KIN 199 Study guides
KIN 199 Study guides KIN199
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alex Huechteman on Sunday February 22, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to KIN199 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Sara Baggett in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see Ecological Approach to Health & Fitness in Kinesiology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/22/15
KIN 199 Test Outline LECTURE 1 1 Health vs Wellness a Health overall condition of a person s body or mind and the presence or absence of disease i Contains uncontrollable aspects ii Infectious disease caused by invading microorganisms leading causes of death a century ago iii Chronic disease caused by lifestyle and other factors leading cause of death today Top 6 Heart disease cancer stroke chronic LRD unintentional injury diabetes mellitus all affected by smoking b Wellnessoptimal health and vitality encompassing the six dimensions of well being i Determined primarily by conscious decisions 2 Six Dimensions of Wellness a Intellectual an active mind detects problems nds solutions and directs behavior i Open to new ideas curiosity think critically humorcreativity b Physical Wellness Increased tness increased physical wellness i Overall condition absence of disease ability to care for self c Emotional ability to understand and deal with feelings attending to one s own thoughts monitoring reactions identifying obstacles i Optimistic self esteem con dence can share feelings able to cope with stress and anxiety d Interpersonal quotsocial wellnessquot ability to develop and maintain satisfying and supportive relationships i Good communication capacity for intimacy support system e Spiritual Wellness has a set of guiding beliefs to give purpose to life i Includes religion nature art meditation ii Capacity for love compassion joy belonging to something greater f Environmental determined by livability of surroundings improved by learning and protecting oneself against hazards in surroundings and work i Safety of foodwater air quality violence g Additional Aspects of Wellness i Occupational level of happiness and ful llment gained through work genuinely enjoys job not enhanced by high salariestitles setting career goals that re ect personal values ii Financial ability to live within means and effectively manage money includes balancing income and spending saving for the future h Factors of wellness heredity environment health care i Healthy behaviors physical activity healthy diet maintain healthy body weight manage stress effectively avoid tabaccodrugs 1 Bene ts of physical activity increased endurance healthier musclesbonesjoints increased body comp more energy improved stress management lower risk of premature death lower health care costs i Lifestyle management examine current choose target behavior what you want to change obtain information risksbene ts of change nd outside help THEN i Motivational readiness Precontemplation no intention of changing behavior Contemplation intending to take action in 6 mos or lt Preparation planning to take action within a month Action changing behavior Maintenance success for 6 or gt mos Termination no linger tempted to revert back ii Surround yourself with positive people modify effort if needed change type of activity to work harder don t make excuses O P FP NE LECTURE 2 1 Physical Activity vs Exercise a Physical Activity energy requiring body movement carried out by skeletal muscles i Lifestyle physical activity expend 150 Kcal above normal routine about 30 min of brisk walking or 60 min of exercise for weight management b Exercise planned structured repetitive movement to maintain physical tness i Guidelines 2 daysweek of strength training and 150 minweek of moderate intensity PA or 75 min week of vigorous intensity PA j Physical tness physical attributes that allow the body to respond or adapt to demands of stress of effort Ability to perform moderate vigorous levels of PA without becoming overly tired i NONE lt SOME lt MORE gt OVERTRAINING ii To see changes Progressive overload work as it gets easy increase 3 Health Related Components of Fitness Cardiorespiratory Endurace V02 Max refers to ability of body to take in deliver and extract oxygen for work or to perform prolonged large muscle dynamic exercise at moderatetohigh levels of intensity When low heart has to work hard during ADL improve with continuous rhythmic movements such as walking jogging cycling aerobic dancing i Benefits greater stroke volume resting HR slows volume increases blood supply increases resting BP decreases body can cool itself Flexibility ROM in joints related to muscle length stiffness can cause unnatural body positions later in life Body Composition proportion of fat to lean mass muscle bone organs water best way to lose fat diet and exercise build muscle mass through strength training i Too much fat heart disease insulin resistance type II diabetes Hypertension stroke gallbladder issues back pain Muscular strength max forces a muscle can exert in a single contraction Dependent on size of muscle cells and ability of nerves to activate muscle cells Helps hold the body upright and higher rate of metabolism Muscular endurance capacity to exert repeated muscle force or remain contracted for a long time esp important in trunk for posture to help low back pain Depends on glycogen stores and blood supply to muscles i Bene ts increased body mass metabolic rate reduced sarcopenia 4 Skill Related Components of Physical Fitness a b c d e f 5 Princ a b Speed ability to perform movement in short period of time Improved by HllT Power ability to exert force rapidly based on strength and speed Improved by resistance training Balance ability to maintain equilibrium while moving or stationary BOSU training muscle mass Coordination perform motor tasks accurately and smoothly using body movement Agility adapt to change position Reaction time ability to respond and react quickly iples of Physical Training Specificity body adapts to speci c nature of training wanna run a marathon practice long distance running Adaptation body improves when its stressed at a higher level than used to Progressive Overload as adaptations persist further stress increases are needed for additional improvements Determined through Fl39lT Frequency Intensity Time Type For time 2060 min cardio 612 reps 14 sets of 810 exercises Reversibility When not worked body adjusts to diminishing level up to 50 improvements lost within two months Cellularcardiovascular reduce much quicker than muscle 6 Designing a Workout a b Medical clearance assess yourself set Speci c Measurable Attainable Realistic and Time frame speci c goals Guidelines Speci c Adaptation to Impose Demands SAID Principle train regularly start slowly i Overtraining don t give the body enough energy to recover can lead to injuries and regression sleep hormone and responses impaired Warm up controversial gazelle example but COOL DOWN return blood ow to pre levels or vasovagal reactions rest cycle intensity fuel effectively AKA CARBS LECTURE 3 KIN 199 Test 2 Review 0 Type 1 vs Type 2 muscle bers 0 Type 1 Slow twitch greater fatigue resistance contract slowly with little force rely on oxidative energy system high in endurance athletes 0 Type 2 Fast twitch fatigue more quickly contract rapidly and forcefully greater force development rely more on anaerobic energy high in sprinters Muscle contraction process sliding lament theory 1 ATP binds to myosin myosin unbinds from actin 2 ATP breaks up into ADPPi and causes myosin heads to cock to 90 degrees 3 Myosin binds to actin amp form a cross bridge 4 Pi is released l myosin heads spring back to 45 degrees and pulls itself over the actin muscle cell is shortened Called the quotpower strokequot 5 ADP released Myosin remains binded to actin until new ATP quotrigor statequot 0 Fight or ight response Which systems are involved 0 Fight response taken care of by the sympathetic nervous system and endocrine system Increase in heart rateBP to deal with stress releases hormones such as adrenaline 0 Endocrine and nervous systems 0 Involved in ght or ight response Endocrine norep epinephrine cortisol endorphins 0 Systems involved after stress has ended o Parasympathetic nervous system returns the body back to homeostatic balance 0 Allostatic load what is it Long term wear and tear of a stress response especially long term exposure to things like cortisol prolonged susceptibility to disease cardiovascular or altered immune function 0 General Adaptation Syndrome 0 Alarm ght or ight response body more susceptible to disease or injury because it is geared up to deal with a crisis 0 Resistance new homeostatic level by increased resistnace to stress can lead to autoimmune disorders 0 Exhaustion rst two stages require energy and if it persists there are multiple stressors and general exhaustion results Can be life threatening Actin v Myosin o Actin thin lament o Myosin thick lament Types of Actin o Globular actin separate gactin o Filamentous a bunch of gactin Smallest component of muscle cell structure 0 Sarcomere smallest contractile unit of a muscle made of two proteins actin and myosin Concentric eccentric and isometric muscle contractions o Concentric part of a dynamic contraction muscle applies force as it shortens o Eccentric part of a dynamic contraction muscle applies force as it lengthens o lsometic contraction of muscle without a change in length or angle ex pushing against the wall Golgi Tendon Organs o Responds to tension in the tendons results in contraction of antagonist and relaxation of agonist Muscle spindles o Reponds to muscle stretching results in contraction of agonist and relaxation of antagonist De nition of exibility o Flexibility ability of a joint to move through its full range of motion Collagen elastin titin where are they located 0 Collagen white bers needed for structure and support SKIN o Elastin yellow elasticity and exibility SKIN o Titin muscle lament with elastic properties MUSCLES When should stretching be performed 0 Before working out trains proprioceptors to get used to muscle lengthening How long should you hold a static stretch 0 Stretch slowly until tension 1530 seconds then relax and go further Hypertrophy vs hyperplasia fat cells and muscle cells 0 Hypertrophy Happens with muscle workouts greater size of muscle mass 0 Hyperplasia increase in normal body cells in an organ or Ussue o Hyperplastic obesity greater amount of fat calls in the body than normal Body composition 0 Ratio of fat mass to fat free mass of the body 0 Calculated by BMI is a bad method to calculate body composition in athletes Types of diabetes 0 Type 1 pancreas produces little to non insulin 0 Type 2 pancreas doesn t make enough or the cells are resistant usually lifestyle onset o Gestational high levels for the baby increase birth weight Hormones for increase or decrease of blood glucose 0 Increase glucagon o Decrease insulin Underwater weighing 0 Fat to fat free weight captured by body density water displacement Archimedes principle lower weight but higher displacement means higher body fat percentage Android vs gynoid obesity 0 Android men apple shape more abdomen region greater risk for heart disease 0 Gynoid women fat in the hips region Assessing body composition measurements 0 Review in class activity Right side of body pinch left measure right make sure caliper is facing you 0 Use of calipers for skin folds Women use suprailium tricep thigh Men use chest abdomen and thigh o Waist higher than 40 men or 35 in women indicates risk for disease WHip ratio gt 94 or 82 in women indicates risk for disease FDA involvement w OTC supplements o No involvement not regulated at all supplements are created individually by producers Knowidentify proprioceptors motor unit muscle cell sarcomere o Proprioceptor nerves that detect changes in muscle tension and position then send messages back to the brain 0 Motor unit a nerve and all the muscle cells it innervates o Sarcomere the smallest unit of a muscle cell Static v dynamic exibility 0 Static ability to hold a stretch determined by tolerance anatomy and tightness 0 Dynamic ability to move through ROM w little resistance depends on static and coordinationstrength harder to measure Safer static vs ballistic stretching 0 Static stretching is safer increases with a developmental stretch Ballistic stretching involves rapid forceful movements usually used in athletes but there is a greater risk of injury Parts of vertebrae 0 Body supports stress of body weight 0 Arch protects the spinal cord 0 Processes joint and attachement site 0 IV disk between vertebrae gel and water surrounded by brous rings serve as shock absorbers o Nerve roots base of spinal nerve pairs Different back injuries 0 Slipped disk disk bulges between the vertebrae Leads to pressure on nerve root and spinal cord Short answer Draw and label major components of a sarcomere Short answer Describe the sliding lament theory of muscle contraction KIN 199 Final Exam Review 45 queonns Cumulative Questions 0 Knowing health related components of tness Health vs skill related know HEALTH Muscle strength Muscle endurance Flexibility Body composition Cardiorespiratory endurance 0 Cardiac output vs stroke volume Blood pumped by the heart per minute HR x SV Stroke volume the amount of blood per beat of the heart oCapiIIaries arteries veins C gas exchange Veins towards the heart Arteriesaway from the heart oStorage of carbohydrates as glycogen in muscles and liver Signals of drug dependence 0 Reinforcement compulsion or craving loss of control escalation negative consequences 0 Type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages o Ethyl alcohol 0 What is ber why is it important 0 Not metabolized by the intestines keeps digestive tract going 0 Site of alcohol metabolism oAbsorbed into bloodstream stomach and small intestine MAINLY metabolized in the liver 0 Blood alcohol concentration oAmount of alcohol in the blood in terms of weight per unit volume measure of intoxication Legal limit for driving is 08 0 Negative affects of alcohol 0 Impaired reaction time and motor coordination of the CNS impaired judgment less acute senses nausea damaged brain cells weakened cardiac muscle cirrhosis kidney failure increased risk of osteoporosis o Nicotine where is it found oCigarettes Alcohol abuse vs alcoholism oAbuseuse of alcohol to degree that causes damage impairs functioning harmful behavior oAlcoholism chronic abuse psych disorder compulsive drinking withdrawl amp tolerance Environmental tobacco smoke oSmoke that enters the atmosphere from burning end of cigarette Side stream oSmoke exhaled by smokers mainstream smoke HIV and AIDS oAIDS Affects CD4T cells and weakens the immune system HIV is the infection that is a progressive disease damaging DNA Below 200 AIDS Lives onlny within cells and body uids not outside the body Speci c sexual contact direct infected blood contact between HIV mother and baby What is Cancer oAbnormal uncontrolled growth of cells How cancer spreads from area of the body to another the name applied to it Types of skin cancer oSquamos cell carcinoma surface of the skin 0 Basal cell carcinoma deepest layer of skin Different types of cancer in general brief idea Warning signs of cancer What are essential nutrients oSubstances that the body must get from food because it cannot manufacture enough or fast enough to meet its needs Non essential can produce from inside the body Amino acids oCreate proteins Function of carbs protein and fat 0 Fat functions to provide energy insulate the body support and cushion organs absorb fat soluble vitamins 0 Proteins form key parts of muscles and bones enzymes cell membranes and hormones used during resistance prolonged endurance repeated high intensity workouts oCarbs ideal source of energy for body cells some cells brain nervous system and blood only use carbs Different types of fat sat unsat trans oTrans is hydrogenated unsaturated fats H added makes liquid a solid adds texture preserves shelf life 0 Monounsaturated fat with one carbon double bond vegetables nuts vegetable oils 0 Poly unsaturated two more more double bonds nuts oils fatty sh Why cold water sh are good What is the certain type of fat that is good oOmega 3 fatty acids Know four fat soluble vitamins oA D E K Difference between major minerals and trace minerals Iron de ciency 0 Low intake causes anemia Know three antioxidant vitamins oA C E Phytochemicals oSubstances found in plants that can help prevent chronic disease decrease effect of carcinogens antioxidants for plants Different types of vegetarians oVegan no animal products 0 Lacto includes milk and cheese only 0 Lactoovo milk egg and cheese 0 Partialpesco eggs dairy small amounts of poultry and seafood Cholesterol 0 LDL bad cholesterol raised by saturated and trans fats lowered by Unsaturated o HDL good cholesterol lowered by trans fat oLevels Totaless than 200 LDLless than 100 HDLgreater than 60 How many calories in 1g of fat carbohydrates protein oCarbs4 o Proteins4 0 Fat 9 oAlcohol 7
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