HIST 2340W Midterm Study Guide
HIST 2340W Midterm Study Guide HIST 2340W
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HIST 234OW Midterm Study Guide 22215 322 PM John Winthrop o 1630 sailed to America after losing his position in Britain on account of being Puritan 0 He sailed on the ship Arabella where he gave the sermon we had to read 0 We shall be as the city upon the hillquot He said this meaning that the Massachusetts Bay Colony would be one of example and refuge far away from the British heathen The Puritans believed that Europe was losing faith and that they needed to do God s work on an entirely different continent They also thought they were unique exceptional and blatantly different from Europe 0 Winthrop believed that coming to this new land would either Be their opportunity to deal truly with God Or end in the Puritans becoming Biword if they don t deal truthfully with God Ezra Stiles Lived much later and was a Minister and also the President of Yale 0 He wrote the Book America Elevated to Honor and Glory in 1783 o This is where our second excerpt came from p39 Our degree of population is such to give us reason that this will be a great peoplequot 0 How does he compare with Winthrop Similarities I Still implies that America has God s blessing n The same notion that America is an example I Still believes that the US is destined to be superior to Europe a Believed that Europe was in a political decline loss of liberty etc while Winthrop believed they were in a spiritual decline Differences n Secularized his writings far more this is because of the separation of Church and state though he still considered our institutions to be divine a He speaks far more about the political aspect of America than Winthrop s religious teachings n Wants to spread values through trade and commerce n Wants to spread political ideals instead of religious ones 0 Was Stiles right about the US being unique in experience What do we have that they don t n Endless Territory 0 ie the concept of Manifest Destiny n America was established based on a set of ideas fundamental freedoms and liberties European countries were established through feudal systems and monarchs and relied heavily on tradition a No attachment to the church Because the US lacked monarchical traditions it also lacked a rigid class hierarchy n This meant that Americans dealt with authority differently Ie voting instead of revolting n Americans also lacked the radicalrevolutionary traditions 0 Ideas were more akin to liberal capitalismquot 0 Political liberty 0 Social mobility o Constitutional government 0 Capitalist models of distribution and production 0 The US often aligns itself with the opposite radicalism of the highest perceived threat 0 Weebler system where the Political system is able to lean a bit to the left or right but never quite topple and become thoroughly radicalized Application to Foreign Policy a The US believes in its own uniqueness because of these political institutions but is a part of a world that doesn t share these liberal capitalist ideals 0 HOW DO WE DEAL 0 Isolation o Globalism Nation Building El El Using Military Trade and Commerce shows countries the natural benefits of liberal capitalism Fostering US dependency Different treaties Domestic Powers Cultural Exchange Aims to create nations similar to America in the International System Backlash El Staying in a country too long can dry up resources and cost too much money Only works if other countries actually want to change Can result in Anti American Sentiments Creation of International Institutions and mechanisms in the international system that can impact the world 0 Fundamental Contradiction Succeeding to transform the world would only make us less unique Midterm Study Guide Continued 22215 322 PM American Foreign Policy Before 1865 0 Main Characteristic was the Great Dilemma 0 Americans believed they had a mission or a destiny to transform the world but the lacked the power to do so Therefore they took up the practice of Nation Building at home a Isolationism prevent Europe influence from corrupting the American Democratic Experiment I Territorial Expansionism The more land the US has the less Europe has I Keep Europe out of the America a Right to Neutral Commerce more wealth means more respect which means more power 0 James Madison and the Constitution The constitution is framed to accommodate for American Growth and Power James Madison and Federalist Paper 10 n Argues that a Republican Government is better than a Democratic one because it allows for more factions and more people to be represented I Also advocated for Extending the Sphere for American Influence by taking more territory and growing the population 0 Important Quote between pages 47 and 48 beginning with The other pointquot 0 George Washington s Farewell Address His time in office often was marked by debates over foreign policy and where the US should and shouldn t be involved GW argued for three things in particular a Isolationism n Neutrality as a means of power a Right to peaceful commerce 0 He warns against foreign influence making the claim that the more we allow for it the larger the divisions of support will be in America and the weaker the country will get Important quotes from the reading a Page 8 Against the Insidiousquot n 2 paragraphs down Our detached and distancedquot speaking to the strength that can be found in remaining neutral 0 when Europe falls do to its illiberal ways the US will be able to step into the place of power I Just below the first quote The great rule of conduct quot 0 Wants to separate economic policy and political policy 0 This is essentially his argument for peaceful commerce 0 Louisiana Purchase Expanded US territory Only worked because of Jefferson s an Adam s pressures on France a Aid to the Haitian Revolution and persuaded Native Americans to attack French posts Pushed Europeans out of the West Coincided with Foreign Policy not just with expansionary tactics o AdamsOnis Treaty of 1819 There was concern that with Spain s decline that other European Powers might try to take its place in the Americas D Jackson led the campaign against the Seminoles and went straight into Florida Spain s territory and helped push Spain to cede FL to the US 0 War of 1812 After GW gave his farewell address US Foreign Policy really started to get hard a They were great with dealing with territorial expansion but not so great with the idea of neutral commerce 0 In 1803 war broke out between Great Britain and France where both countries attempted to stop trade between their enemy and the US 0 England was notoriously better at this tactic as their Navy was much stronger This angered the Americans who placed an Embargo upon England in 1806 o Eventually the US declared war on England that ended with both sides being too tired to continue and left US understanding that it was still too weak with funds and forces to be a true power 0 They felt vulnerable 0 Especially with the fact that the Capitol was burned to the ground in the process of the fighting Changes to Foreign Policy after 1812 included a A need for more vigilant defenses U Need for more national unity The Monroe Doctrine came out of this 0 Really written by John Q Adams 0 Was written in response to Spain s decline and the formation of the Holy Alliance with Russia Prussia and Germany They were scared that other European countries would try and infiltrate the America s in Spain s absence 0 Essentially argues that the US will not stand for any more Colonization by European Countries or Implicit Expansion into the West The real question was how they were intending on following through without funds or forces to back them John Sullivan and Manifest Destiny n Argued that Territorial Expansion is the route to National Greatness Important quotes 0 Paragraph 1 The American Peoplequot 0 Paragraph 4 The Far Reachingquot James K Polk and Expansion In His policy had to be more delicate because of the issue of slavery n Pursued expansion both to the north and the south 0 The Oregon Acquisition with England 0 5440 or Fightquot Ended up settling for the 49th parallel and gaining the territory which is now Oregon and Washington 0 The Mexican War 0 Sent Taylor to blockade the Rio Grande and Mexico attacked 0 Mexico ended up ceding a huge amount of land What is now California Nevada Arizona New Mexico and other Western States minus the Texas Territory that was annexed later a The question that remained was What happens once the US expands all the way Between 18651898 US Foreign Policy changed drastically 0 We became for more proactive and willing to engage with European powers to defend ourselves and the hemisphere Became actively engaged in promoting actions abroad 0 This happened because of material factors economic growth andideas Key Thinkers 0 Alfred Thayer Mahan 0 Most important strategist of the 19th century 0 Was writing in the midst of the 2nd Industrial Revolution in the period after the Civil War This entailed agricultural advancements steel rails electric lights etc 0 Not the best naval officer but was a great professor at the Naval War College and an great thinker Called for ports and naval bases Wanted to increase our sea power a Argued that sea power has been notoriously important in history and that we should become a naval power The US wanted to be different than Europe by not colonizing mass amounts of other continents D However we still needed ports and the ability to facilitate commerce 0 Economic Downturns of 1873 and 1893 made Mahan believe that we had to export to fix our economy David Ames Wells thought that our issue was that we were overproducing and becoming an economic dynamo The panics of 73 and 93 led to new pressures to intervene abroad to protect trade for Americans 0 By 1898 the US had the 4th larges army and had moved to annex Hawaii after overthrowing Queen Lili uokalani This happened under the McKinley administration and was the exact kind of pseudocolony that Mahan wanted 0 Frederick Jackson Turner 0 Historian at the University of Wisconsin o Wrote about the frontier and our natural desire to expand and move west Saw the west as an important source of social mobility and democracy The expansionist energies that went past the frontier had big effects on foreign policy 0 Josiah Strong 0 American Protestant Clergy member 0 His piece was similar to O Sullivans on Manifest Destiny 0 Similar to Winthrop with religious references and his emphasis on exceptionalism o Talks about America s Racial Superiority Must remain superior to other states Likes the idea of competition between people and na ons Brooks Adams 0 Grandson of Q Adams 0 Historian and a critic of Capitalism 0 Law of Civilization and Decay Need to conquer new sources of energy to survive The barbarians clerics and warriors conquer this for us and the turns to the economic man u The economic man then expands upon the energy for production How do we do this a Control Asia 0 This led to a new push in our Foreign Policy The Olney Note 0 The US must and will intervene in affairs of the hemisphere if its interests are threatened o Dispute in Venezuela with England England ignores America 0 Compared to the Monroe Doctrine the Olney Note is much more assertive making the claim that America has the right to intervene in the relations in the Western Hemisphere o Argues that the West is under their domain Samoan Crisis Standoff between Great Britain America and Germany America created a naval base in the city of Pago Pago o This cause disputes over who had sovereignty over the land War almost ensued but a cyclone destroyed the ships before anyone could attack This led to diplomacy By 1898 the US is essentially ready to assert itself in the Western Hemisphere but evenmoreso ready to go to war over a conflict ofinterest Midterm Study Guide Continued 22215 322 PM Prelude to War 0 The SpanishAmerican War was a turning point in US Foreign Policy 0 US learned how to be a power an empire and have an expansive military 0 Cuban War for Independence 0 Causes Growing American economic investment in Cuba meant that the island was more closely tied to the US Rise of Nationalism because of the growing urban middle class and antiSpanish sentiment 1895 Revolutionaries in Cuba want to overthrow the Spanish Rule 0 US reactions At first McKinley wanted to avoid war at all costs a He pushed for Spain to give Cuba more autonomy 0 However Spain in turn sent Valeriano Wyler to oppress and mistreat the Cuban people Dupuy de Lome Letter a Letter written by Spanish Foreign minister in Washington saying that McKinley was too weak to ever go to way n It was intercepted and cause a lot of upheaval Sinking of the USS Maine a February 15 1898 it was said that the Spanish sunk the ship off the coast of Cuba 0 In 1976 it was concluded that it was in fact an internal combustion problem Between the Letter and the sinking of the Maine the US public began to push for war with Spain to protect our honor Arguments for the War a When the revolution first broke out the public showed support for the war because of Cuba s virtue in comparison to the Spanish s European ways n American s felt they had an obligation to rescue a damsel in distressquot Cuba a See the Lodge Reading 0 Cubans have virtue similar to that of the US 0 America could help them develop 0 They would be a great new market Treaty of Paris 1898 o The war was over quickly with a clear American victory Happened mostly at sea and there were more volunteer fighters than actual military men 0 This led to the independence of Cuba because America had signed the Teller Amendment essentially promising not to annex it after the war 0 Dewey then attacked the Spanish in the Philippines 0 This is what led to the Treaty of Paris and allowed for the US to expand Puerto Rico and the Philippines were both ceded to the US a NOW WHAT This spurred significant debates America had never been an empire before 0 Should it become one now 0 How does the government deal with new land and potential colonies o How do we deal with Cuba 0 No longer viewed as damsels in distress but as savages instead 0 Americans felt the need to go in and help where they weren t wanted 0 Cuba was seen as an annoying child 0 Platt Amendment written by Senator Orville Platt CT Allowed Cuba to have its independence while still being closely tied to America in three ways a US had the right to intervene n Cuba wasn t allowed to accrue debt from European Trade a US took a 99 year lease on Guantanamo Bay Cuban s really couldn t do much about the treaty because of how closely tied they were to American trade 0 How do we deal with the Philippines 0 February 5 1899 the day before they were Annexed Emilio Aguinaldo newly elected president of the Philippines started a revolution against America This led to war and oppression of the Filipino people Aguinaldo was eventually captured and imprisoned as well n This war killed more Americans than the SpanishAmerican War Arguments about the annexation of the Philippines 0 Senator Albert Beveridge March of the Flag 0 Saw the Filipinos as children and unable to govern themselves 0 Believed that the US had the right to step in and govern them 0 Argued that this would only be a continuation of what the Founding Fathers wanted and pursued Called Jefferson an Imperialist Thought that the US was their only hope against European Powers and that they were doing God s work 0 William Jennings Bryan Cincinnati and Chicago Speeches 0 Opposed war and annexation 0 Thought that becoming an Empire would undermine domestic policy 0 Thought that the US wasn t like European powers because it didn t try to colonize And they ran their government based on consent not power 0 Having an empire would destroy liberty at home 0 Argued that the capacity to selfgovern comes with experience and that we should give that to the Philippines Similarities 0 Both believed in US Exceptionalism and argued that their points stuck better to US tradition 0 Both want prosperity for the US and agree on consent of the governed 0 Both agree that the Filipinos aren t competent The Philippines are eventually annexed and America begins Nation Building 0 Supervise the building of Municipal Governments o Brought about Education Reforms o Brought in Economic Development Programs 0 Dispatched city planners to help grow the design of cities and living areas All part of what America thought was its responsibility to prepare the Philippines for selfgovernance Consequences of the SpanishAmerican War 0 The US became a world power 0 The US created a new road for itself into the international economy 0 The US builds upon its idea that it can transform other countries especially those in Asia Open Door Policy 0 Background 0 Imperial Competition Over China European Powers were attempting to divide up parts of China and establish spheres of influence US designed this policy to help China maintain its sovereignty but also ensure that America would be able to pursue trade 0 Sino Japanese War 1895 China suffered a huge loss against Japan a Japan wanted to remove Korea from Chinese control n This ended the Sinocentric order in Asia and made the Chinese question their institutions practices and confidence because Japan was supposed to be inferior n This led to more US intervention in China Charles Denby Jr 0 First Secretary of US Legation in China 0 Helped negotiate the Treaty of Shimonoseki which ended the Sino Japanese war 0 Recognized that the US was producing too much and thought that we had an opportunity with China because of the war and their newfound openness to the world 0 Commerce 0 There was increasing trade between the US and China in the 1890 s It was widely understood that the US could benefit from the high populations and large markets of China a We traded our cotton with them developed mining enterprises and invested in Chinese Infrastructure 0 Formation of Groups such as America s Asiatic Association lobbying group 0 Denby wanted to Americanize China 0 Worried that if the US doesn t make a move that Europeans would continue to grow their sphere s of influence 0 Thought that America needed to assert itself as a power with policy on commerce and supportpromote US businesses Europe and Japan already did this and Denby thought America should follow suit This put a lot of pressure on Washington to do something about China Religion and Christianity There was a higher presence of Christian Missionaries and they were becoming more assertive o Ie making their ways into Central China This led to a larger influence of Christian missionaries on the Americanization of China Reverend Judson Smith 0 Argued that the missionaries were training a whole generation of potential Chinese Leaders 0 Wanted to spread American values and liberalize the Chinese in ways that pure commerce could not 0 Wanted to create a liberal mentality and more progressive nationalism The presence of Missionaries caused some political and social tensions o Missionaries took on the roles of teachers in the society which was very important to the Chinese and not wildly accepted 0 The Government was weak at the time and saw them as undermining their authorities This led to antiChristian and antiMissionary sentiment The Boxer Uprising 1899 0 Mostly young male peasants that tried to drive the missionaries out of the country Over 10000 Chinese Christians were killed Over 200 foreigners were killed 54000 armed forces fought not just American Made the government even weaker 0 China was forced to pay the Boxer Protocol Had to pay the Western Powers Foreign powers gained new rights in China Legation quarters of extraterritoriality o Missionaries thought that this protocol wasn t enough Believed that the government had moral obligations to support them because they had an opportunity to influence a change a Litigators became receptive and started pressuring the government Richard Hinton Worried that the US might become more like Europe 0 Thought that we must be able to have a trade relationship without creating an empire 0 We must represent friendship over conquest 0 Suggested a treaty Wanted us to remain benign to China Equal Treaty a Good Offices Clauses 0 US doesn t want to encroach on sovereignty Wants to earn trust in Asia 0 We don t want to be the bad guy 0 Want to protect integrity 0 Maintain the Open Doorquot 0 Benevolence SelfInterest Open Door Notes 0 Secretary John Hay sends them to European Powers 0 Asks China for some things 0 Shipping and rail road privileges 0 That the general Chinese Tariff be collected by the Chinese Government 0 All powers in China must respect its sovereignty 0 Gets Great Britain to go along with it 0 Japan is closely tied to England and agrees 0 France goes along as well 0 Russia and Germany don t want to oppose them and also agree All of them only agree verbally so its hard to enforce Eventually fails o The US was able to point to it occasionally but it wasn t super effective Did make China like America for a while though 0 Why is this important 0 Significant to our influence on China Eventually China sees the US as the same as the other Western Powers 0 Tried to expand US influence without creating an Empire This becomes important to Foreign Policy in the 20th Century Midterm Study Guide Continued 22215 322 PM Theodore Roosevelt McKinley Assassinated in 1901 leaving Teddy in office Argued for an active and involved US Wealthy and Aristocratic background 0 Became well known for his role in the Spanish American War 0 Rough Riders in Cuba Arguments If the US didn t maintain its diplomacy then Europe will become more influential Idea of Duty to help other countries 0 Thought that British Colonialism was beneficial to the colonies and influenced the shape of the future in a similar way to America 0 Teddy argued that America should be imperial 0 We fought for a common cause with the Europeans 0 Had a common duty to spread civilization Thought that the US empire in Philippines had the potential to be even better that England s in India 0 Focus less on commerce s effects on imperialism Began the AngloAmerican alliance with Britain Aligned with common cause 0 Teddy liked British Imperialism and thought that we had the opportunity to work together with them 0 Roosevelt realized that there would be instances that it would be beneficial to ally ourselves with European Powers 0 Had to change the rhetoric to that of a realpolitik between England and America Panama Canal 0 US got the rights to the land from the French for 40 million 0 Tried to negotiate with the Columbian President in the HayHerran Treaty 0 Treaty doesn t get ratified by the Columbian government 0 Panamanian Separatists tried to claim the land around the Panamanian Isthmus o USS Nashville was sent in to help support them 0 Able to help them declare independence This led to the HayBanau Varilla Treaty n Same conditions as the Columbian Treaty with the addition of the US having control over the whole canal 0 It was finally finished in 1914 o In helping the separatists gain independence Roosevelt helped to use force to overthrow a sovereign government Reasoning n Columbian government had something that would benefit the world and wasn t able to fulfill its duty and obligation a Building the canal was part of the grand task of spreading civilization by way of the water route 0 This rectified the US involvement Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine o 1902 Venezuelan Crisis 0 In debt to the European Powers 0 They blockaded the country until they paid them back 0 Roosevelt wasn t fond of the way Europe intervened in the Western Hemisphere 0 Crisis in Santo Domingo 0 Similar to the Venezuelan Crisis but the US intervened US took over custom houses and used that money to pay back the European Powers 0 The Corollary 0 Essentially stated that we must intervene in the goingson of the Western Hemisphere o The Monroe Doctrine was essentially in the way of Roosevelt s plans to help other countries because it never explicitly outlined what to do in the face of interference from Europe 0 Now Roosevelt has decided that the US should intervene for the sake and benefit of the entire hemisphere When countries are acting in an uncivilized manner then the US has the right to intervene n This gives the US a larger diplomatic role with the obligation to maintain order in the entire hemisphere Roosevelt involvement in Asia 0 RussoJapanese War 19041905 0 Japanese attacked Russia at Port Author and Manchuria after Tsar Nicolas refuses to acknowledge Japanese interest in Manchuria 0 Japanese began systematic attacks on Russia and destroyed their entire Pacific fleet 0 Jewish bankers that had fled Russia were aiding Japan with loans This is the first time that a nonwhite people had won a major conflict 0 Roosevelt s reactions 0 Said that the Japanese could join the clubquot of civilized na ons He saw the US conquest in the Caribbean as comparable to the Japanese s in the Yellow Sea 0 However he didn t want them to gain too much confidence Took the opportunity to become a peace maker a Negotiated the Treaty of Portsmouth 0 Japan had special rights in Korea 0 Japan was in control of the southern half of the Sakhalin Islands 0 Russia didn t have to pay indemnity All sides affirmed their support for the open door policy D Roosevelt understood that we needed a formal understanding of Japan as a nation and an empire 0 We needed to know whether or not they would bother our holdings in the Philippines 0 TaftKatsura Agreement 0 Series of notes negotiated in secrecy Under the cover of Roosevelt s daughter Alice being in Japan 0 Recognized Korea as the Protectorate ofJapan 0 Japan claimed no aggression towards the Philippines Gentlemen s Agreement 0 There had been large amounts of Japanese immigrants moving into America since the 1860 s 0 This spurred a lot of racism 0 Japanese and Korean exclusion league in California Efforts to ban Japanese and Korean children in public schools Japan denounced this segregation I Saw it as an assertion of US supremacy Roosevelt was very embarrassed and tried to fix this situation 0 Compromised that there will be no more immigration into the US from Japan if the Public School system in California would stop segregation Roosevelt s Foreign Policy reshaped America s involvement in the world 0 The ideas of intervening and a duty to do so in the world becomes very important to US Domestic Policy in the 20th Century Dollar Diplomacy 0 Requirements before it could happen 0 Internationalization of American Investment banks 0 Cooperation between public and private sectors 0 William Howard Taft 0 Federal Circuit Court Judge 0 Governor of the Philippines 0 Secretary of War under Roosevelt Handpicked as his successor His Foreign Policy was very different though a Articulated some of Roosevelt s ideas of duty but made his own policy that was more economically d ven 0 Substituting Dollars for Bullets 0 US can use soft power and commercial force instead of force 0 Use American wealth and superiority to bring about stability Essentially what Roosevelt wanted but through a different method Honduras 0 Defaulting on the debt that it owed to Great Britain since the 1870 s 0 US was interested in the mining and fruit production in the country 0 Solution 0 Reorganize fiscal system of Honduras because they didn t know how to manage their own affairs US needs to help them learn how to fix their affairs I Gave them a loan KnoxParedes Loan ConvenUon If they accept which they did then the US would take over their Customs Houses and employ US financial advisors in the country 0 This is essentially lowlevel nation building 0 Taft saw this as an opportunity to stabilize the region and the US 0 Also as an opportunity to bring about change in a more peaceful and tranquil manner Nicaragua 0 Zelaya put export taxes on bananas and acted against US interests 0 Threatened to allow Europeans to build Isthmian canal to rival panama o This angered the US 0 We supported a rebellion against Zelaya and helped Adolpho Diaz get elected Asks for loan from the US government a This allows the US to give a loan that turns Nicaragua into a financial protectorate a They trained elite technocrats to run the economy Liberia Founded as a slave colony of sorts but was technically America s ward Essentially they needed an economic bailout as well so the US stepped in to ensure that they wouldn t be in debt to the Europeans and more attached to America China 0 The Quing Dynasty was overthrown by Sun Yatsen in 1911 0 He lost control to Yuan Shikai in 1912 Yuan requests a Loan Consortium from the US Great Britain Japan France and Russia a They had to accept advisors from the countries a They had to reorganize the monopoly on salt a They couldn t take loans from any other countries Criticisms o Kang Youwei Socialist Thinker Argued that Yuan was giving away parcels of the newly free China a This led to the Second Revolution where the Guomindang took power 0 This meant that Dollar Diplomacy was never fully enacted in China Problems of Dollar Diplomacy 0 Economic Nationalism 0 Success was given to the US 0 Failure was also given to the US 0 Congressional Oppositions 0 Made it very hard to get loans Under Roosevelt he was able to simply use force because that power resides with the executive Loans are a dealing of the Legislature 0 Hard to understand foreign governments 0 Nicaragua ended up being super corrupt 0 US support for weak countries doesn t look too good Does Dollar Diplomacy still exist 0 IMF 0 EU 0 1990 s Financial Crisis 0 USAID Midterm Study Guide Continued 22215 322 PM Woodrow Wilson Pioneer in the field of political science President of Princeton Governor of NJ Elected on domestic reform platform Foreign Policy Ideas 0 Ideas of Liberal Capitalism with moral obligation Meant that the US should stay involved and spread Liberal Capitalistic ideas Foreign Policy Challenges Before WWI 0 Latin America Saw them as taken advantage of which was an entirely different view from his predecessors Thought that the US should try not to exploit them Tries to ennoble them Mexican Revolution 1910 D Wilson was hostile towards Huerta s established military government and refused to recognize him as sovereign n Favored Carranza as a president of Mexico a Tampico Affair USS Dolphin landed on Tampico without the permission of the Mexican Government 0 The sailors were taken captive but soon released 0 Upon release Wilson asked for a 21 gun salute from Huerta s government 0 Huerta refused 0 Wilson moved into Veracruz with American forces Even Carranza urged Wilson to move out of Veracruz Brazil Argentina and Chile stepped in to negotiate I Made it so Huerta stepped down Carranza became 0 Asia El n Pancho Villa Mexico s President and the US had to leave Veracruz 0 Wanted to be the Mexican president but was alienated by Wilson s support for Carranza o Began a series of border raids against America General Pershing launched expeditions against Villa but was never able to capture him El El These expeditions were not seen as formal intervention by Sec of State Lansing It was deemed self defense and had no plan for a second step to help the Mexican People This arguably made Wilson different from Roosevelt and Taft even though he still believed in a country s obligation to the international community Japan was with the allied forces in WWI Trying to gain control over Germanoccupied land in China 1915 Japanese present China with 21 Demands Control over Manchuria and the Shandong Province along with the instillation of Japanese Advisors o The Chinese told the US Minister to China Paul Reinsch about the demands in secret 0 US Responses 0 Lansing wanted to avoid international entanglements especially those related to WWI 0 Initially Wilson agrees but changes his mind in 1916 Japan was violating the Open Door Policy and going against US interest a Not responding could make the US look weak Wilson looked to see if there was anything to do to check Japanese Imperialism I Gave China additional loans to weaken Japanese in uence 0 Lansing Ishii Agreement Nov 1917 US recognized Japan s interest in China Both agreed to respect the open door policy Aimed to prevent future conflict between Japan and America over China Agreed to not take advantage of WWI to seize new territories Origins of WWI Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria on June 28 1914 by Serbian Separatists that wanted to make a larger Yugoslavia o The AustrianHungarian Empire then declares war on Serbia who is allied with Russia Germany then aids Austria in declaring war on Russia as well Russia is allies with the UK France and Japan and Germany is also allies with the Ottoman Empire n Thus the first world war begins 0 How does Wilson respond 0 August 1914 Declaration of Neutrality Stated that the US wouldn t take part in the war in ANY way a They would trade with all sides I Be able to act as a peacemaker I Didn t want to jeopardize domestic peace 0 Lusitania Note 13 May 1915 German Uboats sunk the Lusitania which was going between the US and Great Britain D Wilson started to send warning to Germany 0 Based his appeal on the fact that there are rules to modern warfare under international law and that the Uboat warfare went against them 0 Still tried to pursue neutral commerce 0 Germans agree for a while but Great Britain was blocking their trade 0 Mediation Wilson sends Colonel Edward House to try and mediate an end to WWI a Peace without Victory 0 Wilson lays out his vision for world order 0 Selfdetermination 0 Avoid entangling alliances 0 Free trade was critical and the economic linkages would lower the likelihood of war 0 World had to adhere to collective security under new international law 0 LIMITATIONS There were no incentives a How does the US have the legitimacy to tell Europe what to do He realized that if there was to be peace that there needed to be a victory I This led to the US involvement in WWI 0 Road to War Germany started to attack US boats again The Zimmerman Note surfaced promising US land to Mexico if they joined Germany s side I These put pressure on Wilson to enter into the war 0 He declared war on 2 April 1917 o Claimed that autocratic governments don t represent their people 0 American peace was threatened by these governments 0 Did not want to go to war against the people but rather against their governments o Vindicated the same points in his no victoryquot speech only this time he realized that the only way to get them was through war Wilson saw WWI as an opportunity for America to create a new world order by using their military force and power Saw Great Britain France and even Russia as standing for the same values Didn t predict the challenges that would lie ahead Revolution in Russia 0 WWI Scarcity led to strikes and the abdication of Czar Nicholas II in March 1917 February Revolution Disorganized government put into place November 1917 the Bolsheviks and Lenin take power 0 Withdraw Russia from the war Lenin 0 Why do capitalists divide the world among themselves Wars for Resources No broader proletariat rule Why is there no peace under capitalism 0 Always looking for a profit 0 Too selfinterested How does this go against Wilson 0 Wilson argues that the old system of imperialism was hindering liberal capitalisms abilities to positively effect the world 0 This was threatening because of how new of a concept liberal capitalism still was Wilson s Response 0 14 Points Speech January 1918 Promises to make the world safe for the US and democracy Selfdetermination will prevail WWI was not a war for empires Trying to show that Liberal Capitalism was the best way to achieve world peace 0 This was the debate for all of the 20th Century and continued long after both had died WWI Major Events Big Four July 1917 US troops land in France October 1917 First US troops in combat March 1918 Germany employs the Five Offenses Tactic 0 Fails the offensive ends in June July 1918 The US beat Germany at Chateau Thierry August 1918 Battle of Amiens 100 Day offensive by the Entente November 9 1918 Wilheim Abdicates November 11 1918 Armistice is signed 0 British Objectives Lloyd George 0 Maintain naval supremacy 0 Maintain British Empire and extend trade 0 Punish Germany militarily but not economically Italian Objectives Vittorio Orlando 0 Joined Entente in 1915 0 Had been promised land and German cessions during the Treaty of London 0 French Objectives George Clemenceau o Weaken Germany economically and militarily 0 Wanted heavy war reparations 0 Wanted AlsaceLorraine End of Imperialism China Wellington Koo 0 Return of Shandong and an end to extraterritoriality by Japan 0 Korea Syngman Rhee 0 End of Japanese Imperialism in Korea Treaty of Versailles 0 Wilson was at a heavy disadvantage being so far from home and having to deal with the other special interests of the European powers 0 Germany assumed responsibility for the war 0 Lost 10 of its territory Had to pay strict reparations German colonies given as mandates to England and France Had to recognize the independence of the Czech and Poland Covenant of the League of Nations Unravel alliance system Establish international norms Forum for countries to resolve problems Global constituency for peace Moral force of international opinion a Make it more difficult for countries to break the rules 0 Wilson saw the League to be the most important and as a way to use American political and moral power to shape the world 0000 The Treaty in the US 0 Wilson had to make compromises on the Treaty in Paris and had to convince the American Congress that it was worth ratifying even with the changes 0 Opposed by Republican Congress namely Henry Cabot Lodge and the Irreconcilables Wilson made the political mistake of not taking any Republicans with him to the negotiations in France There was a fear of US entanglement if the Treaty was signed GermanAmerican belief that the fatherland had been punished too harshly Sympathy among senators for thirdworld countries that were still under colonial rule I Tried to insert amendments 0 Wilson then goes on a PR campaign to try and rally support from the American People It starts to work but he suffers a stroke in Colorado Cabot Lodge makes a compromise and tries to add to the treaty in order for it to be ratified D Wilson refuses the addition 0 America never joins the League of Nations Impact on America Foreign Policy 0 Every administration after Wilson had the belief that the US had the ability to bring Liberal Order to the world 0 Saw American forces as able to initiate this world order in the future Midterm Study Guide Continued 22215 322 PM I Hate Warquot FDR His foreign policy was not so different from Coolidge or Hoover 0 International Circumstances changed his point of view 0 Message to the Nations of the World I Hate Warquot Speech FDR trying to get the world to work together to lift the globe out of depression Wanted to bring about more free trade Wants to stabilize currency Disagreed with the European Powers Wanted Disarmament and peace a Two Conferences 0 World Economics Conference June 1933 Disarmament Conference 1932 n FDR became disillusioned from the two conferences Japan Unhappy with the with the 5 and 9 power treaty from the Washington Naval Conference 0 Voiced disagreement for the Open Door Policy 0 Wanted Manchuria 1934 Amau Doctrine put Japan in charge of peace in Asia 1937 Marco Polo Bridge Incident brought about complete war 0 American response 0 Retreats and modifies war plan Orange to exclude defense of the Philippines 0 Backing away to avoid a war with Japan over Asia End of Peace II 0 October 1935 when Italy invaded Ethiopia 0 Ethiopia was one of the few places in Africa that hadn t been colonized Austrian Anschluss March 1938 All German speaking nations unite 0 After remilitarizing and aiding Franco FDR s Neutrality 0 Good Neighbor Policy 0 Denounce right to intervene in the Western Hemisphere 0 Promote Peace and Democracy 0 Established commonality in the Western Hemisphere and differentiated them from Europe 0 Promised no Dollar Diplomacy and no Force If you take this approach we will have stabilityquot Calling on other countries in the western hemisphere to trade feely with one another 0 We can be different Don t want to organize the economy around war preparations Eventually the rest of the world will look to the Western Hemisphere as a model for the world 1930 s FDR s idea of what policy would suit US best changes 0 193537 congress passed Neutrality Acts that prevented trade with belligerents Quarantine Speech 0 The situation may deteriorate o Shaming European countries and Japan for not learning from WWI Very careful about pointing out behaviors not countries Didn t want to show American Belligerence Talking about doing something not force Metaphor for economic isolation Stay quarantined from belligerent countries by not interacting with the sick Being deliberately vague but trying to prepare the United States for reality 0000 Road to War 0 Germany invaded Austria 0 Munich Agreement September 1938 Great Britain and France appease Hitler 0 Germany invaded Czechoslovakia 0 Hence Great Britain and France allied themselves with Poland Nazi Soviet nonaggression Pact in response 0 Germany invades Poland and begins WWII FDR is pessimistic about the US being able to stay out o Lobbies against the neutrality acts 0 PR campaigns about Germany and the Axis Powers being the true aggressors Pretty successful at changing the public s sentiment Arsenal of Democracy Speech 0 US needs Great Britain to win because Great Britain is the naval power and the axis would take over if they are defeated o If England fails then all of its territories fall with them 0 Then the Nazis will be easily be able to project their influence out into the world This would force the US to prepare for war a How would we be able to maintain Democracy 0 This is the first time anyone had acknowledged that the US could be affected by German aggression This could force the US into isolation Ideas that engagements abroad could endanger US security ideas and value American institutions are at stake in Europe too a We cannot afford to be too isolated If Europe is conquered by Fascism it will impact America a New Concept of National Security 0 How are we going to avoid war How are we going to avoid war 0 The more Great Britain suffers the more US pours in Aid and will likely get involved 0 Aid to Great Britain 0 Cash and Carry o Destroyers for Bases Both got around the Neutrality Acts 0 mid1941 LendLease Act Supplies to Great Britain France and China Pearl Harbor 0 Japan consistently refused to denounce the war efforts on China Hitler attacked Russia 0 Japan attacked colonies in SE Asia 0 Attack Pearl Harbor US declares war on Japan Axis declares war on the US
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