climate – Drought, dust/sandstorms, and heat waves • Tropical and extratropical cyclones 9.8 Natural Service Functions of Severe Weather Contribute to health of forests – Wildfires clear old growth – Windstorms topple dead trees • Source of water – Blizzards and other snowstorms, thunderstorms, and tropical storms primary source for some areas • Aesthetic value – Clouds, snow, lightning • Tourism – Tornado chasing Forecasting and Predicting Weather Hazards Timely and accurate prediction is extremely important to spare human lives – Events still difficult to forecast – Behavior is unpredictable – Doppler radar has significantly improved ability to predict paths • Detects clouds, rain, ice particles, etc. • Uses wavelength of reflected waves to determine directions • Used to make short term predictions • Can detect a mesocyclone within a thunderstorm and issue tornado warnings up to 30 minutes in advance Watches and warnings – Watch: possibility of severe weather developing – Warning: severe weather has been spotted, take action Adjustment to the severe weather Hazard Cannot prevent severe weather, but can take steps to reduce associated death and damage • Mitigation – Longterm actions to prevent or minimize death, injuries, and damage are considered mitigation – Different for each weather hazard but some general techniques • Building new structures (Example: windproofing) • Ensuring utilities can continue to function in severe weather • Warning systems • Hazard insurance Preparedness and personal adjustments Ch 10 Hurricanes and Extratropical Cyclones Hurricane Sandy •Seven days from formation to landfall –Landfall just south of New York City –Storm had swelled to largest Atlantic hurricane on record •“Superstorm Sandy” –Great size, atypical path, merged with an arctic cold front –No longer hurricaneforce winds upon landfall, but was second most expensive storm to strike the United States (after Katrina) •Damage in the United States –Triggered intense snowstorms resulting in power outages –Large waves and heavy wind and rain caused flooding and coastal erosion 10.1 Intro to Cyclones •An area or center of low pressure with rotating winds –Counterclockwise in Northern Hemisphere –Clockwise in Southern Hemisphere •Tropical or extratropical –Based on origin and core temperature •Characterized by intensity –Sustained wind speeds and lowest atmospheric temperature (cont.) •Tropical Cyclones –Form over warm tropical or subtropical ocean water (5°–20° latitude) –Have warm central cores –Tropical depressions, tropical storms, hurricanes –High winds, heavy rain, surges, and tornadoes –Derive energy from warm ocean water and latent heat •Extratropical Cyclones –Form over land or water in temperate regions (30°–70° latitude) –Associated with fronts and cool central cores –Strong windstorms, heavy rains, surges, snowstorms, blizzards –Most do not produce severe weather –Derive energy from temperature contrasts along fronts •Scientific classification and description have roots in regional names •Extratropical cyclone that moves along northward along East Coast U.S. –Hurricanes •Tropical cyclones in Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans –Typhoons •Tropical cyclones in Pacific Ocean west of International Dateline and north of the equator –Cyclones •Tropical cyclones in Indian Ocean SaffirSimpson Scale classifies hurricanes based on wind speed Naming Cyclones •Tropical storms and hurricanes given names established by international agreement through World Meteorological Organization –Named once winds exceed 63 km (39 mi.) per hour –Names assigned sequentially each year from list for each origin –Male/female names alternated –Names are reused every 6 years –Names of big storms are retired (example: Katrina) Tropical Cyclones cont. •Tropical disturbance –Typically 200 to 600 km (120 to 370 mi.) –A organized mass of thunderstorms persisting for > 24 hours –Associated with elongated area of low pressure (trough) –Has a weak rotation due to Coriolis effect Cont. •Tropical Depression –Tropical disturbance wind speeds increase and begins to spin –A low pressure center is formed •Tropical Storm –Winds increase to 63 km (39 mi.) per hour –Storm is given a name –Wind speeds are not at hurricane strength, but rainfall can be intense •Hurricanes –Not all tropical storms develop into hurricanes •Classified when winds reach 119 km (74 mi.) per hour –Environmental conditions •Thick layer of warm ocean water –At least 26 degrees C (~80 degrees F) –Extend to depth of 46 m (~150 ft) •Steep vertical temperature gradient –Atmosphere must cool quickly with increasing altitude •Weak vertical wind shear –Strong winds aloft prevent hurricane development 418 Development of Extratropical Cyclone Geographic Regions at Risk for cyclones •Most serious threat in North America –Eastern contiguous United States –Puerto Rico –Virgin Islands –U.S. territories in the Pacific Ocean •They are a lesser threat to Hawai’i and Atlantic Canada •On the Pacific coast, hurricanes strike Baja California and the west coast of the Mexican mainland Cont. •Most hurricanes that affect East and Gulf Coasts form off the western coast of Africa •They take one of three tracks 1.West toward East coast of Florida, sometimes passing over Caribbean •Move out into the Atlantic Ocean to the northeast 2.Westward over Cuba and into the Gulf of Mexico to strike the Gulf Coast 3.Westward to the Caribbean and then northeastward skirting the East Coast •May strike the continent from central Florida to New York Cont. •Northwest Pacific is much more active than North Atlantic •Indian Ocean is also a very active hurricane zone •South Atlantic and southeast Pacific, rarely have hurricanes because of cold ocean water •Hurricanes do not form close to the equator because of the absence of the Coriolis effect Hazard Greatest in Right Forward Quadrant of Atlantic Hurricanes •Local rise in sea level resulting from storm winds •Can be > 3 m (10 ft.) •Because of spinning, surge is greatest in right quadrant of storm as it makes landfall •Height is greatest near time of maximum winds •Height is also greater if landfall coincides with high tide Storm Surge •Largest effect from stress exerted by wind on water –Fetch refers to the area over which the wind blows –Larger fetch results in larger storm surge •Smaller effect from low atmospheric pressure in storm pulling up on water surface •Also depends on shape of coastline •Continual increase in sea level as storm approaches •Overwash can create washover channels, isolating one area from another Heavy Rains •Average hurricane produces trillion gallons of water each day •Rainfall from cyclones can cause inland flooding •Flooding affected by: –Storm’s speed –Land elevation over which the storm moves –Interaction with other weather systems –Amount of water in soil, streams, and lakes prior to storm Linkages and Natural Services •Coastal erosion –Some of the fastest rates during the landfall of cyclones •Some sand replaced during fairweather conditions •Other sand is removed entirely •Flooding –Saltwater from storm surge –Freshwater from heavy rains •Mass wasting –Heavy rains can cause devastating landslides and debris flows •Primary source of precipitation •Redistribute warm air from tropics •Maintain ecosystems –Winds carry plants, animals, and microorganisms –Waves stir up deeper, nutrientrich waters –Winds topple weak and diseased trees in forests –Waves break apart some corals Human Interaction with Cyclones •Human i–Population growth greatest in coastal areasdly in the past four decades –About 53 percent of United States population live in coastal counties •Urban development in coastal areas –Urbanization of vulnerable coastlines increases magnitude of the effect of cyclones –Destruction of sand dunes makes areas more susceptible to hurricane winds –Construction (increase) of seawalls and bulkheads reflect waves and contribute to beach erosion –Poor building materials and practices can make hurricanes more dangerous to people cont. •Global warming may contribute to higher intensity and frequency of hurricanes in the future –Raising temperatures of the seas surface •Possible that warmer ocean water will increase hurricane intensity –Contributing to rising sea level •Increase the reach of large waves that ride the surge Forecasts and Warnings •Cannot prevent the cyclone hazard •Enforcing building codes and evacuation procedures Need for accurately forecasts and warnings •Forecast includes: –If it will make landfall –Where and when it will strike –Wind strength –Width of affected area –Rainfall amount –Storm surge •Monitored by U.S. Hurricane Center, Canadian Hurricane Center •Hurricane watch means likely hurricane in 36 hours •Hurricane warning given when hurricane is likely within 24 hours or less Cont. •Hurricane forecasting tools –Weather satellites •Detect early warning signs •Can not show wind speed –Aircraft •U.S. Air Force, NOAA airplanes fly into the storm to collect data –Doppler radar •Give information on rainfall, wind speed, and direction of the storm –Weather buoys •Continuously record weather conditions –Computer models •Make predictions about storm tracks •Global Forecast System (GFS) model runs four times a day •Still not completely accurate in predicting storm intensity Cont. Storm Surge predictions = Time and elevation of surge Based on wind speed, fetch, ave, water depth, central pressure, forward speed Adjustment to Cyclones Hurricanes and Extratropical Cyclones •Community adjustments to cyclone hazard –Warning systems •Give public maximum possible advance notice •Media broadcasts, local use of sirens –Evacuation plans and shelters •Developed prior to hurricane season •Public transportation provided during hazard –Insurance –Building design •Withstand hurricaneforce winds •Allow passage of storm surge •Recommendations available from Partnerships for Advancing Technology in Housing (PATH) •Personal adjustments to cyclone hazard –Be aware of hurricane season –Prepare homes and property for hazard –Obtain flood insurance –Install heavy shutters that can be latched –Learn evacuation route –Make a family emergency plan –Collect emergency supplies Chapter 11 Coastal Hazards Folly Island and Submerging Coast Barrier island south of Charleston, SC Barrier to ocean waves that would strike the mainland About 10 km (~6mi) long, less than 1 km (0.6mi) wide Most of the island has an elevation of l.5.3 m (~510 ft.) Typical Atlantic Barrier Island Eroding at a high rate (proceed to the slides where 11.1 occurs to the powerpoint) 420 Waves cont. (slide 15) Variations along a coastline Irregularities in topography ocean floor and coast cause variations in wave height as it approaches shore A single wave is called a wave front Irregular Coastlines have headlands The shape of the coast is similar underwater to that of the coastline Water gets progressively shallower close to shore As the wave approaches the shore, it slows at the headland first This causes the wave front to bend around the headland (refraction) •Effects of wave refraction –Wave normals, perpendicular to wavefronts pointing toward shoreline –Wave refraction causes normal to converge and diverge –Convergence •Wave heights and energy increases •Waves are bigger here –Divergence •Wave heights and energy decreases •Breaking waves –Plunging breakers •Waves that pick up quickly •Typical on steep beaches •More erosive –Spilling breakers •Waves that spill gently •Typical on wide, flat beaches •More likely to deposit sand Beach Form and Processes •Beach consists of loose material which has accumulated by wave action on shoreline •Type of beach material depends on source of sand –White beaches from shell and coral (Pacific Islands) –Black beaches from volcanic rock (Hawaii) –Brown beaches from quartz and feldspar (Carolina) •The beach onshore –Landward extent of a beach on seashore or lakeshore •Line of sand dunes •Line of permanent vegetation or Sea cliff or bluff forms from erosion of rock or sediment –Beaches are divided into •Berm –Beach portion that slopes landward and formed by deposition of sediment by waves •Beach face –Beach portion that slopes toward water –In the swash zone where waves swash and backwash •The beach offshore –Swash zone •Zone where waves swash and backwash on the beach –Surf zone •Where turbulent waves move after waves break –Breaker zone •Where the waves become unstable, peak, and break •Longshore bar forms beneath breakers •Longshore trough forms landward from bar •Sand transport –Littoral transport •Sand movement parallel to shore •Beach drift –Sand moving in zigzag pattern in swash zone •Longshore drift –Transport of sand by longshore currents –Longshore currents •Current that flows parallel to shoreline as a result of up & back movement of water in swash zone –Updrift and downdrift •Indicate the direction in which sediment is moving or accumulating along the shore 11.3 Sea Level Change •The level of the sea is constantly changing •Relative sea level –Position of the sea at the shore –Influenced by movement of both the land and water •Eustatic sea level –Global sea level –Controlled by processes that affect overall volume of water in the ocean and shape of the basins •Eustatic sea level (global sea level) –Rises or falls when the amount of water in the world’s oceans increases or decreases –Climate/average air temperature •Temperature increases cause volume of water to expand •Temperature decreases cause contraction of water •Changes in temperature cause ice on land to melt or snowfall to increase –Volume of water in ice sheets, glaciers increases, ocean water linked –Tectonic processes •Changes ocean basin shape over long period of time •Relative sea level –Glacier melt or earthquakes can cause uplifting of land •Decrease in sea level –Rates of deposition, erosion, or subsidence makes the level rise or fall –Tides caused by gravitational pull of the moon cause daily and seasonal changes –Weather conditions •Changes in wind speed –High winds pile up water and increase water height in open water –Swell increases both water level and wave heights when it reaches the shore •Changes in atmospheric pressure –Can add a meter or more to height of storm surge
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