SEX PSYCHOLOGY FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE
SEX PSYCHOLOGY FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE PSYCH 3060
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This 49 page Study Guide was uploaded by Abby Geiger on Thursday April 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 3060 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Bruce King in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 237 views. For similar materials see Human Sexuality in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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PSYCH 3060 Exam 1 REMEMBER: There WILL be questions on the test from the Syllabus that have to do with the Attendance Policy AND/OR the Grading Policy ALSO: King mentioned this question WILL be on the test: Which hormone is most important for women’s sexual desire? TESTOSTERONE CHAPTER ONE Most young people turn to their friends and media for information about sex, but much of what they learn is incorrect. Surveys indicate that more than 85% of Americans favor sexuality education in school. Sex is only a part of sexuality, which encompasses all of the sexual attitudes, feelings, and behaviors associated with being human. The idea that the primary purpose of sex is for procreation originally came from the biblical Hebrews. The early Christians affirmed the procreation purpose of sex, but completely denied its pleasurable aspects. Sexual desire, even within marriage, was now associated with guilt. The biggest proponent of this view within Christianity was Saint Augustine. In Western culture, negative attitudes about sex reached their zenith during the reign of Queen Victoria of England. With the availability of penicillin during World War II and the marketing of the birth control pill and IUD in 1960, the United States entered the sexual revolution. The manner in which society shapes behaviors and attitudes is called socialization. There is probably no other socializing agent with as much of an impact on young people’s sexual attitudes and behaviors as the media, especially television. Many advertisements, whether on television or in magazines, provide little product information, but instead use sex to sell their products in a process called identification. The media in Europe show more nudity than in the United States, but the teenage pregnancy rate is much lower. Sigmund Freud, ho emphasized the sexuality of all people, including children, and Henry Havelock Ellis, who published seven volumes about the psychology of sex, were two researchers of the Victorian era who attempted to counter anti sexual attitudes 1966. Anthropologists believe the most sexually repressed society in the world to be the Inis Baeg. Four important influences that led to the sexual revolution were leisure time, mobility, birth control, and antibiotics. A random sample is properly defined as a sample drawn fro ma population in a manner so that each possible sample of that size has an equal chance of being selected. Plato believed that intellectual love could lead to immortality. A major influence on early Christian thought was the Greek philosophy of dualism, which separated body and soul. Victorian physicians called nocturnal emissions spermatorrhea because they believed they were caused by the same thing that causes gonorrhea. In the National Health and Social Life Survey, “sex” or “had sex” was defined as “any mutually voluntary activity with another person that involved genital contact...” Television has been called “the most powerful storyteller in American culture, on that continually repeats the myths and ideologies, the facts and patterns of relationship that define our world and legitimize the social order.” CHAPTER TWO Women’s genitalia are collectively known as the vulva. This includes the mons veneris, labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, vaginal opening, and urethral opening. mons veneris and outer surfaces of the labia majora become covered with hair at puberty. The clitoris has no known function other than to focus pleasurable sensations. The clitoris is most similar in structure to a man’s penis. The labia minora meet at the top to form the clitoral hood. The area between the labia minora is called the vestibular area. Sexually inexperienced women have a thin membrane, called the hymen that partially covers the vaginal opening. One in eight women will get breast cancer sometime in their lifetimes. A women’s internal reproductive system includes the vagina, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. The vagina is the depository for sperm, the birth canal, and the exit route for menstrual fluids. The walls of the inner two thirds of the vagina are relatively insensitive to touch, but about 10% of all women have an area of heightened sensitivity on the front wall called the Grafenberg (G) spot. When a mature ovum (egg) is released from an ovary it is picked up by a fallopian tube, which then transports it to the uterus. If fertilized by a sperm, the egg usually implants in the endometrium of the uterus. Women should have regular pelvic exams and Pap smears to test for cancer of the cervix. Men’s external anatomy consists of the penis and the scrotum, which contains the testicles. Erection of the penis occurs when the two corpora cavernosa and the corpus spongiosum become engorged with blood. The rounded end of the penis, called the glans, is called the foreskin unless this excess skin has been surgically removed in an operation called circumcision. Men’s internal reproductive system includes the testicles, which produce sperm and the male hormone testosterone, and a four-part duct system (starting from the testicles) consisting of the epididymis, vas deferens, ejaculatory ducts, and urethra, which transports sperm out of the body. During an ejaculation, sperm are mixed with fluids from the prostate gland, and seminal vesicles to form semen. A small amount of fluid is released by the Cowper’s glands before a man reaches orgasm. Cancer of the testicles is the most comment type of cancer in men aged 20 to 35. The most common cancer (other than skin cancer) among all men in the US is cancer of the prostate gland. All men over the age of 50 (or 45 for African-American men) should have an annual examination to check for cancer of the prostate gland. In women, the two outer elongated folds of skin that extend from the mons to the perineum are called the labia majora. The innermost layer of the uterus, which is sloughed off and discharged from the woman’s body during menstruation, is called the endometrium. In men, an erection results from the spongy tissues of the penis becoming engorged with blood. When a man becomes sexually aroused, a few drops of a clear liquid produced by the Cowper’s glands may appear at the tip of the penis. Breast size in women is determined by the amount of fatty tissue. The best time for most women to examine their breasts for abnormal lumps is just after menstruation. After sperm travel through the vas deferens, they enter the paired ejaculatory ducts. Most of the fluid in an ejaculation comes from the seminal vesicles. The best time for a man to examine his testicles for abnormal lumps is after a warm bath or shower. Two glands that secrete small amounts of alkaline fluid into ducts at the base of the labia minora are called the Bartholin’s glands. Sperm are produced in the seminiferous tubules of the testicles. Both the penis and the clitoris have corpora cavernosa. The muscle surrounding the vagina and bladder is called the pubucoccygeus (PC) muscle. In women who have a G spot, it is located on the front wall of the vagina. The pituitary hormone that causes production of milk is prolactin. Chapter 3 -Hormones are chemical substances that are released into the blood stream by ductless endocrine glands. (Ovaries and testicles a part of endocrine system) -The testicles produce the male hormone testosterone and the ovaries produce the female hormones estrogen and progesterone. -Hormones from the pituitary gland cause the ovaries and testicles to produce their hormones. -In adult women, an egg matures on an average of every 28 days. -The pituitary hormone that starts the menstrual cycle is called follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). -FSH stimulates the development of a follicle in the ovary. -During the preovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle (also called the follicular phase), estrogen from the follicle promotes growth of the endometrium, inhibits release of FSH, and stimulates release of luteinizing hormone (LH). -The LH surge signals the onset of ovulation, at which time the ovum is expelled into the abdominal cavity and is picked up by a fallopian tube. -During the postovulatory phase of the cycle, also called the luteal phase, the corpus luteum secretes progesterone in large amounts. -If the egg is fertilized by a sperm, it normally implants in the endometrium. -If the egg is not fertilized, the corpus luteum degenerates and the endometrium is sloughed off and discharged in a normal physiological process called menstruation. -Although the average length of the menstrual cycle is 28 days, the large majority of women have cycles that vary in length by at least 8 days. -In most nonhuman mammal species, this cycle of hormonal events is called the estrous cycle. -Unlike human women, females of species with this type of cycle are sexually receptive to males only during estrous (ovulation). -Some cultures have menstrual taboos that prohibit contact with a menstruating woman. -Menstrual discharge consists simply of sloughed off endometrium tissue, cervical mucus, and blood. -The absence of menstruation is called amenorrhea. -Emotional and/or physical changes taking place 3-14 days before the start of menstruation are referred to as premenstrual syndrome (PMS). -What distinguishes this condition from other emotional states is that it ends with the start of menstruation. -The major cause of dysmenorrhea, painful menstruation, is an overproduction of prostaglandins. -Endometriosis refers to a condition in which endometrial tissue grows outside of the uterus. -Women who use tampons but do not change them frequently risk getting a serious bacterial infection called toxic shock syndrome (TSS). -In men, FSH stimulates sperm production, while luteinizing hormone stimulates the production of male hormones (testosterone) in the Leydig’s cells of the testicles. -Misuse of anabolic steroids, derivatives of testosterone, can cause serious harmful effects such as high blood pressure, tumors, and emotional problems. -In men, sexual desire appears to be related to circulation levels of testosterone. -Studies of women after menopause, or after surgical removal of the ovaries, suggest that women’s sexual desire is not strongly affected by the hormones estrogen or progesterone. -Other studies indicate that the hormone testosterone does influence the sexual desire in women. -The gland located at the base of the brain that secretes follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone is the pituitary gland. -Natural body scents that can affect the behavior of other members of the same species are called pheromones. -Each immature ovum is surrounded by other cells within a thin capsule of tissue to form what is called a follicle. -During ovulation, the cells that surround the ovum in the follicle remain in the ovary and are then referred to as the corpus luteum. -If an egg is fertilized by a sperm and implantation occurs, the corpus luteum is maintained by a hormone from the developing placenta called human chronic gonadotropin (HCG). -The hypothalamic hormone that causes release of the FSH and LH from the pituitary is called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). -In the female hormone feedback loop, LH production is suppressed primarily by progesterone. -In the male hormone feedback loop, LH production is suppressed primarily by testosterone. -The pituitary hormone associated with milk release, labor and orgasmic contractions, and romantic attraction is called oxytocin. -In a women’s menstrual cycle, the fertile period is 5 days before and 1 day after ovulation. CHAPTER FOUR Masters and Johnson observed and recorded physiological responses from hundreds of people engaged in sexual activity. They divided the physiological responses during sex into four phases: excitement, plateau, orgasm, and revolution. This pattern of responses is often referred to as the sexual response cycle. Other researchers have organized the responses into fewer or more phases, and this chapter follows the model of sex therapist Helen Kaplan and includes desire as the first phase. The first physiological response in the excitement phase for both men and women is a vasocongestive response, which results in penile erection in men and vaginal lubrication in women. In women, physiological arousal does not correlate well with subjective arousal, which depends more on relationship and intimacy needs. During the plateau phase in women, the tissues of the outer third of the vagina become swollen with blood, causing the vaginal opening to narrow. This response is referred to as the orgasmic platform. Also during this phase, the clitoris pulls back against the pubic bone and disappears beneath the clitoral hood. 50% to 75% of all women and about 25% of all men experience a rash on the skin called the sex- tension flush. At the time of orgasm, both men and women have rhythmic muscular contractions in specific tissues that initially occur every 0.8 second. However, recent studies indicate that the real essence of orgasm is not in the genitals, but in the brain. Men’s and women’s descriptions of orgasm are similar. Men’s orgasms occur in two stages, emission and expulsion. The expulsion of semen from the penis is called ejaculation. After men have an orgasm, their physiological response generally dip below plateau, during which time they cannot have another orgasm, which this period of time is called the refractory period. Unlike most men, some women can have multiple orgasms, defined as two or more orgasms in quick succession without dropping below the plateau level. The return to the unaroused stated is called resolution. By most estimates, only 50% to 75% of adult women experience orgasm regularly during sexual intercourse. Masters and Johnson claimed that all women in good health are capable of reaching orgasm during intercourse, but Helen Kaplan and others believe that many women are incapable of reaching orgasm during intercourse without simultaneous clitoral stimulation. Freud believed that there were two types of female orgasm, one caused by clitoral stimulation and another by vaginal sensations. Masters and Johnson originally claimed that all female orgasms were identical and were focused in the clitoris. However, some women repost having experienced different types of orgasms, and work conducted in the 1980s revealed that many of these women had a sensitive area on the front wall of the vagina called the Grafenberg (G) spot. Stimulation of the G Spot sometimes resulted in emission of fluid during orgasm. In some women the fluid was identified as urine, but in others it contained an enzyme found in secretions from men’s prostate gland. Most women say that the size of a partner’s penis is not important for their pleasure during intercourse. Many people have tried to enhance their sexual desire or performance by taking substances called aphrodisiacs, but there is little evidence that they have any real effect. Tissues becoming filled with blood during sexual arousal is called vasocongestion. Some women emit a fluid during orgasm that comes from the urethra. Most women and many men get a skin rash called the sex-tension flush when they become highly sexually aroused. The engorgement and swelling of the outer third of the vagina was named the orgasmic platform by Masters and Johnson. A sensitive area that is found on the front wall of the vagina in about 10% of all women is called the Grafenburg (G) spot. After ejaculating, most men have a period of time called the refractory period during which it is impossible for them to have another orgasm. MATCHING Desire, specific sensations cause the individual to seek out, or become receptive to, sexual experiences. Excitement phase penis starts to become erect vaginal lubrication begins nipples become erect clitoris is most prominent at this time scrotum thickens and helps pull the testicles toward the body walls of the inner two thirds of the vagina begin to balloon out labia majora flatten and spread apart Plateau phase Cowper’s glands secrete a few drops of clear fluid labia minora become engaged with blood clitoris pulls back against the pubic bone sex-tension flush appears outer third of the vagina becomes engorged with blood nipples appear to be less erect testicles increase in size by 50% to 100% Orgasm phase rhythmic muscular contractions occur in outer vagina, uterus, and anal sphincter muscles rhythmic muscular contractions in vas deferens, prostate gland, urethra, and anal sphincter muscles in men, a fluid is emitted from the urethra Resolution phase blood drains from breasts, outer third of the vagina, labia minora, and clitoris blood drains from penis and testicles return to the unaroused state Vasocongestive response penis starts to become erect labia minor become engorged with blood vaginal lubrication begins sex-tension flush appears clitoris is most prominent at this time outer third of the vagina become engorged with blood testicles increase in size by 50% to 100% EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE PSYCH 3060 THIS WILL BE ON THE TEST: If a person has AIDS, they have HIV. If a person has HIV, they do not always have AIDS. STI’s ·Every year, approx. 19 million Americans contract an STI (actually more than this but many go undiagnosed) ·1 in 4 teenage girls has an STI ·1 in 2 Americans will contract at least one STI in their lifetime *Sexually transmitted infections are spread, for them most part, by sexual contact (including vaginal intercourse and oral genital sex) with someone who has the bacteria, viruses, or parasites that cause the infections* -Bacteria are very small single celled organisms that lack a nuclear membrane but have all the genetic material to reproduce themselves -Viruses are just a protein shell around a nucleic aid core and cannot reproduce themselves. They invade host cells that provide the material to manufacture new virus particles -Some infections used to be called venereal diseases (after Venus, goddess of love) but this generally referred to diseases spread exclusively through sex Then people called them STD’s but today the term STI’s (infections that can be, but are not necessarily always, transmitted by sexual contact) is preferred because these are infectious diseases -Sexually related diseases are diseases of the reproductive system or genitals that are not contracted through sexual activity. Often involve overgrowths of bacteria, yeast, viruses, or fungal organisms that are normally found in the reproductive organs in smaller amounts Where did they come from? ·It is likely that previously harmless bacteria mutated into strains causing infection ·Some have been around for thousands of years (gonorrhea, herpes, syphilis—Columbus died of this and people argue if it was brought back from the New World) Gonorrhea: -Caused by bacterium; gonococcus àlives on warm, moist mucous membranes in the urethra, vagina, rectum, mouth, eyes and throat -Almost always transmitted during sexual intercourse from mucous membrane contact -Symptoms in men: ·Inflammation of the urethra resulting in a thick, pus-like white/yellowish discharge from urethra 2-10 days after infection ·Irritation/burning sensation at urethral opening ·Frequent and painful urination · 20%-25% of men show no symptoms but are still infected and can pass the infection to partners · -Complications if not treated early: · spreads up the man’s reproductive system and causes inflammation of the prostate, seminal vesicles, bladder, and epididymis · severe pain and fever · -Symptoms in women: · invades the cervix but unlike men, most women show no symptoms (only 20% do in initial stages) · For those who do there may be abnormal vaginal discharge · Irritation of the vulva and urethra causing burning during urination · -Complications if not treated early: · Spreads to fallopian tubes which become inflamed; called pelvic inflammatory disease (severe abdominal pain and fever) · This can cause sterility and tubal pregnancies -If a woman is pregnant and contracts gonorrhea, the main concern is during childbirth because the babies eyes can become infected if delivered vaginally à this can rapidly lead to blindness so in the U.S. all babies are given antibiotic drops after birth -Typically diagnosed with culture test but a urine test may be used if the urethra is infected -Treated with antibiotics but we are quickly becoming resistant to them Chlamydia and Nongonocoocal Urethritis—Any inflammation of the urethra not caused by the gonococcus bacterium -Caused by a bacterium -Much more common than gonorrhea and more likely to damage reproductive organs if untreated -Lives only on mucous membranes and is spread when infected membranes come in contact with other mucous membranes -80% of men and 20% of women show symptoms in initial stages -Symptoms are often mistaken for gonorrhea and include irritation and burning of the urethra and clear, runny discharge -It is recommended that all sexually active women age 25 and younger get regular screenings because if not detected early, it causes PID in women à three times more likely to cause sterility than gonorrhea -In men it causes infection of the prostate and epididymis and possibly sterility -Diagnosed with culture or urine test -Treated with antibiotics -Risk of eye infection for babies born to mothers with the infection -Commonly paired with gonorrhea Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV)—A sexually transmitted infection common in tropical countries caused by chlamydia. -If untreated it causes swelling of the inguinal lymph nodes, penis, labia, or clitoris Syphilis: -Caused by a bacterium -Can live on mucous membranes but can also enter through the bloodstream through cuts or scrapes -Almost all infections are passed through sexual intercourse -Symptoms generally appear two to four weeks after infection and appear in four stages · Primary stage: appearance of very ugly ulcer-like sore called a chancre at site where it entered the body à full of bacteria and highly infectious, but usually painless -generally appears on the cervix in women so it is not noticeable -disappears in 10-14 days but person remains infectious · Secondary stage: usually appear 4-6 weeks after the chancre heals, but could take several months -Itchless, painless rash develops covering the entire body including palms of hand and bottoms of feet -sore throat, low-grade fever, nausea, loss of appetite, aches and pains, even hairloss -will disappear with in several weeks-1 year and never return · Latent stage: After about a year they aren’t contagious because the bacteria is no longer found on mucous membranes -may show no symptoms for years but the bacteria is attacking internal organs · Late or Tertiary Stage: Ulcers called gummas often appear on the skin and bones -damage to the heart and blood vessels frequently results in death while damage to the nervous system results in paralysis, insanity and/or deafness -An unborn baby can catch the disease from an infected mother but if detected early it can be treated à will be aborted, stillborn, or born with an advanced stage of the infection—congenital syphilis -diagnosed by looking at chancre under a microscope but blood tests are usually done as well -Treated with antibiotics · Mycoplasma Genitalium: -bacterium discovered in the 80’s -frequently found in men with urethritis and women with cervictitis who do not have gonorrhea or Chlamydia -more prevelant than gonorrhea and was 22x more common in people engaged in sexual intercourse than those who were not · Less common bacterial STI’s: -Chancroid is caused by a bacterium -symptoms include small bumps on the genitals or other sites that rupture into soft, crater-like sores in 3-14 days -very painful -lymph nodes in groin area become swollen about 7 million cases in the world annually but less than 50 per year in the U.S. -treated with several antibiotics · -Granuloma inguinale is rare in the U.S. but is common in more tropical areas of the world -main symptom is a painless pimple that ulcerates and stpreads to surrounding areas , permanently destroying tissue, and causing death if not treated -treated with antibiotics -Shigellosis caused by exposure to feces infected with the Shigella bacterium (oral stimulation of the anus) -Symptoms include diarrhea, fever, and pain -30% of cases in the U.S. occur in male homosexuals -treated with antibiotics · Herpes: - 1 million Americans a year get genital herpes (1/5 Americans age 12 and older have it) -100 million have oral herpes -it is caused by a virus and can live anywhere on the body -there is no cure but there are antiviral drugs to help relieve symptoms -spread by direct skin to skin contact from the infected site -symptoms: fluid-filled blisters on dry areas of skin -Two different types: -Type 1(oral) is Much more common than type 2 (genital) -fever blisters and cold sores are herpes simplex 1 -Type one and type 2 can both cause oral or genital herpes and both can be transferred from mouth to genitals and vise versa -Genital herpes is almost always contracted through sexual intercourse àmore women have it then men -Most cases of oral herpes are contracted through casual contact not sexual intercourse -First outbreak is called the primary attack—average duration of 16 days -symptoms appear in three stages · Prodromal stage: tingling, burning, or itching sensation on skin where it was contracted—indicate viral replication and shedding · Vesicle stage: painful blisters appear and after awhile break open. This can last from 2-3 weeks. A person may also experience muscle and head aches, fever, and swollen lymph glands · Crusting over stage: Lesions develop scabs and heal without scars à subsequent attacks are caused by stress -every time you get an attack your body builds up antibodies causing less frequent outbreaks -higher chance of premature births and spontaneous abortions but greatest risk for a baby is during child birth if the mother has an outbreak -blisters can appear anywhere on the body Hepatitis: · Liver infections caused by viruses · 3 types: -Hepatitis A (infectious Hepatitis): caused by a small virus that is spread by direct or indirect oral contact with contaminated feces -Not usually spread through sexual contact but can be if a person comes in contact with an infected anus -Symptoms include yellow tinged eyes and skin, vomiting, diarrhea, poor appetite, and fatigue -There is now a vaccine that is effective for preventing it -Hepatitis B: (serum hepatitis) caused by a virus and spread by infected blood or body fluids -about 50% contracted through sex -can cause a number of liver diseases including cancer -vaccines have greatly reduced the number of infected people -over 2/3 of pregnant women will pass to their baby -four drugs are available to treat it and about 90% of people recover -Hepatitis C: caused by a virus and most commonly spread through contact with contaminated blood (druggies who share needles) -rarely spreads during sex -no vaccine available but some drugs help about 50% of cases · HPV: -caused by a virus -symptoms include genital warts that appear 3 weeks to 8 months after contact with the infected person àthey can cause itching, irritation, and bleeding -can be transmitted to a baby during birth -can also cause cancer of the cervixan -women are more likely to develop warts -Most women with an HPV infection who are at risk of developing cervical cancer will not show symptoms -can be diagnosed with a pap smear test Molluscum Contagiosum: -a painless growth caused by a pox-virus -easily spread by skin to skin contact but large majority of cases aren’t spread during sex -virus incubates for two weeks and then erupts into dome shaped growths that look like pimples filled with corn kernels -diagnosed by the appearance of growths and is treated by removing them; they usually disappear on their own in 6-9 months HIV Infection and AIDS: -A virus that kills CD4+ cells, eventually resulting in AIDS -50%-75% of newly infected people experience flu-like symptoms 13-15 days after infection -This is called primary HIV infection and can last for several weeks -The bodies immune system launches a huge counter attack killing the virus by the billions, but in time, it again begins killing CD4+ cells -The first stage of chronic infection is called asymptomatic HIV infection and the infected person shows no visible symptoms, which can last years -Symptomatic HIV infection is the stage in which CD4+ count drops below 500 and symptoms begin to show -may include fatigue, headaches, loss of appetite, diarrhea, weight loss, fever, and long lasting colds and yeast infections -HIV becomes AIDS when the CD4+ count drops below 200 -at this point the person is at risk of opportunistic infections which are often accompanied by a severe decline in mental ability -40%-45% of people with HIV will develop AIDS in about 2 years w/o medication (HIV 2 takes longer to develop than HIV 1) -usually diagnosed with a blood test to determine if you have anti-bodies to HIV -spread through needles or very intimate sexual activity such as anal sex because there is often bleeding allowing passage to the bloodstream -possibility of transferring it to a baby is 25% -HIV originated in Africa, in primates that had a very similar strand; SIV (it mutated and was spread from primate to human and then eventually human to human) -90% of people who have AIDS live in developing countries -AIDS has become the leading cause of death among Americans aged 25-44 -The largest proportion of HIV infections are acquired by heterosexual transmission -Drugs have been developed that may slow down the progression but for the large majority of people, there is no cure -Can be prevented by no drug use, and safe sex -1/3 of Americans have a negative attitude about AIDS -If a person has HIV it does not mean they have AIDS Parasitic Infections: -Pubic lice: -1-2 mm long, grayish, 6 legged parasites that attach themselves to pubic hair and feed on human blood -They are not the same as head lice -Almost always transmitted by sexual contact—chance of getting them during sex with an infected partner is 95% -cause intense itching -typically don’t live for more than 24 hours away from the human body, but eggs may fall off and hatch up to 10 days later -use a prescription rinse to get rid of them and wash all clothing, sheets, etc. -Scabies: -A contagious infestation of .3-.4 mm long pearly white parasitic mites -Have 8 legs and burrow under the skin to lay eggs àresulting in extremely itchy, red, pimple-like bumps when the eggs hatch -large patches of scaly skin result if they aren’t immediately destroyed secondary bacterial infection is common -can be spread through sexual intercourse but also through close contact -Treated with creams, lotions, and medication -Pinworms: -live in the large intestine and are generally gotten through non-sexual contact with the eggs -female pinworms leave the rectum at night and lay eggs around the anus which causes intense itching -common in children who contract through hand-to-mouth contact while playing -can also be transmitted sexually through anal contact w/ an infected person -can also result in dysentery caused by infestation of amoebae Vaginal Infections: -Trichomoniasis: -A type of vaginitis caused by a one-celled protozoan (parasite) that usually lived in the vagina and urethra and is usually transmitted during sexual intercourse -symptoms in women usually appear 4 days- 1 month after exposure and include a copious, foamy, yellowish-green discharge with a foul odor accompanied by severe vaginal itching -80% of infected women show no symptoms -Many men are asymptomatic carriers as well à if they do show symptoms, they will include urethral irritation and discharge -If untreated, it can lead to infertility, premature labor in pregnant women, and facilitates the transmission of HIV from and infected partner -diagnosed by examining discharge and growing the parasite in a culture -treated with a drug that both partners should take -Moniliasis (Candidiasis): -Caused by an overgrowth of a microorganism normally found in the vagina -fungus of yeast infection that is very common in women -3/4 of women will experience at least one in their lifetime -symptoms include a thick, white, cheesy discharge accompanied by intense itching -considered a sexually related disease because it can be contracted from sex but it almost always is not -anything that changes the normal chemistry of the vagina can result in an overgrowth (hormone changes, diabetes, antibiotics, etc.) -treated with antifungal creams -Bacterial Vaginosis: -Most common of the three types of vaginitis -caused by bacteria replacing H2O producing bacteria -wasn’t considered an STI until recently (not for sure yet) -use of condoms decreases the prevalence and douching increases it -symptoms include fishy odor and abnormal discharge -can lead to serious upper reproductive tract infection -treated with antibiotics -Cystitis: -a bacterial infection of the bladder, often called a urinary tract infection -20% of women will experience in their lives -much more common in women in men and is strongly associated with recent intercourse -symptoms include a frequent urge to urinate, painful urination, and lower abdominal pain -treated with antibiotics -Prostatitis: -E coli bacteria is transmitted to a man’s prostate during sexual activity -symptoms include lower back and/or groin pain, fever, and burning during ejaculation -treated with antibiotics Practicing Safer Sex: -Restrict sexual activity to a mutually faithful, long term, monogamous relationship -always use condoms: this is actually more effective then reducing your number of sexual partners -If you have an STI: · See a doctor immediately · Abstain from having sex until you are cure or if there is no cure, always use condoms · Tell you partner or partners · -Sex does not cause any of these infections Birth Control • Over 75% of American married women use contraception, putting the average age of having a first child at 25 àUnfortunately, this is not the same with American teens because the United States has the highest teen pregnancy rate of any developed country • However, in the past few decades the rates have gone down, why? · Sarah Brown says “kids are having less sex and using contraceptives better” · The teenage pregnancy rate is related so social and economic status - Much more likely to occur among those with low income or low levels of education and/or live with a single parent àThus the teenage girls most likely to have babies are the least likely to be able to provide proper care for them -The U.S. also has one of the highest infant mortality rates because many teens choose to not seek prenatal care -50% of fathers are at least 20 years old · Margaret Sanger gave up her nursing career to found the birth control league (Planned Parenthood) -Birth control became legal in all states after Griswold V. Connecticut -Birth control pill was introduced in 1960 World Population: -is estimated to be 9.1 billion in 2050 -many predict that if our population growth isn’t slowed, there will be widespread poverty, starvation, and political instability -In 1982 China was forced to implicate mandatory birth control -We have limited natural resources and if the population continues to double every generation, we may be able to live comfortable but life for our grandchildren may not be so easy · Perfect-use pregnancy rate—for a particular birth control technique, the percentage of pregnancies during the first year of use by couples who use the technique properly and consistently · Typical-use pregnancy rate—Percentage of pregnancies during the first year of use by all couples who use the technique, regardless of whether they use it properly or consistently Relatively Ineffective Methods: · Withdrawal (coitus interruptus)—Withdrawal of the man’s penis from his partner’s vagina before ejaculation in order to avoid contraception -Cowper’s glands secrete fluid before ejaculation that may contain sperm (very small amount, but still possible) -Also, many men claim that they withdrew before ejaculation but actually did not in time · Lactational Amenorrhea Method—The sucking response by a baby on the mother’s nipple inhibits the release of FSH, thus preventing ovulation -if a mother is fully breast-feeding and is not menstruating the chance of pregnancy during the first 6 months is less than 2% -However, the risk of ovulation quickly rises if a woman continues beyond 6 months Fertility Awareness: Abstaining from Sex During Ovulation -Only method acceptable to certain religions -based on predicting when ovulation occurs -identify “safe days” in the cycle and abstain from sex during “unsafe” days -All fertility awareness methods must take into account that only 1/3 of women have “normal” cycles and ovulate between days 10 and 17 Calendar Method: -Mark on calendar every month for a long period of time to figure out when you ovulate -Subtract 18 days from shortest cycle and 11 from the longest -between days 6 and 21 don’t have sex -25% failure rate Standard Days Method: A fertility awareness method of birth control for women who typically have cycles of 26-32 days Basal Body Temperature: -The temperature of the body while resting. It rises slightly after ovulation -couples abstain from sex from the end of menstruation until about 4 days after a rise in temperature is noted -still involves a long period of abstinence and 25 of 100 couples will still get pregnant Billings Method (Cervical Mucous or Ovulation Method): A fertility awareness method in which changes in the consistency and quantity of cervical mucous (the slimy secretion of mucous membranes located inside the cervix) are used to tell when ovulation has occurred -couple is instructed to abstain from sex from the end of menstruation until four days after the mucous has changed consistency Sympto-thermal method combines the basil body temperature and billings method to enhance effectiveness Spermicides: Contain chemicals that kill sperm -placed in the back of vagina before intercourse -more effective if used in combination with barrier methods -do don’t protect against STI’s and frequent use could actually increase risk of contracting HIV Barrier Methods: designed to prevent pregnancy by placing a blockade between the penis and cervix so that sperm cannot reach the egg if ovulation has occurred ·Condoms: Thin sheaths of latex rubber that fit tightly over the penis to trap the sperm (also effective in preventing the spread of STI’s) -many men do not use condoms because they are embarrassed to purchase them ·Female condoms: an intravaginal pouch that is held in place in the vagina by two flexible rings -pregnancy rate for typical use is 21% mostly due to slippage and improper insertion · Diaphragm: A dome-shaped rubber cup with a flexible rim that fits over the cervix and thus acts as a contraceptive device by serving as a barrier to the passage of sperm into the uterus -used with a spermicidal jelly for increased effectiveness, must insert no more than 3 hours before sex, leave in for 6-8 hours after intercourse to ensure there are no more live sperm but not for longer than 12 hours ·Cervical Cap: Fits over the cervix by suction, thus blocking the passage of sperm -made of latex rubber and smaller and more compact then the diaphragm -used with a small amount of spermicide -more difficult to insert but more comfortable and can be left in for 24 hours · FemCap: Made of silicon, it has a concave side that fits over the cervix -spermicide can be applied to both sides and once inserted, it can be left in for 48 hours -comes in 3 sizes that a woman must be fitted for -both require a prescription -must be replaced after a year -Typical use rate is 16% ·Contraceptive Sponge: 2 inches in diameter, 1 inch think and contains spermicide -works by blocking the cervical opening and killing sperm -it does not require a pelvic exam and is available without a prescription -can have sex multiple times with it in and then change after 24 hours -typical use has a 16% pregnancy rate ·Barrier methods most commonly fail because people don’t want to take the time to insert something and “ruin the mood” The IUD: A device made of plastic with either a copper or progesterone coating that is placed in the uterus to prevent contraception and implantation. Two types: -Paraguard: copper wire; remains effective for 10-12 years -Mirena: slowly releases progesterone; effective for 5-7 years -it is the copper or progesterone that impair the passage of sperm -inexpensive and very effective; typical use rate of 1% per year Hormonal Methods of Contraception · The birth control pill: -Must be taken every day at the same time -most popular are combination pills—contains estrogen and progesterone à works primarily by a thickening of the cervical mucous which prevents sperm from traveling and preventing ovulation -The progestin-only pill contains only progestins and works primarily by keeping cervical mucous thick, impairing the passage of sperm. Ovulation is often inhibited as well -this pill is for women who are breast feeding or who cannot tolerate the effects of the estrogen pill -Neither protect against STI’s Myths: -the combination pill will decrease your sex drive -it will make you gain weight -you have a higher risk of getting breast cancer Health benefits: -decreased risk of cancer of the endometrium and ovaries -substantial decrease in the number of benign breast tumors and ovarian cysts -lower risk for endometrosis and PID -Reduces PMS and clears up acne Injectable Contraception “the shot”: -Depo-Provera—Market name for medroxprogesterone acetate, a chemical that when injected surpresses ovulation for three months -works by preventing ovulation, thickening cervical mucous, and preventing buildup of the endrometrium -usually takes 9-10 months for fertility to return -does not protect against STI’s -side effects include irregularities in menstrual bleeding and weight gain Hormone Implants: -Implanon—A hormone implant with a single progestin-releasing rod that is effective for 3 years -works by thickening cervical mucous and preventing ovulation -side effects include irregular vaginal bleeding, and then little or no bleeding -Jadelle—is a hormone implant with two progestin-releasing rods that is effective for 5 years (not yet marketed in the U.S.) The Patch: -OrthoEvra—a patch (containing the same hormones as the combination birth control pill that is inserted into the vagina and is effective for 1 week -slowly releases progesterone and estrogen into the bloodstream -3 patch week followed by 1 no patch week (menstruation) NuvaRing: A flexible ring containing the same hormones as the combination birth control pill that is inserted into the vagina and left for three weeks (then removed for a ring free week (menstruation)) -side effects similar to the pill Emergency Contraception: Methods that prevent contraception when used in the first few days after sexual intercourse -NOT an abortion! -works by preventing ovulation, fertilization, or implantation of a fertilized egg -although it is not more readily available, it has not lead to an increase in teenage sexual behavior Voluntary Sterilization: A general term for surgical techniques that render an individual infertile -In men, it is called a vasectomy—the vas deferens is tied off and cut, thus preventing the passage of sperm through the reproductive tract -does not interfere with production of hormones or sperm in the testicles -In women, this procedure is called tubal sterilization—used to only refer to a tying of the fallopian tubes but now is used to describe a number of female sterilization techniques -Minilaparotomy—1 in incisions are made in the abdomen and the Fallopian tubes are pulled to the opening and cut, tied, or blocked with clips -Laparoscopy—is a procedure in which a laparoscope is inserted through a small incision in the navel. Once the tubes are located, surgical instruments are inserted through the laparoscope and the tubes are cut -both are done with general anesthesia but do not require lengthy hospitalization Essure—a nonsurgical technique that does not require general anesthesia and only takes about a half hour to complete ·fallopian tubes are reached via the cervix and a micro-insert is placed in each tube. Dacron-like mesh in the coils irritates the tubes which results in scar tissue that plugs up to tubes Abortion: ·Medical (nonsurgical) abortion: Woman takes two pills that cause shedding and contractions in the uterus that expel the embryo ·Dilation and curettage (D&C): Under general anesthesia, the cervix is dilated and the lining of the uterus is scraped off ·Dilation and Evacuation (D&E):A tube is inserted through the cervix and the embryo is removed by suction ·Induced labor: For pregnancies beyond 16 weeks (less than 5% of abortions) a hormone that induces labor is injected into the amniotic sac and labor begins in 12-36 hours. The fetus is born dead. Conception and Implantation ·At orgasm during sexual intercourse, a man will ejaculate 200 to 400 million sperm into the vagina -The sperm attempt to pass through the cervix and uterus to the fallopian tubes—not an easy journey -Some are stopped by gravity, some by acidity of the vagina, some by clumping, and some by virtually taking the wrong turns ·Only a few thousand make it to the fallopian tubes and fewer than 50 reach the egg ·While the sperm are in the woman’s reproductive tract they undergo a process called capacitation in which their membranes become thin enough so that an enzyme can be released to soften the eggs outer layers · The egg sends out tiny projections and pulls one sperm to its surface -That sperm secretes the enzyme and penetrates the egg and conception takes place—almost instantaneous chemical reaction that prevents other sperm from penetrating the egg · Within 24-30 hours, the nuclei of the sperm and the ovum fuse to form a one-celled organism called a zygote—contains the genetic code for a new being · The zygote begins to divide and forms a collection of cells called a morula · When there are about 100 cells, it has developed a fluid-filled center and is then called a blastocyst · About 8-11 days after ovulation the blastocyst attaches itself to the endometrium via hair-like roots called villi—this is called implantation -The blastocyst is now called an embryo; it is called a fetus at about 8 weeks · The outer cell layers of the embryo are called the trophoblast -begins to grow and forms four protective layers each with their own function: 1. produces blood cells for the enbryo until it can produce its own 2. forms the umbilical cord the major link between the developing embryo and its mother 3. Called the amnion; thick skinned sac filled with water that surrounds the embryo to help protect it from bumps and sudden movements 4. Called the chorion; will develop into the lining of the placenta—an organ that serves as a connection between the embryo’s systems and those of the mother Problems with Implantation: · Ectopic pregnancy: Implantation takes place outside of the uterus -96% of cases it is in the fallopian tube (tubal pregnancy); in rarer cases maybe an ovary -There is simply not enough room in the fallopian tubes for the egg to grow. It will usually abort itself, but if it does not after 8 weeks, it must be removed because the tube could burst (This is done with a drug or laparoscopic surgery) Pregnancy: • Pregnancy lasts an average of 260-270 days -It is divided into three month periods called trimesters · The First Trimester: The Mother -First sign of pregnancy is usually a missed period, so a woman will go take a pregnancy test (the test works by determining if the hormone HGC is present in a woman’s urine.) This is most accurate 2 or more weeks after the missed period; blood tests are more accurate -A common symptom of early pregnancy is morning sickness—generally begins 4-6 weeks after conception but there is no concrete cause that has yet been determined -Many men experience some of the symptoms that their partners do. Often referred to as “sympathy pains” but the medical term is couvade syndrome -other symptoms include: enlarged and tender breasts with prominent veins, darkened areolas, enlarged nipples, increased frequency of urination, irregular bowel movements, and feeling tired and run down ·The First Trimester—The Embryo/Fetus -Growth of the embryo occurs from the head downward and from the center of the spine outward -Three inner cell layers will form specific parts of the body: 1. Ectoderm—forms the nervous system, skin, and teeth 2. Mesoderm—forms the muscles, skeleton, and blood vessels 3. Endoderm—forms the internal organs -During the third week of pregnancy a central structure called a neural tube becomes a dominant feature; eventually becomes the central nervous system -4th week: umbilical cord, heart and digestive system begin to form -6th week: “tail” which becomes tip of spine -At 8 weeks 1 1/8 inches long and all major organs have begun to develop -Now called a fetus until birth ·Second Trimester—The Mother -movements can be felt by the mother -The first experience of a movement is called quickening—this is when a strong emotional attachment begins to form -women generally get over morning sickness now -figures begin to change, stretch marks are common -Breasts may leak colostrum which is a liquid produced before milk -Water retention may cause ankles, feet, or hand to swell -increased appetite ·Second Trimester—The Fetus -begins to make sucking motions with its mouth -5th month detectable heartbeat -responds to sound -shows periods of sleep and wakefulness -6th months can open its eyes and respond to light -by the end about 1 foot long and 1 pound ·The Third Trimester—The Mother -walking, sitting, and rising becomes more difficult -back pain is common -pressure on the stomach and bladder causing more frequent urination -indigestion, heartburn, gas, and constipation are common -leg cramps may occur -low energy level ·The Third Trimester—The Fetus -fatty tissues develop under the skin -after 8 months the fetus’s weight increases dramatically—about a half pound each week -covered with light hair (lanugo) and a waxy bluish substance (vernix caseosa) Sex During Pregnancy: ·Most women experience a steady decline in sexual activity throughout pregnancy ·For a few women, sexual desire initially increases since they are freed of the worry of becoming pregnant, but this is followed by a decreased interest during the third trimester ·Common reasons for a decrease in sexual activity are physical discomfort, women not feeling attractive, and the possibility of harming the fetus ·As long as everything is normal and going smoothly, having sex is fairly safe up until about the last four weeks Prepared childbirth: Courses or techniques that prepare women for labor and childbirth with the goal of making it a positive experience ·Lamaze Method: -attempts to determine the specific causes of pain and provides methods for dealing with each cause -Anxiety and fear: Educate women about the different stages of labor, what to expect, ect. Chooses a “focal point” to focus attention on during labor instead of on the pain -Muscle tension: Relaxation techniques -Stretching of muscles: Exercises to do before the baby comes, which make labor easier -Too little oxygen getting to muscles: Breathing techniques -Pressure on nerves: Massages can help with this ·Bradley Method: -Believed pain during child-birth resulted from a culturally learned fear -emphasized giving birth without medications and husbands play a greater role ·Leboyer Method -advocated a “gentle birth” -baby is immediately placed on mothers abdomen -room is dimly lit to simulate inside the mothers body -umbilical cord not cut for several minutes and then the baby is put in a warm bath Infertility: The inability of a couple to conceive Fecundity: The ability of a couple to conceive within a certain period of time ·In men: -usually due to a low sperm count with can be caused by many things such as endocrine problems, low level of pituitary hormones, drugs, marijuana, radiation, and infections -Usually a procedure called artificial insemination is used. Sperm are collected during several ejaculation and inserted into the partners vagina at the time of ovulation. If they choose to use sperm from another man, it is called donor insemination -The newest and most successful technique involves injecting a single sperm directly into an egg called intracytoplasmic sperm injection -can also be caused by varicose veins in the spermatic cord (treated w/ surgery) ·In women: -generally comes from two sources: Structural problems with the fallopian tubes or uterus failure to release eggs -many women have slight endometriosis which can cause a blocked tube (Larparoscopic surgery can attempt to reopen the tube) -failure to ovulate becomes more common as women age -a good diet can sometimes improve ovulation -if the problem is entirely hormonal, fertility drugs that stimulate the pituitary gland to secrete FSH and LH or that stimulate the ovaries can be helpful -In vitro fertilization is when a mature ovum is surgically removed from a woman’s ovary, placed in a medium with sperm until fertilization occurs, and then placed in the woman’s uterus (usually for women who cannot conceive due to blocked tubes) called “test tube babies” -Gamete intrafallopian transfer is a procedure for treating female infertility in which sperm and eggs are gathered and placed directly in a fallopian tube -Zygote intrafallopian transfer is used when tubes are blocked. An ovum taken from the woman is fertilized by her partner and then transferred to the unblocked portion of the tube -Surrogate mother- a woman who carries a fetus to full term for another couple, agreeing to give the infant to the couple after it is born. The surrogate mother may have the egg implanted with the mother’s egg and fathers sperm through in vitro OR she may be impregnated with the fathers sperm through artificial insemination PSYCHOLOGY EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDES CHAPTER 8: 1. Gender identity is your subjective sense of being a man or a woman. 2. Gender roles are norms (what is considered appropriate) about the behaviors and attitudes of men and women. They vary from culture to culture and can change over time within the same culture. 3. A person’s genetic sex is determined at conception by the combination of an egg, which has an X chromosome for sex, and a sperm, which can have either an X or a Y chromosome. 4. XX combinations usually result in girls. 5. XY usually produce boys. 6. There are over 70 known irregularities in chromosome combinations. 7. Klinefelter’s syndrome: men with one or more extra X chromosomes 8. Turner’s syndrome: women with only one X chromosome 9. Hormones determine whether an embryo will develop anatomically to be a boy or girl. 10.Unless there are high levels of testosterone at this critical stage of prenatal development, nature has programmed the body to develop into a girl. 11.Hormone disorders before birth can result in a mismatch between genetic and anatomical sex, or a baby whose external genitalia are ambiguous in appearance. 12.The most common condition is called congenital adrenal hyperplasia. 13.Gender dysphoria: some individuals feel that they are trapped inside a body of the wrong sex. 14.Transgendered: people whose gender identity does not match their biological sex. 15.Freudian Theory: emphasizes unconscious identification with the parent of the same sex. 16.Social Learning Theory: emphasizes the role of reinforcement and imitation. 17.Cognitive-developmental theory: states that children do not acquire the concept of gender constancy until the age of 6 or 7. 18.Evolutionary theory: psychological sex differences between men and women are inherent and the result of different reproductive pressures each faced over thousands of generations. 19.Sociocultural theory: emphasizes the role of the environment or social context in influencing the way gender roles develop over the life span. 20.The development of gender roles begins before a child develops gender identity or gender constancy. 21.Masculinity and femininity were once viewed as opposite ends of a one- dimensional continuum, but today they are generally viewed as independent constructs. 22.This has led to the theory of androgyny, which says that a person can be both masculine and feminine and that this is the healthiest of all gender roles because of the flexibility it gives individuals in different situations. 23.Parents, teachers, the media and peers are all powerful influences on the process of socialization and gender-role development. 24.Gender is possibly the first social category learned by children. 25.When children cognitively organize the world according to gender, they create gender schemas. 26.As individuals become adults, they generally acquire more complex sets of gender roles, and for both sexes there is an integration of gender roles. 27.Continued belief in stereotypic gender roles can adversely affect one’s personal and sexual relations with a partner. 28.Traditional gender roles in our culture evolved over time in response to social forces. 29.Those forces have been changing and as a result, gender roles are in a state of transition. 30.Recent studies have shown that some differences between men and women in sexual attitudes and behaviors are better explained by evolutionary theory (such as sexual desire) while others are better explained by sociocultural theory (such as sociosexuality). 31.Transgendered and transsexual do not mean the same thing. 32.Hormone levels in the second half of pregnancy alter brain anatomy to be either “male” or “female.” 33.By the age of 3, children know whether they are a boy or a girl, but do not understand that this cannot change. 34.In the absence of testosterone during embryonic development, we would all be born anatomically a girl. 35.Fathers tend to treat their children in more gender-stereotypic ways than do mothers. 36.Transsexual is not a term for a type of homosexual. 37.According to the social learning theory, imitation is a process by which children may learn gender identity and gender roles. 38.The rise of industrialization helped create the male gender role of being independent and unemotional. 39.Gender role is the way you express your gender identity. 40.The most common hormonal disorder of sex development in men is androgen insensitivity syndrome. 41.Men’s and women’s hypothalamuses are different. 42.A transsexual is not someone who cross-dresses for sexual arousal. 43.Children show gender-stereotyped behavior before they have developed gender constancy. 44.In girls, male sex-play behavior is related to fetal testosterone levels. 45.There is little noticeable difference between behavior of boys and the behavior of girls before the age of 2. 46.Gender dysphoric, transgendered person: Tom believes he is a woman, but is anatomically a man and does not want surgery. 47.“Feminine” on Bem Sex-Role Inventory: Bob is low in instrumental orientation (“getting the job done”) and has great affective concern for the welfare of others. 48.Homosexual: Frank prefers men as sexual partners. 49.Turner’s syndrome: Susan cannot reproduce; she is short and infertile and has one X chromosome 50.Undifferentiated individual: Joe is neither instrumental nor expressive, neither assertive nor emotional 51.Androgen insensitivity syndrome, disorder of sex development: David’s body sis not respond to testosterone during prenatal development; he has female genitalia and undescended testes. 52.Androgen insensitivity syndrome, DHT-deficient individual: Sam was born with a very small penis that looked like a clitoris, an incomplete scrotum, and a short, closed vaginal cavity. At puberty his voice deepened, his testicles descended, and his “clitoris” grew to become a penis. 53.Androgynous individual: Wayne is both instrumental and expressive, assertive and emotional 54.Gender dysphoric, transgendered person, transsexual: Phillip believes he is a woman trapped in a male body and wishes to have sex reassignment surgery 55.Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: Carol has an enlarged clitoris and labia because of too much masculinizing hormone during her fetal development 56.Stereotyped individual: Mike believes that men should be assertive, aggressive, success-oriented, unemotional, and should play little role in housekeeping and childcare responsibilities 57.Klinefelter’s syndrome: Harold is tall, with long
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