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Exam #1 Review Guide

by: Elliana

Exam #1 Review Guide KIN 184

Marketplace > University of Miami > Kinesiology > KIN 184 > Exam 1 Review Guide
GPA 3.9
Sports Injuries

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Review guide for exam #1
Sports Injuries
Study Guide
UM, Rendos, kin, 184, KIN 184, KIN184
50 ?




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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Elliana on Sunday February 22, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to KIN 184 at University of Miami taught by Rendos in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 254 views. For similar materials see Sports Injuries in Kinesiology at University of Miami.


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Date Created: 02/22/15
KN184 Exam 1 Guide Lecture 2 Sports Medicine Sports Medicine Broad eld of medical practices related to physical activity amp sport Focuses on active populations 2 Classi cations Performance Enhancement Injury Care amp Management Human performance Practice of medicine Biomechanics improving performance Athletic training while avoiding injury Sports physical therapy Sports psychology nutrition amp massage Lecture 3 DirectionalPositional Anatomy Anatomical Position f Standing erect ff 39lt Face fo rwa rd j l l y 2 Arms down at the sides Ifquot Palms forward 39 3 Cardinal Planes JG 4341 Sagittal Median Divides the body into left amp right portions Midsagittal divides the body into two equal parts along a median Transverse Horizontal Horizontal plane Divides the body into superior upper amp inferior lower portions FrontalCoronal Divides the body into anterior front amp superior back portions Womm lwummwuwmum Transverse plane horizontal plane Sagittal plane median plane Bo y Sectioning Coronal plan frontal plan IGN184 Directional Terms amp Meanings AnteriorVentral Front E Chest is anterior to shoulder blade SuperiorCephalicCranial Towards the head E Head is superior to the abdomen Medial Toward the midline E The nose is medial to the eyes Proximal Nearest the point of attachment to the trunk E The elbow is proximal to the wrist Super cial Nearer to the surface J I was 9 i39 as Exam 1 Guide Posterior Dorsal Back E Spine is posterior to the bellybutton lnferiorCaudal Away from the head E Ankle is inferior to the knee Lateral Away from the midline E The hips are lateral to the bellybutton Distal Farther from the point of attachment to the trunk E The ngers are distal to the wrist Deep Farther from the surface Quintinquot KN184 Exam 1 Guide Motions Joint Motions Available Foot Motions A Inversion B C D Toe Extension E F Supination Palm up Flexion Bending in at the joints Plantar exion Pointing the foot out away from the body ballerinas Dorsi exion Movement of the foot up towards the body makes a right angle Extension Lockingstraightening out joints Most joints are in extension standing in anatomical position Abduction Movement out away from the midline Adduction Movement in towards the midline center quotAddingquot motion towards the midline Rotation Pivoting of a bone on its own axis Shoulder amp hip jointssockets InternalMedial Rotation Rotation in towards the center of the body ExternalLateral Rotation Rotation out away from the center of the body E Twisting the shoulder to ip the straight arm Circumduction Combines exion abduction extension amp adduction Not a true planar motion Combination movement E Rotating arms in circles Supine Lying on your back Pronation Palm down Prone Lying on your stomach Eversion Toe Flexion Pronation Supination Cowl5M0 1010 nuns toquot Mouth Lipwwo I39lllwm 5 us KN184 Hip Motions I A Hip Flexion 1 quotCfifLw B Hip Extension 4ri C Hip Abduction Q j 739 D Hip Adduction t L E Hip Internal Rotation F Hip External Rotation HIP ABOUCTION Knee Motions A Knee Flexion B Knee Extension C Tibial Internal Rotation D Tibial External Rotation Lecture 4 Injuries Sprains vs Strains amp Grades Strain Stretch or tear of a muscle or tendon Generally in the centerquotmuscle bellyquot weakest point Caused by stretching a muscle beyond its yield point or dynamic overload lst degree overstretching amp micro tearing of the muscletendon Mild paintenderness Full passive amp active ROM 2nd degree further stretching amp partial tearing of muscles or tendon bers Moderate to severe pain Point tenderness Ecchymosisdiscoloration bruising Swelling Decreased ROMstrength 3rd degree muscle tendon is completely ruptured Immediate pain amp disability Rapid swelling Ecchymosis Loss of function Audible pop Decreased ROMstrength Exam 1 Guide Sprain Stretch or tear of a ligament or capsule Result from forces that cause 2 or more connective bones to separatego beyond their normal ROM lst degree overstretching of tissue Mild paintenderness Full passive amp active ROM 2nd degree partial tearing of tissue Moderate to severe pain Point tenderness Ecchymosisdiscoloration Swelling 3rd degree complete disruptionrupture of the ligamentous integrity Immediate pain amp disability Rapid swelling Ecchymosis Loss of function Stress test moderate to severe joint disability absent of quotend feel will allow doctor to quotpullquot joints wo feeling resistance or stabilization from the joint KN184 Exam 1 Guide Lateral Ankle Sprain Most common ankle sprain Inversion amp planter exion Open packed position less bone on bone contact Grade 1 Mild Sprain Little to no pain Some swelling No x ray needed 2 3 days recovery Stretching tho no tear of ligamentous structures Grade 2 Moderate Sprain Increased pain Partial tear Increased swelling Loss of function Ecchymosis 2 3 weeks recovery Grade 3 Severe sprain Complete rupture of ligaments Complete loss of function Normally surgically xed 3 4 months recovery Medial Ankle Sprain Eversion Rare Potential for a distal bula fracture or Pott39s fracture High Ankle Sprain Syndesmotic ankle sprain Forced hyperdorsi exion amp external rotation of the foot libia shin bonel Fibula lower leg bone Tum lateral ankle ligaments Nata Pain on the front of the ankle mow Achilles pain m Pain w dorsi ecion 3mm 23 Ecchymosis swelling Possible audible pop Must be immobilized Recreates mechanism of injury w every step bone pushes up amp spreads tibia bula Treated w RICE crutches boot or removable surgical screw Injuries Chronic injury Gradual Onset Injury Acute injury Sudden onset injury In ammation The body39s healthy way of healing rst act of defense Tho chronic in ammation is not healthy Any Injury Discoloration in ammation pain etc Bursitis In ammation of a bursa KN184 Exam 1 Guide Apophysitis In ammation of a bony prominence Open Wound Break in skin or mucous membrane Abrasion Scraping of super cial skin layers susceptible to infection bc the injury covers a wide area Incision Open wound with smooth even edges Laceration Open wound with jagged uneven edges Puncture Small disruption in skin caused by a sharp penetrating object May cause internal bleeding or deeply embedded infections Avulsion Complete dissociation of a portion of skin or tissues Contusions Contusion bruise caused by a sudden trauma causes a disruptiondamage to capillariesblood ow of that tissue Grades of severity lst super cial tissue damage Minimal swelling localized tenderness 2nd increased tissue damage Mind to moderate limitation in ROMfunction 3rd severe tissue damage Signi cant bleeding under skin amp hematomablood tumor formation Myositis Ossi cans Bony growth into a muscle belly Occurs from trauma left unprotected Calcium deposits into broken tissues builds new bone growth Takes quot year to fully mature May grow back if removed too soon Painful limits ROM Quad Contusion Mechanism of injury Due to anterior lateral blow Common in basketball Possible signi cant bleeding very painful May lead to myositis ossi cans bony growth into a bruised tissue if left untreated Symptoms Loss of function amp ROM Joint stiffness Treatment Aggressive quadriceps stretching Ice on a stretch Compression wrap Padding is a must KN184 Exam 1 Guide Stitches When necessary vs unnecessary Not required if Stitches are required if Large cuts on movable Cut is less than 12 inch long surfaces or sensitive tissues Cut is not deep Severe heavy bleeding cannot be controlled Edges of the skin fall together Sensitivemoveable tissue is cut such as eyehdsHps Cut is on a part of the body that bends places stress on the cut Stitches will minimize scarring in large gaping wounds Large vs Small Blisters amp Treatments Blister Wound caused by friction or rubbing Accumulates uid or blood btwn skin amp secondary layers Small Blisters lt 1 inch Large Blisters gt 1 inch across Usually heal on their own Should be popped w a sterile needle Should not be broken rubbing alcohol Should be left uncovered Gently puncture the edge furthers from Donut shaped moleskin pad can prevent the heart pressure Press uid toward the hole Zinc oxide sunscreens help dry it Do not remove flap of skin unless dirtied or infected Apply antibiotic ointment amp band aid Subluxation vs Dislocation Subluxation Partial separation of a joint Pops back in on its own Dislocation Complete separation of a joint Complete dissociation btwn 2 joint surfaces Severe stretching or complete disruption of the ligaments ALWAYS check for sensation amp motor function KN184 Exam 1 Guide Skeletal TraumaFractures Stress Fracture Due to repeated micro trauma Shin Splints Medial tibial stress syndrome stresses In ammation of posterior tibialis tendon or the long Overuse injury toe or ankle exor muscles Hard to evaluate on x ray May be caused by excessive pronation in exibility Localized pain of lower leg weakness or fatigue or posterior Swelling tibialis Pain w activity Diffused pain Night pain In ammation along tibia39s medial border Percussion pain Shock absorbing qualities of lower leg altered increases stress on lower leg May lead to a stress fracture or periositis SalterHarris Fracture Growth plate fracture May interfere with or halt normal growth in affected jointbones Quad amp Hamstring Strains Same signs amp symptoms of any strain Immediate pain Spasm Loss of function 2nd amp 3rd degree observable swelling ecchymosis quad avoidance gait Lecture 5 FALL Flat vs High Arched Feet Flat Arches Pes Planus Hypermobility resulting from increased ligament laxity or muscle weakness High Arches Pes Cavus Abnormally high rigid arches Contracture of planter soft tissue structures Elevation of toes off the ground Causes secondary injuries often claw toes Pathologies of feet Plantar Fascitis In ammation of the plantar fascia Pain cycle Hurts in the morning due to shortened position overnight then acute extension when stepping out of bed Sudden stretching micro tearing excessive stretching of structure Pain returns in the evening due to fatigued tissue Lisfranc Sprain Fracture Dislocation fracture or subluxation of tarsometatarsal joints Midfoot sprain by stepping into a hole twisting foot w an additional axial force or load KN184 Exam 1 Guide Contraction of flexors PIP joint amp contraction of extensors DIP joint Toe bends at 2 knuckles Usually occurs in 1 toe callouses the top Mallet toe Flexion of the distal phalanx knuckle of the toe Toe bends at 1 knuckle Causes little to no joint dysfunction Hallux ValgusBunions Callous formation on the medial side of the MTP joint Medial deviation of the MTP joint amp lateral angulation of the big toe Congenitaltrauma Unstable great toe MTP joint ligaments stretched Hallux Rigidus Fusion amp rigidity of great toe lst MTP joint Result of degenerative or arthritic changes from joint dysfunctionabnormal walking Subungual Hematoma Toenail Bruise Contusionblood underneath the nail bed Due to direct blow or trauma Should be drained win rst 24 hrs dries up afterwards puts pressure on nail Happens to many distance runners hitting toe against shoe top Lecture 6 Knee Knee Deformities BowLegged Genu Varum Congennal Knees bend outwards KnockKneed Genu Valgum Knees bend in from the outside lateral side HyperExtended Genu Recurvatum Back knee or hyper extended knees Laxlengthened ligaments may lead to an unstable knee in laterpost sports age Commonly seen in swimmersgymnasts May be congenital or due to sports training KN184 Exam 1 Guide MCL Sprain Limits abduction of the tibia bending leg inward Limits knee extension amp external rotation oftibia Deep layers stabilize medial meniscus Mechanism of injury Force of the lateral knee which stretches the medial ligaments Torsion movement wo external force Treatment MCL has a good blood supply Tends to heal on its own Brace controlled movement rehab 3rd degree be need surgical intervention Some MCL injuries not isolated often associated w ACL injury ACL Sprain Typically non contact injury Mechanism of injury Foot planted amp external rotation of the tibia or sudden decelerationchange in direction Common in agility sports like basketball soccer etc Contact mechanism valgus blow w exed knee More common in females than males Hormone in uences ligament laxity Hip width creates bigger angle btwn hips amp knees don39t align straight adds torsional force Females have weaker hamstrings Meniscus amp Vascularity LCL Sprain Varus force to inside of knee Uncommon mechanism of injury due to protection from other leg Occurs most often in contact sports Treatment 3rd degree surgical intervention necessary due to poor blood supply Some can be quotcopersquot by strengthening surrounding muscles w PT PCL Sprain Strongerthicker than ACL less often injured One of the most commonly misdiagnosed injuries as MCLACL sprain Mechanism of injury Direct blow on anterior tibia Often from car accidents dashboard hitting kneesdriving them backwards Falling on tibia w knees exed amp ankles plantar exed Laxity in reverse direction of an ACL tear results in same quotgivequot of the knee Meniscus has semi lunar cartilege w 3 layers ranging in vascularity Outer 13rd thickest receives good blood supply Inner 13rd white zone avascular no blood supply More critical if injured Requires surgical removal due to no blood supply to heal on its own Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome Poorly localized anterior knee gt pain exacerbated by activity Malalignment patella should sit directly in the center of femoral groove Mechanism of injury KN184 Exam 1 Guide Overuse thru exercise Anatomical or biomedical abnormalities Muscle weakness amp imbalance Structural insufficiency Atrophy in exibility of IT band pulling patella outwards Training errors Indoor track runners consistently place pressure on one knee when turning on the same corners every time Chondromalacia Patella Cartilege softening Softening roughening or eventual degenerationdefects of the patella39s articular surface Predisposing factors Patellar malalignment Abnormal tracking in trochlear groove Tight lateral soft tissue IT band amp vastus lateralis Increased Q angle Excessive hip anteversion Excessive pronation Structuralfunctional abnormalities Symptoms Anterior knee pain minor swelling Crepitus Pain using stairs Theater sign pain from extended periods of sitting Patellar Tendonitis In ammation of the patellar tendon Jumper39s knee Common in both agility amp strength sports Mechanism of injury Repetitive jumping running weight lifting Most often due to poor technique squatting extending etc Chronic overloading gt microtrauma amp in ammation Symptoms Pain in ammation point tenderness Crepitus Pain w passive stretching amp active or resistive ROM of knee extension Tendonitis gt predisposition to a rupture degrades tendons Immediate loss of function muscle loses attachment point IT Band Friction Syndrome Friction btwn the lateral femoral condyle amp distal IT band Seen commonly in athletes w repeated knee exion amp extension runners Symptoms Burning pain over lateral femoral condyle lateral kneequad Increased pain running downhill KN184 Exam 1 Guide Painfulresistive ROM 30 degrees of knee exion Treatment Rest ice NSAIDS anti in ammatories Flexibility training Correcting biomechanical abnormalities orthotics gait training Osgood Schlatter39s Disease Apophysitis Caused by repetitive stress from tractionpulling of patellar tendon on tibial tuberosity Commonly seen in adolescents Symptoms Irritation in ammation anterior knee pain Partial avulsion of tibial tuberosity amp tenderness Increased pain w knee extension exercise squattingkneelingjumping Lecture 7 Hips Pelvis Abnormalities Anteversion Toe in gait Squinting patellaGenu valgum Internally rotated femur Infants tend to begin walking this way then later open up hips as they begin crawling True vs Apparent Leg Length Difference True Leg Length Measures strictly bony anatomy Bones are diff lengths ChildhoodAdolescent Diseases Perthes Disease Children 3 12 years More common in boys Retroversion Toe out gait Frog eyed patella Femoral external rotation Apparent Leg Length Measures pull of musculature on the bony anatomy Different muscular pull on each leg Degenerative disease of the hip joint avascular no blood flow tissues die Loss of bone mass in hip joint causes collapse in the socket Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis Males 10 15 years Fracture in femoral growth plate causes slippage of overlying epiphysis Growth plate in the thigh breaks gt displaces femoral head in hip joint Orthopedic emergency left untreated blood ow can become cut off from hip joint amp threaten limb loss Iliac Crest Contusion Hip pointer bruises surrounding soft tissue amp bone Mechanism of injury KN184 Exam 1 Guide Direct blow or fall to iliac crest Common in football soccer bball volleyball Symptoms Swelling Ecchymosis Crepitus Loss of function Muscle spasm in effected muscles hip exors abductors external rotators Treatment padding ice crutches Hip Dislocation Rare in athletes due to strong hip musculature amp ligaments Mechanism of injury Hip exed w axial load delivered to the femur Creates internal rotation amp adduction of hip Involved knee will rest on opposite leg Most commonly occurs in car accidents push on knees from dashboard quot Medical emergency bc of neurovascular compromise Dlsc Degeneration Loss of blood ow gt compromises limb life Lecture 7 Spine amp Back Prolapse Disc Injuries Disc cushioning spinal vertebrae resembles a jelly donut K Injury occurs when disc is compressed amp quotjellyquot starts coming out Grade 1 Protrusion Nucleus pulposus jelly enters annulus brosus surrounding structuredisc walls Disc degeneration Dull achy back pain Grade 2 Prolapse Nucleus pulposus reachers outer rim of annulus brosis tho doesn39t protrude thru Back pain tho no radicularnerve related symptoms Grade 3 Extrusion Nucleus pulposus bulges thru wall of annulus brosus Normally occurs in posteriorlateral direction Back pain maye have one sided radicular symptoms nerve pain Grade 4 Sequestration Nucleus pulposus may have completely lost shape moves out of annulus brosus Essentially donut bursts jelly breaks thru the wall amp leaks into the spinal column Severe pain amp radicular symptoms Must be surgically removed Extrusion Sequestration KN184 Exam 1 Guide Spinal Cord Concussion Interruption of electrical signal of the spinal cord in the spinal canal Mechanism of injury Contact Predisposing factors spinal stenosis Symptoms Transient paralysis that can last from 5 minutes to 72 hours NonSpeci c Low Back Pain 80 of the population experiences low back pain in their lifetime 90 of low back complaints have no cause Sciatica General term for nerve related leg amp back pain Not a diagnosis simply a set of symptoms Spinalopathy Spondylosis Degenerative osteoarthritis Spondylolysis Fracturedefect Spondylolisthesis Fracture amp slippage Essentially as the name of the diagnosis gets longer the severity of the injury worsens Same goes for grades of severity for each injury the higher the number the worse the injury


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