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Exam #1 Review Guide

by: Elliana

Exam #1 Review Guide KIN 150

Marketplace > University of Miami > Kinesiology > KIN 150 > Exam 1 Review Guide
GPA 3.9
KIN 150 Nutrition
Sarah Adwan

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All you need to know for Exam #1
KIN 150 Nutrition
Sarah Adwan
Study Guide
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Popular in Kinesiology

This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Elliana on Sunday February 22, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to KIN 150 at University of Miami taught by Sarah Adwan in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 159 views. For similar materials see KIN 150 Nutrition in Kinesiology at University of Miami.


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Date Created: 02/22/15
KIN 150 Exam 1 93014 Exam 1 Review Guide Nutrition A science that studies the interactions between living organisms and food Forti ed Foods Adding nutrients not naturally found in certain foods to bolster their nutritional quality Enriched Foods Nutrients that have been lost during processing added back to them Dietary Supplements A product intended for ingestion in the diet that contains one or more of the following vitamins minerals plantderived substances amino acids and concentrates or extracts Nutrient Density 0 Vitamin amp mineral content versus calories in a food Vitamins Minerals Calories Low nutrient density gt food is high in empty calories Nutrigenomics The study of how diet affects genes and how genetic variation can affect the impact of nutrients on health Cost of Convenience Model 0 Time constraints gt fast food gt high fat amp sugar ingestion gt dopamine depletion gt decreased productivity lt time constraints monetary loss health damage lt Organic Nutrients Contain carbon atom CHO protein lipids vitamins Inorganic Nutrients Lack carbon atom water amp minerals 6 Main Nutrients Carbs Energy Yielding NonEnergy Yielding L Carbs Watersoluble vitamins Iplds Proteins Protein Fatsoluble Vitamins Vitamins Fats Minerals Macronutrients Micronutrients Water Carbs Watersoluble vitamins Protein Fatsoluble vitamins Fats Minerals Water Macronutrients Macronutrients 0 Need to be consumed in large amounts 0 Includes water Carbs Break down into sugars 4 caloriesgram RDI minimum 130gday AMDR 4565 Monosaccharides simple sugars O Glucose ber stored in blooddietary form 0 Fructose fruits veggies honey naturally occurring 0 Galactose milk sugar 0 Disaccharides simple sugars O Maltose mainly in the digestive system when starch is broken down KIN 150 Exam 1 93014 0 Lactose dairy O Sucrose table sugar arti cia 0 Arti cial vs Naturally Occurring Sugars in Food 0 Natural Rich in vitamins minerals ber high nutrient density 0 Arti cial Rich in empty calories low nutrient density 0 Polysaccharides complex carbs 0 Starch O Glucose amp ber 0 Glycogen form of ber stored in the liver amp muscles 0 Fiber 0 RDI 25 gday for a 2000 calorie diet 0 Regulatesprevents rapid rise in blood sugar levels 0 Reduces rate of digestion slows release of sugar amp carbs into system 0 Stored as glycogen in the body liver amp muscles utilized as glucose in the blood 0 WaterSoluble Dissolves in water Helps lower glucose amp blood cholesterol levels Reduces glycemic response to a meal as well as protein 0 WaterInsoluble Doesn39t dissolve in water Promotes regular digestion reduces constipation o Glycemic Response How quickly amp high blood glucose levels rise after CHO consumption 0 Glycemic Index Ranking of how a food affects glycemic response High Gl value Release glucose rapidly Low GI value Release glucose slowly improve glycaemic amp insulinaemic responses 0 Insulin Decreases blood glucose levels 0 Glucagon Increases blood glucose levels Proteins Break down into amino acids 0 4 caloriesgram RDI 08gkg of body weight 0 Acceptable AMDR 1035 of energy for adults 0 Needs increase during growth periods pregnancy amp lactation 0 Need declines w age during growth amp adolescence O Denatured by acids amp heat 0 Cooking denatures protein amp makes it easier for the body to break it down amp ingest it Amino Acids 0 Body needs 20 diff amino acids synthesizes much larger of proteins 0 Contain nitrogen atom 0 Functions 0 Enzymes speed up metabolic reactions 0 Transport proteins move substances in amp out of cells 0 Antibodies support immune system ghting foreign bodies 0 Hormones act as chemical messengers KIN 150 Exam 1 0 Contractile proteins help muscles move Actin amp myosin slide past one another to make muscles contract 0 Essential amino acids 0 Can39t be made by the body 0 Nonessential amino acids 0 Bodies produce amino acids even if it doesn39t come from food eaten 0 Improved economy increased proportion of animal foods Majority of countries rely on plant proteins 93014 Animal Products Amino Acuds O Provrde protein Vitamins minerals 0 Low in ber 0 High in fat 0 Plant proteins less absorbable 0 Protein Structure Glucose Fatty Acids Body Proteins and O Dipeptide 2 amino acids 0m N tr 99quot COD almn O Tripeptlde 3 amino aCIds competing O Polypeptide up to 100 amino acids Essential branched chain amino acids BCAAS When insuffic1ent When excess lWhen caloric Intake calonc Intake calories are is adequate o lsoleucune ingested o Valine o Leucine 0 Only dietary amino acid that can stimulate muscle protein synthesis 0 RDI 14 45 mgkg more for more active individuals 0 Reduces risk of obesity 0 Increased muscle mass burns more calories Prevents muscle breakdown 0 Promotes fat oxidation before muscle breakdown O Supplementation combined w moderate energy restriction may induce body fat loss 0 Helps maintain high performance level 0 Prolongs fatigue by decreasing serotonin synthesis 0 Alanine O Nonessential amino acid 0 Concentrated in meats 0 Found in meat amp vegetablegrain sources 0 Supplements may improve physical performance for Hl amp strength training 0 Makes body more ef cient at generating energy pre or during workouts o Tyrosine 0 Building block for several neurotransmitters including dopamine epinephrine norepinephrine O Supplements may help improve memory amp performance under stress 0 Dietary sources soy products chicken turkey sh peanuts almonds avocados bananas milk cheese yogurt cottage cheese lima beans pumpkin seeds sesame seeds 0 Vitamins B6 amp B9 folate amp copper help the body convert tyrosine into impt brain chemicals 0 Amino acids metabolized provide energy 4 caloriesgram 0 Only when the diet contains protein in excess of needs amp diet is low in energy KIN 150 Exam 1 93014 0 Low energy diets cause AA to synthesize glucose 0 Protein amp energy consumed in excess cause AA to synthesize fatty acids 0 When protein amp energy are adequatenot excessive AA synthesize body proteins amp other nitrogencontaining compounds 0 Urea Nitrogencontaining waste produced from AA breakdown amp excreted in urine Complete vs Incomplete Proteins 0 Complete Proteins 0 Contain all essential amino acids 0 Most animal foods Incomplete Proteins 0 Low quality proteins 0 Lack 1 or more essential amino acid 0 Plant foods not including soybeans Complementary proteins 0 2 incomplete protein sources compensating for each other39s de ciency 0 Do not have to be eaten in the same meal just over the course of 1 day Denaturation 0 When cooking destabilizes protein structure amp breaks proteins back down into amino acid chains Dangers w Protein De ciency o PEM O Proteinenergy malnutrition 0 Covers range of protein de ciency conditions 0 Kwashiorkor 0 Pure protein de ciency O Characterized by swollen belly o Marasmus worse 0 Energy amp protein de ciency O Caloric de ciency O Depletion of fat stores 0 Wasting of muscle Toxicity o Phenylketonuria PKU O Inherited condition attributed to defective gene needed for metabolizing phenylalanine 0 Lack the enzyme needed to synthesize phenylalanine into tyrosine O Phenylketonurics contain phenylalanine 0 Can39t ingest aspartame has phenylalanine o Monosodium Glutamate MSG 0 Flavor enhancer used in Chinese cooking 0 Increases food pleasantness amp counteracts satiation O Addictive properties 0 Used as meat tenderizers seasoning additives in snack foods canned soups cured meats 0 May induce ushed face tinglingburning headache rapid heartbeat chest pain weakness 0 Protein Excess KIN 150 Exam 1 93014 0 Over long periods oftime may result in O Hydration amp kidney function issues 0 High protein intake gt high urea production eliminated via kidneys 0 Excess water loss in the process 0 Bone health issues 0 Increased calcium loss in urine 0 Kidney stones 0 Deposits of calcium etc in the kidneys amp urinary tract 0 High concentrations of calcium amp acid in urine increases likelihood of calcium deposits developing amp forming stones 0 Increased risk of heart disease amp cancer 0 When diet is low in fruit amp veggies gt increased risk of colon cancer 0 Highprotein diets tend to be high in animal products gt saturated fat amp cholesterol 0 Highprotein low CHO weightloss diets do not pose risk 0 Break down into fatty acids 0 9 caloriesgram 0 Secretes hormones 0 Secretes molecules for health 0 Protects organs 0 Lipids O Fats or oils 0 Concentrated form of energy 0 Stored as triglycerides in the body 0 Oils 0 Healthy fats 0 Free owing 0 Monounsaturated o Avocados etc 0 Essential fat 0 Minimum amount of fat necessary for normal physiological function 0 Women 12 0 Men 3 o Nonessential fat 0 Results from taking in more calories than expended 0 Fat above the minimal amount required 0 Women have more fat for child bearing needs 0 Fat secretes estrogen 0 Excess body fatoverfat O Accumulates when the body takes in more calories than it burns O Puts the body in an in ammatory condition 0 Obesity diabetes heart disease high blood pressure 0 Overfat vs Overweight o Overweight May be due to more muscle mass 0 Body builders 0 Overfat Necessarily overweight KIN 150 Exam 1 93014 0 Oprah 0 Fatty acids building block 0 Found in the form of triglycerides in the body 0 Saturated fats 0 Any fat that is solid room temperature 0 Increase LDL cholesterol 0 Increase risk of heart disease diabetes obesity etc o Butter whole milk red meat Micronutrients 0 Vitamins amp Minerals Needed in small amounts 0 Provide no energy 0 Function as enzymes that synthesize nutrients 0 Necessary for proper body functioning 0 Volatile may be affected by light exposure heat etc MyPlate Recommends dairy consumption Recommends that 50 of grains consumed be whole Disregards oils Harvard Advises limiting dairy consumption Emphasizes 100 whole grain consumption Promotes healthy oil consumption DRIS Dietary Reference Intake Umbrella term for RDAs ULs amp AMDRs o DRIs not necessarily to be consumed every day but most days 0 Water soluble vitamins more important body cannot store them RDA Amount of nutrients in milligrams your body needs per day Upper Level UL The level of a nutrient above which will cause toxicity Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range AMDR Tells you what percentage of energy should come from carbs lipids proteins etc 0 Expressed as rangesproportions 0 CHO 4565 0 Protein 1035 0 Dietary Guidelines Very detailed set of RDAs o Evidencebased nutrition informationadvice for people 2 years old Mediterranean eating pattern 0 Another healthy dietary patternalternative to MyPlate recommendations 0 High in fruits amp veggies 0 High ber due to whole grains 0 Healthy oils nuts seeds etc KIN 150 Exam 1 93014 Nutrition Guides Grains Exchange Activity Calories x Percentagecalories per gram Give serving sizes for easier comparison btwn similar products Provides info on amts of nutrients whose intakes we want to limit Serving sizes randomly decided List nutrients commonly de cient List of ingredients starts w highest amount of an ingredient amp goes down Often don39t list daily value of sugar content for marketing purposes 0 Added sugars should not exceed 10 of daily intake 0 Of cialsWHO report 25 UL 0 Sugar could mean 0 Monosaccharides sugar glucose fructose galactose 0 Disaccharides sugar maltose sucrose lactose Naturally occurring fructose or added sucrose Daily values based on 2000 calorie diet 0 Daily value the amount of a nutrient in a food shown as a percentage of the recommendation for a person consuming a 2000 calorie diet 0 Amounts given in grams 0 General recommendations may be based on AMDR or UL Percent Daily Values 0 Give percentages of how many calories should come from which nutrients Carbs broken down into amount provided from ber amp from sugars Ingredients 0 Go in descending order from highest amt of ingredient in weight to lowest Most ofthe nutrients lie in the germ amp bran Kernel is made up of starch amp has low nutrient density Kernel is left intact in re ned grains The endosperm is the largest part of the kernel It is made up primarily of starch but it also contains most of the kernel s protein along with some vitamins and minerals The outermost bran layers contain most of the ber and are a good source of many vitamins and minerals The germ located at the base of the kernel is the embryo where sprouting occurs It is a source of oil and is rich in vitamin E 09mm quot 201i John Riley 3 Song Int AI quotyin quotM


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