PSYC 202 Lifespan Development Exam 3 Study Guide
PSYC 202 Lifespan Development Exam 3 Study Guide PSYC 202
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Casslyn on Thursday April 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 202 at University of St. Thomas taught by Dr. Tonia S. Bock in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Lifespan Development in Psychlogy at University of St. Thomas.
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Date Created: 04/21/16
BINET TASK WAS THE IDENTIFICATION OF SUBNORMAL VERSUS NORMAL IN THE CLASSROOM DEVELOPMED DEFINITION OF INTELLIGENCE ANS ASSESSMENT METHODS. 30 QUESTIONS FOR AGE 5-13 YO EVOLVED INTO THE STANFORD BINET (STILL USED TODAY) SAID INTELLIGENCE WAS THE ABILITY TO JUDGE, COMPREHEND, AND REASON WELL. CURRENT INTELLIGENCE TESTS ARE THE WISC (WEXLER INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR CHILDREN) AND THE STANFORD BINET IDEOGRAPHIC B/C LOOKING FOR INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES APPLIED CONCEPT OF “IQ” TO RATE/COMPARE AND STANDARDIZE INTELLIGENCE USE: DIAGNOSTICS (MENTAL ILLNESS AND COURT, ADD/ADHD, LEARNING DISORDERS, SPECIAL EDUCATION DIAGNOSIS) SAMPLE QUESTIONS: VOCAB VERBAL, GENERAL INFO VERBAL, VERBAL COMPREHENSION, SIMILIARTIES (LOOKING AT ABSTRACTS), ARITHMATIC. WORKING MEMORY QUESTIONS: DIGIT SPAN (REPITITION FORWARD AND BACKWARDS). HOW MANY OBJECTS CAN SAID PERSON STORE IN WORKING MEMORY? ALSO LETTER/NUMBER SEQUENCING PROCESSING SPEED: (WORKSHEETS) SYMBOL SEARCHING TO MEASURE SPEED AND ACCURACY. PERCEPTUAL AND SPATIAL REASONING: BLOCK DESIGNS TO LOOK LIKE PICTURES AND PICTORAL GROUPING VIA CONCEPTS. ALSO SPATIAL VISUALIZATION: PIC INTO A BOX, LOOKS LIKE WHAT? TESTING TAKES 2-6 HRS. INDIVIDUAL MECHANISM. AGE RANGE BINET: 2-85+ YO AGE RANGE WISC: 2-7 YEAR OLDS. DIFFERENNT FOR 7+ YEAR OLDS. IDEALLY MANIPUALTED TO FIT ACROSS CULTURES. STERNBERG FROM THE CHANGE THEORY OF LOVE (KNOWN FOR) THERE’S THE THEORY OF INTELLIGENCE. TRIARCHIC EMPHASIS. ASSESSMENT WAS RELATIVELY UNKNOWN, AN IDENTIFIED TASK WAS GIVING A CHILD 20 IDENTICAL CIRCLES AND ASKING HER TO CREATE A DIFFERENT THING OUT OF EACH AS FAST AS POSSIBLE. THE GOAL: SUCCESSFUL INTELLIGENCE (THE THREE CORNERS OF TRIANGLE BELOW) ANALYTICAL: SIMILAR TO TRADITIONAL INTELLIGENCE. ACQUIRING, APPLYING, AND ENGANGING IN SELF REGULATION CREATIVE: FINDING NEW STRATEGIES TO SOLVE NEW PROBLEMS, ASPECT OF COMPLEXITY PRACTICAL: ADAPT TO LIFE CHALLENGES, SHAPE TO ENVIRONMENT, SELECT METHOD FOR PERSONAL GOALS AND EVERYDAY WORLD. EXAMPLE: CORY’S COOKIES (DVLPD OWN WAY FOR INCOME AND MOM TO BUY A CAR) EVERYONE NEEDS ALL THREE, BUT LEVELS BETWEEN INDIVIDULAS DIFFER. GARDNER GARDNER’S MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES SUPER CONTROVERSIAL BETWEEN PSYCOLOGISTS AND AND POP CULTURE. BACKGROUND: CASE STUDY OF BRAIN INJURED PATIENTS: 9 DIFFERENT INTELLIGENCES NO ASSESSMENTS, NOT FIRMLY GROUNDED RESEARCH. GROUNDS FOR HIGH DOUBT IN PSYC. WHEN ASSESSMENTS HAVE BEEN CREATED, SHOWS INTELLIGENCES ARE HIGHLY SIMILAR. ON NATURE VS NURTURE IN INTELLIGENCE IS INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCE IN IQ ATTRIBUTED TO INHERITANCE? ABOUT 50% INHERITABLE, SHOWN BY IDENTICAL TWIN STUDIES. BUT THIS IS NOT GROUP APPLICABLE. WHY IS 50% OVERESTIMATED? ADOPTORS OF TWINS RAISED IN SEPARATE HOMES ARE MOSTLY MIDDLE TO HIGH SES, FAMILY BACKGROUND IS PRETTY SIMILAR SO IT CREATES A CONFOUND. GENDER ETHNIC/RACIAL (CONTAINS THE MOST CONTROVERSY) WHY IS IQ LOW IN AFR AMERICANS? 2 SES IN AFRICAN AMERICANS VS WHITE POPULATION: WHEN THEY’RE THE SAME, IQ GAP IS LESS DRAMATIC THE COMMUNICATION STYLES BETWEEN CHILDREN AND PARENTS INFLUENCE IQ TESTING: AFRICAN COMMUNICATION IS STYLED TO BE COLLABORATIVE BY TELLING A STORY, MOTHER AND CHILD SPIN OFF OF EACH OTHER IN A CONVERSATIONAL BANTER. WHITE PARENTS ARE MORE HIERARCHAL, SIMILAR TO THE TEACHING STYLE OF THE EDUCATION SYSTEM. BECAUSE AFRICAN AMERICANS ARE LESS USED TO THE STANDARDIZED WAYS OF TESTS, THEY MIGHT UNDERPREFORM DUE TO NEW ENVIRONMENTS/CIRCUMSTANCES STEREOTYPE THREAT: THE FEAR OF JUDGEMENT BY NEGATIVE EXISTING STEREOTYPES. THE ANXIETY FROM SUCH STEREOTYPES INTERFERES WITH THEIR PERFORMANCE 3 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT PIAGET CONCRETE OPERATIONS, STAGE THREE. AGE 7-11 YO CAN NOW DO THE THINGS THAT THEY STRUGGLED WITH IN STAGE 2, BUT MORE STRUGGLES ELSEWHERE MENTAL OPERATIONS ARE ROUTINELY USED CONSERVATION DECENTRATION (ABILITY TO FOCUS ON MULTIPLE ASPECTS AT THE SAME TIME) REVERSIBILITY (CAN THINK BACK TO WHERE THEY STARTED FROM. MOST COMMON EXAMPLE: “WELL, IF YOU POUR IT BACK, IT’S THE SAME AMOUNT” JUSTIFICATION) STRUGGLES WITH DEDUCTIVE REASONING INDUCTIVE REASONING: ABILITY TO MAKE SEVERAL OBSERVATIONS AND DRAW A GENERAL CONCLUSION FROM SAID OBSERVATIONS DEDUCTIVE REASONING: DRAWING CONCLUSIONS FROM GENERAL FACTS. “ALL DOGS BARK. REX IS A DOG. DOES REX BARK?” BUT ONLY STRUGGLE WITH THINGS THAT GO AGAINST EVERY DAY EXPERIENCE LIKE “ALL DOGS MEOW. REX IS A DOG. DOES REX MEOW?” PIAGET SAID THAT THEY CAN’T DEDUCE, RESEARCHERS SAY THAT THEY CAN UNDER CERTAIN CIRCUMSTANCES CULTURAL IMPACTS TRAINING CONTRASTS WITHIN CULTURAL DIFFERNECES CAN MAKE AN IMPACT IN DETERMINING THE STRENGTH OF RESPONSES TO PIAGETIAN TASKS IN THE UNITED STATES, CHILDREN SCORED WELL ON PIAGETIAN TASKS AND POORLY ON LOOMING PROBLEMS. IN INDIAN GIRLS (LOOMING IS KIND OF LIKE SCHOOL) STRUGGLED WITH THE PIAGETIAN TASKS BUT TOTALLY EXCELLED IN THE LOOMING PROBLEMS. OUR SKILLS AND COG CAPACITY ARE POLISHED TO EXIST WITHIN A SKILLED DOMAIN FOR SUCCESS. INFORMATION PROCESSING PERSPECTIVE IN PREK, ONLY REHERSAL WAS USED. IF USED, POOR QUALITY IN MIDDLE CHILDHOOD, USES SPONTANEOUS REHEARSAL AND ADDS OTHER STRATEGIES. REHEARSAL (FIRST AND IMPROVES) ORGANIZATION BY CATEGORIES, VERY COMMON TO ADD TO REHEARSAL 4 ELABORATION BEST STRATEGY OF MIDDLE CHILDHOOD, BUT EMERGES TOWARDS THE END OF THE PERIOD. ALLOWS CHILD TO MAKE CONNECTIONS TO EXPERIENCES OF SELF OR OBJECT OF MEMORIZATION CONNECTIONS INCREASES COGNITIVE SPEED LONG TERM MEMORY FILLS WITH RELEVANT AND IMPORTANT EXPERIENCES IMPERATIVE TO MEMORY AND PROCESSING SPEED IF ATTENTION IS DIRECTED TO DEVELOPING SCHEMA. WITH MORE MEMORY BITS HELD IN THE WORKING MEMORY, THE TIME DECREASES (OF PROCESSING SPEED) EXTREMELY RAPIDLY BETWEEN AGES 6 AND 12 YO AT 7 YO CAN HOLD 4, AT 12 YO CAN HOLD 7 (ADULT LEVEL) IN WORKIMG MEMORY BETTER AT PLANNING AND ORGANIZING ATTENTIONAL BEHAVIOR ATTENTION AT 3-6 YO IS LESS ACCURATE, LESS SYSTEMATIC 7 YO IS SYSTEMATIC AND MUCH FASTER AND ACCURATE PLANNING INCLUDES WHERE YOU ARE, WHERE YOU WANT TO BE, AND WHAT YOU HAVE TO DO TO GET THERE. THE MAZE TASK WAS DIRECTED TO FINISH IT WITH AS MUCH TIME AS NEEDED, AS CAREFULLY AS POSSIBLE. AGE 4/5/6 YO NEVER REALLY STOP TO PLAN AHEAD. THEY HAVE A TENDENCY TO KEEPING GOING AND NEVER LOOKING AHEAD. OLDER KIDS STOP/LOOK AHEAD. NOT YET GOOD AT COGNITIVE SELF REGULATION CONSTANTLY MONITORING PROGRESS TOWARDS A PARTICULAR GOAL AND CHECKS PROGRESS AND OUTCOME TO DETERMINE IF REDIRECTION IS NECESSARY REGULATES ATTENTION, PLANNING, COG RECOGNITION EMERGES LATE INTO MIDDLE CHILDHOOD AS A RESULT OF THIS, ADULTS NEED TO SCAFFOLD AND REMIND THE CHILD OF GOALS WITH CONSISTANT CHECK INS RESEARCH STORY: LEARNED HELPLESSNESS DIFFERENT ORIENTATIONS WERE MASTER VS. LEARNED HELPLESSNESS ATTRIBUTIONS DUE TO SUCCESS AND HARDWORK WHILD FAILURES WERE LACK OF HARDWORKS AND LIMITED INNATE ABILITY. VIEWED INTELLIGENCE AS INCRAMENTAL THINKING, ACHIEVEMENT POSSIBLE WITH HARD WORK, AND REACTION TO FAILURE: UNDANUTED BY AND WORKS HARDER. GOAL TYPE IS LEARNING GOAL 5 LEARNED HELPLESSNESS ATTRIBUTES SUCCESS TO LUCK AND FAILURE TO OUTSIDE ELEMENTS, ALWAYS A BLAME BASIS. MESTAKES ARE SYMBOLIC OF INEQUALITY AND ABSOLUTE INADEQUATE ABILITY. VIEWS INTELLIGENCE VIA ENTITY THINKING. LOW ACHIEVEMENT EXPECTANCIES. NO PRODUCTIVE SOLUTIONS IN REALCTION TO FAILURE. PERFORMANCE-ORIENTED GOAL. TESTED CHILD RESPONSE TO SOCIAL FAILURE IN FOURTH AND FIFTH GRADE STUDENTS (60 COUNT) QUASI EXPERIMENT AND EXPERIMENT IN THAT THE GROUPS ASSIGNMENT WASN’T COMPLETELY RANDOM, BUT THE GROUPS CONSTRUCTEDBY SOCIAL CONFINDENCE AND BY ENTITY OR INCRAMENT THEORY EVENNESS THE PENPAL PROCEDURE! ALL CHILDREN FACED A MILD REJECTION FIRST OFF, BUT THEN ASKED WHETHER OR NOT THEY WANTED TO SEND ANOTHER LETTER OR CONTENT PREFORMANCE GOAL INDEPENDENT VARIABLE VS LEARNING WITHIN WORKING BETWEEN TWO GROUPS. TWO DEPENDANT VARIABLES. The information and strategies provided in their letters, the verbal response to their rejection (not as important), and the pie chart provided for what percent they’re experiencing most in head. SEPARATED PERFORMANCE (TENDED TO ASK MORE QUESTIONS AOUT OTHER CHILD TO DEFLECT TALKING ABOUT ONESELF. USED FEWER STRATEGIES IN THE SECOND LETTER WHILE SOME REFUSED TO WRITE A SECOND LETTER. LEARNING GOAL CHILDREN TENDED TO TALK ABOUT THEIRSELVES AND THEIR OWN INTERESTS, SAME STRATEGY METHODS USED IN FIRST LETTER VERSUS THE SECOND LETTER. PERFORMANCE EXCUSE “WELL, WE’RE JUST TOO DIFFERENT” LEARNING EXCUSE “WELL, I WASN’T TRYING HARD ENOUGH” WHICH ISN’T AN EXCUSE MORE LIKE A REASON FOR REJECTION PREEXISTING ENTITIY THINKERS THOUGHT THEIR REJECTION WAS FROM THE INABILITY TO MAKE FRIENDS 6 INCRAMENTAL THEORIST THINKERS WERE WAY MORE POSITIVE. THE DIFFERENCES IN INSTURCTING THE ENTITY/INCRAMEMNTAL THINKERS WERE EXTREMELY POWERFUL. FOUND DIFFERENCES AMONG THE GROUPS. WHAT KIDS HEAR FROM THE PARENTS OR TEACHERS IN THEIR LIVES DEFINITELY WERE FOUND TO INFLUENCE THEIR WAY OF THINKING INFLUENCING CHILD MOTIVATION EXTERNAL REWARDS AS AN INCENTIVE TO AHIEVE (SUCH AS STICKER CHARTS, FOOD, TV/VIDEO GAMES/ELECTRONICS, MONEY) ARE NOT EFFECTIVE BECAUSE THEY DON’T CREATE LONG-TERM MOTIVATION BECAUSE LONG-TERM IS INTERNAL INTRINSIC MOTIVATION: MEANS THEY ENJOY MASTERY AND ENJOY WHAT THEY DO WHEN A CHILD SUCCEEDS, PRAISE EFFORT AND ABILITY TO FACILITATE INTRINSIC MOTIVATION. WHEN A CHILD FAILS, EMPHASIZE LACK OF EFFORT. CULTURALLY, ASIANS EMPHASIZE EFFORT WHILE WESTERN CULTURES EMPHASIZE ABILITY (FROM ADULTS CHILD) SELF CONCEPT DEFINITION: ONE’S DESCRIPTION OF WHO YOU ARE. MAJOR CHANGES HAPPEN FROM 8-11 YO. AT EIGHT YO, CHILD TENDS TO BE SUPER CONCRETE IN OUTWARD SELF CONCEPT (HAIR COLOR, LIKES DISLIKES) AT 11 YO, SELF CONCEPT CHANGES MID/LATE CHILDHOOD. ENVOKES GENERAL PERSONALITY DISPOSITIONS IN BOTH +/- WAYS. FOCUSES ON COMPETENCY (ESPECIALLY IN SOCIAL COMPARISONS BASED ON THEIR EXPOSURE TO MANY OTHERS BECAUSE OF SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT) EXAMPLE: I’M TRUTHFUL, SOSO IN STUDIES, IM A GOOD CELLIST. MOSTLY IM GOOD BUT I LOSE MY TEMPER, IM NOT WELL LIKED BY SOME GIRLS. SELF ESTEEM DEFINITION: JUDGING OWN WORTH 7 INDICATES OVERALL PSYC ADJUSTMENT (GENERALLY IF LOW, MORE SUSCEPTIBLE TO DEPRESSION). OVERLY POSITIVE (EXAGGERATED POSITIVELY) FROM AGE 4-7 YO OF SELF. FROM 7/8/9 YO, SELF ESTEEM IS MUCH MORE REALISTIC AND SIMILAR/AWARE OF WHAT PEERS WOULD SAY ABOUT THEM. BY AGE 7/8 SELF ESTEEM IS HIERARCHICALLY STRUCTURED TO BE DIFFERENTIATED BY CATEGORIES. GENERAL SELF ESTEEM (SUSAN HARTER) ACADEMIC COMPETENCE READING MATH OTHER SOCIAL COMPETENCE PARENT PEER OTHER PHYSICAL/ATHELTIC COMPETENCE GAMES WITH PEERS SPORTS PHYSICAL APPEARANCE ALL FOUR ARE IMPORTANT ^^^ BUT ACROSS, THE GREATEST WEIGHT IS PHYSICAL APPEARANCE (EVEN MORE IMPORTANT IN GIRLS) AND THE SECOND MOST IMPORTANT IS SOCIAL COMPETENSE MORE: THIS GENERATION HAS HIGHER SELF ESTEEM AND LOWER ACHIEVEMENT ALONG WITH HIGHER ANTISOCIAL AND ADJUSTMENT ISSUES. EXAMPLES: NO WINNER, EVERYONE’S A WINNER. IN THIS, IS SCHOOL EASIER BECAUSE THE SELF ESTEEM BOOST AND LWERED STANDARDS/ACHIEVEMENTS/EXPECTATIONS? 8 DIFFERENCES IN PARENTING STYLES, ESPECIALLY IN OVERINDULGENT. (SO MUCH WARMTH BUT LOW/NO DEMANDS OR EXPECTATIONS BOOSTS CILD SELF ESTEEM WITHOUT ACHIEVEMENTS PRAISE MUST BE TIMED TO SOMETHING THEY DID (CHILDREN DON’T BENEFIT FORM UNWARRENTED COMPLIMENTS) FAMILY COMMUNICATION IS SUPER IMPORTANT PYSCHOLOGISTS AND EDUCATIONALS CREATED SELF ESTEEM CURRICULUM IN THE SEVENTIES AND EIGHTIES. RESEARCH FOUND THAT INCREASING SELF ESTEEM DID NOT CAUSE THE INCREASE IN ACADEMIC SKILLS. SO, USELESS BECAUSE NOTHING IS BOUND. PEERS PEER ACCEPTANCE SOCIOMETRIC TECHNIQUES DETERMINE HOW MUCH SOMEONE IS LIKED BY THE REST OF THEIR PEERS BY PROVIDING A RATE LIST ON A LIKE BASIS BUT EVOLVED TO A RATE OF ROLES (EXAMPLE, CLASS TROUBLEMAKER). FIVE GENERAL CATEGORIES OF PEER PLACEMENT AVERAGE LARGEST GROUP, 1/3 OF INDIVIDUALS. = NO INTENSE LIKE OR DISLIKE BY PEERS NEGLECTED NO VOTES AT ALL, FORGOTTEN OR IGNORED. GENERALLY FINE WITHOUT ADJUSTMENT PROBLEMS. THEY’RE SHY, QUIET, BUT NOT LONELY BECAUSE THEY’RE GENERALLY FINE WITH WHERE THEY ARE. CONTROVERSIAL BOTH WAY POSTIVE VOTES AND WAY NEGATIVE VOTES. SO, SELECTIVELY MEAN T O CERTAIN PEOPLE AND SUPER NICE AND PROSOCIAL TO OTHERS. EXTREMELY JUDICIOUS IN WHO THEY’RE NICE TO. REJECTED NOT WELL LIKED, SUPER AT RISK FOR FUTURE ADJUSTMENT ISSUES. POPULAR LOTS OF POSITIVE VOTES, HIGH ACHIEVING, ASSERTIVE, SOCIAL SKILLS, OUTGOING. EMERGES IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL BUT GRADUALLY MOVES ONTO CLIQUES AND CROWDS AND MORE LEVELS IN MIDDLE AND HIGH SCHOOL BULLIES 9 POPULAR ANTISOCIAL MALES TEND TO USE PHYSCIAL AGGRESSION AND MIGHT PHYSICALLY BULLY VICTIMS THAT ARE LESS PHYSICALLY FIT. RELATIONAL BULLIES TRY TO MANIPULATE WITH RELATIONAL AGGRESSION AND SOCIAL SKILLS (REGINA GEORGE) POPULAR PROSOCIAL (NOT A BULLY) DO WELL IN SCHOOL, SENSITIVE/FRIENDLY/COOPERATIVE WITH EVERYONE REJECTED AGGRESSIVE FORECEFUL, HOSTILE, PROACTIVE PHYSICAL BULLYING. USUALLY THINK THEY’RE WELL LIKED BY THEIR PEERS, BUT NOT. MOST ARE EXTREMELY AT RISK FOR FUTURE CRIME/DRUG USE/CRIMINAL ACTION AGAINST THEM REJECTED WITHDRWAN KNOWS THAT THEYRE UNLIKED, SOCIALLY AWKWARD. MAY REACT AGGRESSIVELY, AT RISK FOR INTERNALIZED DISORDERS (DEPRESSION, SCHITZO) TO PREVENT, TEACHERS AND PARENTS MUST STRESS INTOLERANCE OF BULLING AND EDUCATE THEM ON SPECIFIC STEPS TO TAKE. FRIENDSHIP INITIALLY, EARLY CHILDHOOD FRIENDS ARE MADE BASED CONVENIENCE AND SIMILAR TASTES IN MIDDLE CHILDHOOD, LIKING EACH OTHER QUALITIES ARISE IN CATEGORIES LIKE LOYALTY, TRUST, AND COOPERATION. IN EARLY CHILDHOOD, CONCEPTS MOVE FROM SAME/CONVENIENT TO FRIENDSHIPS BASED ON PSYCHOLOGICAL CATEGORIES FRIENDSHIPS CAN BE EITHER: HIGH IN POSITIVE FEATURES, LEADS TO SUCCESS IN THE PEER SOCIAL WORLD HIGH IN NEGATIVE FEATURES, LEADS TO DISAGREE/DISRUPTIVE BEHAVIORS IN AND OUT OF FRIEND GROUP, WITH PEERS AND ADULTS. IN GIRLS, LEADS TO HIGH DRAMA. IN BOYS LEADS TO ANGER, ENTICEMENT, BREAKING RULES RELATIONS WITH PARENTS (NORMATIVE PERSPECTIVES) DECREASE IN THE OVERT AFFECTION BETWEEN CHILD AND PARENT: PARENTS NO LONGER ACT LIKE THE CHILD IS ADORABLE AND THE CHILD DOESN’T WANT THAT TREATMENT EITHER. EXPECTATIONS FOR CHILD INCREASES (BECAUSE THEY SHOULD KNOW BECAUSE THEY’VE BEEN TAUGHT) DISAGREEMENTS IN EARLY CHILDHOOD: BASED ON BEDTIME, FOOD, DRESSING, TEMPER TANTRUMS 10 DISAGREEMENTS IN MIDDLE CHILDHOOD: BASED ON DOING HOMEWORK, ALLOWED TIME WITH FRIENDS, PRACTICING SPORTS OR MUSIC, HOUSEHOLD CHORES CORREGULATION DEFINITION: SHARING OF POWER BETWEEN PARENT AND CHILD; IMPORTANT ASPECT IN MIDDLE CHILDHOOD. BEST COOPERATION ALWAYS HAPPENS WHEN CHILD UNDERSTANDS THAT PARENTS ARE TO SUPERVISE/MONITOR FOR BEST WELLFARE. AND, CHILD KNOWS PARENT ONLY TAKES STRONG STANCES ON IMPORTANT THINGS AND WILL GIVE PRIVILIGES WITH INCREASING MATURITY. STRESS AND COPING RESILIENCE: THE ABILITY TO ADAPT EFFECTIVELY WHEN FACED WITH STRESSORS PLASTICITY: CHANGE IS POSSIBLE THROUGHOUT LIFETIME, IN ALL ASPECTS NOT JUST BRAIN PLASTICITY. IT CAN OCCUR IN LATE ADULTHOOD, BUT IT TAKES MORE TIME AND EFFORT. THERE ARE MANY INDIVIDUAL PLASTICITY DIFFERENCES: ESPECIALLY CHILD TEMPERAMENT = DANDILION VS ORCHID. DANDILIONS RARELY HAVE ADJUSTMENT RISKS OR PROBLEMS AND ORCHIDS ARE VERY FRAGILE BUT IF TREATED JUST RIGHT, THEY TURN OUT BEAUTIFUL (SUCCESS TENDS TO BE A BIT BETTER THAN DANDILION TYPE) FOUR FACTORS THAT PROMOTE RESILIENCE (MAY LEAN ON THESE IN TIMES OF STRESS TO COPE) WITHOUT THESE FOUR, MORE VULNERABLE TO STRESS. o PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS TEND TO BE FLEXIBLE, EASY GOING TEMPERAMENT, EXTROVERTED, SPECIAL TALENTS, HIGH INTELLIGENCE o WARM-CAREGIVING RELATIONSHIP COULD BE WITH ANYONE CLOSE TO THEM o ADDITIOINAL STRONG BOND TO COMPETENT, CARING ADULT EXAMPLES: TEACHER, COACH, MENTOR o COMMUNITY RESOURCES AND OPPORTUNITIES EXAMPLE: EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES LOS ABANDANADOS IN CENTRAL AMERICA RISK FACTORS: SUBSTANCE USE (GLUE, DRUGS, ALCOHOL, CIGARETTES), ALCOHOLIC PARENTS, DELAYED LEARNING SKILLS, LIMITED AND NEGATIVE INTERACTION WITH ADULTS, 11 STEALING DEVELOPMENTAL ASSETS: EQUALITY AND CARING RELATIONSHIPS, FAMILY SUPPORT COMES FROM PEER GROUP, RESPONSIBILITY COMMON NORTH AMERICAN STEREOTYPES OF ADOLESCENTS AND TEENS MORE LIKELY TO TAKE RISKS (ADVENTUROUS) PARENT/TEEN CONFLICT INCREASES (DON’T LIKE PARENTS) PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT AND PUBERTY NORMATIVE (EVERYONE) o GROWTH SPURT IN BOTH HEIGHT AND WEIGHT. GIRLS TEND TO BE AHEAD OF BOYS BY ABOUT 1.5 YEARS. o REVERSE CEPHALOCAUDAL AND PROXIMODISTAL TRENDS: HANDS, FEET, FINGERS ARMS, LEGS TORSO: CREATES AN AWKWARD, CLUSMY PHASE o GENDER DIFFERENCES IN MUSCLE AND FAT DEVELOPMENT BOYS: 3X MUSCLE THAN FAT “MANLINESS” PERFORMANCE EXPECTENCY (PSYC AFFECT) GIRLS: 5 MUSCLE: 4 FAT FASHION MAGAZINES IS DETRAMENTAL TO BODY DEVELOPMENT (PSYC AFFECT) o DEVEOPMENT OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SEX CHARACTERISTICS GIRLS PRIMARY: VAGINAL, OVARIES, UTERUS. GIRL SECONDARY: BREAST, VOICE CHANGE, BODILY HAIR BOYS PRIMARY: SCROTUM, TESTES, PENIS. BOY SECONDARY: VOICE CHANGES, BODILY HAIR o MOOD SWINGS OCCUR MORE OFTEN AND SUPER STRONG IN TEENS OVER ANY OTHER AGE GROUP. HORMONE INFLUENCE IS MINIMAL, ONLY REALLY AFFECTS WHEN IN EARLY PUBERTY OF 11/12/13 YO o ACTUAL MOOD SWING INFLUENCES 1. ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE CLASS (BORED AND FRUSTRATED) HALL (FUN) CLASS (RPT BOREDOM) ETC HOME (BORED) CHURCH (YAY FUN OR WHHYYY) ADULT STRUCTURE AND PARENT TIME GENERATES SOUR MOODS WHILE MOOD POSITIVELY IMPROVES WITH PEER CONGREGATION 2. CHANGES IN BRAIN IDEOGRAPHICALLY DESCRIBE PUBERTY o INDIVIDULAS VARY IN TIMING AND TEMPO o TIMING= AGE OF ONSET. ON AVERAGE, GIRLS START AT 1O YEARS BUT RANGE FROM 8- 13 ON AVERAGE, BOYS START AT 11.5 BUT RANGE FROM 9.5-13.5 12 MENARCHE: MARKS ONSET VIA FIRST PERIOD. MORE ACCURATELY ASSESSED IN GIRLS BECAUSE IT’S NATURAL AND PHYSICAL, AND THE MEMORY IS MORE VIVID BECAUSE THEY’RE MORE LIKELY TO REPORT TO AN ADULT. SPERMARCHE: FIRST EJACULATION BOYS TEND TO LESS-ACCURATELY ASSESS/REMEMBER: USUALLY “AVERAGE” OR WARPED W/ REFERENCE TO NOCTURNAL/MASTERBATION o TEMPO= RATE OF CHANGE. THE AVERAGE IS FOUR YEARS, BUT RANGES FROM 2-6 o MENARCHE INFLUENCES: GENETICS DETERMINES ONSET UPPER AND LOWER AGE LIMIT ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: BALLET/GYMNASTICS/LONG DISTANCE RUNNING FAT (LEPTIN) MALNUTRITION DELAYS GOOD NUTRITION, MAKING IT HAPPEN SOONER. MODERATE AMOUNTS OF STRESS SPEEDS, BUT SEVERE LIFE- THREATENING STRESS DELAYS IT. o THE SECULAR TREND OF MENARCHE: 17 YO IN NORWAY, 1840S TIMING. SINCE THEN, GENERATIONAL DECREASE IN AGE OF MEARCHE LESS LIKELY TO EXPERIENCE FOOD SHORTAGES ACCESS TO HEALTH RESOURCES STRESS REDUCTION AS LIVING CONDITION STABILIZES (FOOD/HOME) NOW, STABILIZED LOW AGE, EXCEPT FOR AFFRICAN AMERICAN GIRLS CONTINUE TO DECREASE IN AGE. RESEARCH STORY CHAPTER 18: COMING OF AGE EARLY MATURING BOYS ARE FAVORED MORE BY ADULTS AND PEERS BECAUSE OF THEIR PHYSICAL MUSCULAR APPEARANCE. THESE KIDS TEND TO BE LESS CREATIVE, MORE CONFORMING, LESS ACCEPTING, ETC. EARLY MATURING GIRLS USE THEIR BODY, BUT DON’T HAVE COGNITIVE IMPULSE MATURITY. THEY TEND TO STRUGGLE WITH BODY IMAGE. ON TIME GIRLS ARE MORE POSITIVE ADJUSTED THAN ON TIME BOYS BECAUSE BOYS JUST WANT TO BE LIKE THE EARLY MATURING BOYS. PARTICIPANTS: AGE 10-16 YO SIBLING PAIRS, RANDOM SAMPLING ISSUED BY PHONE BOOK, AND STUDY OCCURRED WITHIN PARTICIPANT HOMES IN PRIVATE ROOM AWAY FROM REMAINING FAMILY MEASURED: DELINQUINCY AND SEXUAL EXPERIENCE VIA QUESTIONAIRRE, SEXUAL PHYSICAL MATURATION VIA TANNER SCALE (PIC PLACEMENT AND PROMISE OF DR FOLLOW-UP) 13 TANNER SCALE: A PUBERTAL TIMING SCORE CONVERTED WITH A Z SCORE (AVERAGE) AND TANNER SCORE IN AGE MADE THE DISTRUBUTION AND KEPT THE AGE CONSTANT. SO, PHYSICAL WOULD BE EARLY IF Z SCORE WAS 2.0. LARGER TANNER SCORE ALSO MEANT MORE SEXUAL EXPERIENCE. TRENDS SHOWED THAT o EARLY MATURING GIRLS AND BOYS WERE MORE SEXUALLY ACTIVE WITH MORE ACTS OF DELINQUICY o BOYS OVERALL REPORTED MORE ACTS OF DELINQUINCY AND SEXUALLY ACTIVE LEVEL BE AWARE OF COG/SOC DEVELOPMENT IN EARLY PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT. IN BOYS, ADULTS ASSIGN MORE LEADERSHIP AND RESPONSIBILITY BASED ON BODY APPEARANCE; JUST BECAUSE THEY LOOK LIKE THEY CAN HANDLE IT DOESN’T MEAN THAT THEY CAN’T ACTUALLY HANDLE IT. THE SEX TALK ONLY 50% PEOPLE REPORT GETTING INFORMATION ON INTERCOURSE, PREGNANCY PREVENTION, BIRTH CONTROL, STDS. SOME MAY BE BECAUSE OF RELIGIOUS PRINCIPLES OR PARENTAL DISCOMFORT. USE WARM, OPEN COMMUNICATION CONVERSATION SHOWS CORRELATION WITH TEENS HAVING PARENTS’ VIEW ON SEX AND REDUCED SEXUAL RISK TAKING TEENS ARE MOST AT RISK FOR STDS. WITHOUT PARENTS, THEY LEARN FROM FRIENDS AND MEDIA (INACC + UNPRED) SOMETIMES, THEY MAY KNOW WHAT TO DO BUT THEY TAKE THE RISK BECAUSE THEY’RE ONLY EVALUATING SHORT TERM CONSEQUENCES BRAIN DEVELOPMENT REVIEW VOCABULARY: SYNAPSE, NEUROTRANSMITTERS (WE WILL FOCUS ON SERATONIN AND DOPAMINE), CEREBRAL CORTEX (WE WILL FOCUS ON THE FRUNTAL LOBE PREFRONTAL CORTEX), LIMBIC SYSTEM. PREFRONTAL CORTEX o SYNAPTIC PRUNING OCCURS. REMEMBER THAT SYNAPTIC GENESIS SPIKED IN EARLY INFANCY: THERE’S A SMALLER SPIKE IN ADOLESCENCE. CREATES FASTER AND MORE EFFICIENT THINKING. o MYELINATION OCCURS. HIGHER FUNCTIONING AND HIGHER LEVEL COGNITIVE TASKS. o LIMBIC SYSTEM’S NEUROTRANSMITTERS DOPAMINE: REWARDS AND MOTIVATES. SERATONIN: DREAMS, IMPULSIVE BEHAVIOR. 14 BOTH OF THESE LEVELS CHANGE, THEY BECOME MORE EMOTIONAL AND STRESS RESPONSIVE. THEY HAPPEN AT PUBERTY, BUT PREFRONTAL CORTEX CHANGE IS STILL MYELINATING INTO MID 20S. BECAUSE OF THE INCREASE, THEY SEEK MORE REWARDS AND ARE MORE IMPULSIVE/SENSATION SEEKING WITHOUT COGNITIVELY AWARE THINKING. (RECKLESS/DRUNK DRIVING, UNPROT SEX) COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT PIAGETS FORMAL OPERATIONAL STAGE o BELIEVED EVERYONE REACHED STAGE FOUR AT THE SAME TIME. COMPLETE COMPETENCE IN STAGE FOUR HAPPENED AT THE END OF THE ADOLESCENT STAGE. ACTUALLY, CHANGE IS GRADUAL AND CONTINUOUS WITH A WIDE AGE RANGE. FEW ARE COMPETENT (FULL) AT END ONLY ABOUT 35% OF 18 YO HAVE MASTERED STAGE FOUR. DEVELOPMENT AREAS: o SEPARATES REAL AND POSSIBLE, THINKS ABSTRACTLY ABOUT POSSIBLE. this is because of their changes in hypothetical analysis. o PROPOSITIONAL THOUGHT this is an evaluation of logic of proposition without reference to real world circumstances. Can answer the question correctly, even with direct contradiction to their experiences. (remember rex is a dog.) o IDEALISM can think about utopian world and abstract notions of rights and justice. However, lacks real world experiences to support these ideas. Like to pinpoint hypocrisy. o HYPOTHETICODEDUCTIVE REASONING related to Piaget: can test a hypothesis, deduce what will happen, and the test is logical and scientific. Piaget used the pendulum problem, we saw a video on the balance scale. like using this to test their newfound argumentativeness. The argumentativeness that emerges from this increases the parent-adolescent conflict. Most common issue is levels of autonomy (1. Driving car 2. Curfew 3. Dating partners) because: parents have different pov of moral issues and important social perspectives while adolescents think issues are a personal choice. ex: I can wear dirty jeans. You need to wash them first because that is dirty. o IMPROVES METACOGNITION ability to think about your own thinking, cognitive self-recognition. Understands error in mental strategy. ADOLESCENT EGOCENTRISM 15 emerges in adolescence, research doesn’t know if it peaks then or in early adult years. Linked to adjustment problems and engagement in risky behavior. is an introspection leading to extreme self-absorption and the IMAGINARY AUD. or PERSONAL FABLE is the belief that one is special or unique OR not subject to the rules everyone else has to follow. “she just doesn’t understand” or drug use. o DECISION MAKING Teens are less likely to be rational when compared to adults. 1. They understand, but don’t consider the long-term consequences 2. They know the cost/disadvantage/limit but place more emphasis on possible benefits. 7-30% of women experience pregnancy before they reach age 20 1/5-6 people get an STD every year. 16 Research Chapter 19: Parent-Teen Relationships Scarr’s Good Enough Parents: adequate amount of warm, sensitive, involvement, strictness. Her theory was that within this group, there would be small individual variance in their children. Variance would come from overstimulation or neglect. Not to say parents don’t matter, they do. Peers influence the day-to-day activities while parents influence long-term goal setting Surveys need to be representable, reliable, valid, and of good sample size. With a small sample size, there’s less representation and variation. Too large of a size interferes with statistical significance and correlation. Authoritarian, Authoritative, Neglectful (aka uninvolved), Indulgent (aka permissive) were the four typology categories. Causal relationships could emerge from: SES, bidirectional nature, parental involvement affecting child, or child temperament altering parenting style. Participants were from 9 schools in Wisconsin and Northern California. They used a tertile from the top and bottom to look at typology extremes (purest form) Independent variable was parenting style. Experiment was both correlational and longitudinal. Four outcomes measured: 1. Problem behavior 2. Psychosocial development 3. Internalized distress 4. Academic competence. Results: authoritative parents had the most extreme results from neglectful parents. Indulgent and neglectful parent groups had more drug and alcohol use in child because of lack of parental supervision. Authoritarian parenting was strict without warmth, kids were higher in psychological and somatic symptoms. Remember cultural context: parents love their children across all cultures, but each cultures has a different value and way to display this. Self Understanding Self Concept o Is complex and abstract (I’m tolerant, I’m respectful) o Differentiated: understands behavior could be inconsistent across situational change. o Early adolescence, in 5/6/7 grade: imaginary audience emerges, giving birth to a super self-conscious nature. super distorted variation from high-low. “I’m cool” to “I’m a nerd” and the crazy emotions with those statements can shift over like five minutes. 17 o Middle adolescence, mostly 9 grade “which is real me?” Struggles with confusion over inconsistent “opposing attributes” across situations. Highest confusion in mid. o Late adolescence, mostly 11 grade understands inconsistent behavior, accepts, and integrates to become a coherent view of self example: “I have a fairly quick temper” Self Esteem o Judging one’s overall worth. Takes a sharp decline, pretty linear from age 9 to age 22. o Baseline Self Esteem is deep down and pretty stable. If child self esteem is high it doesn’t change, if low it doesn’t change, otherwise could yoyo or dip. o Barometric Self Esteem situational shifts. Dramatic highs and lows in early adolescence because self conscious emerges. o Three new dimensions are added to the chart (from middle childhood) 1. Worth in close friends 2. Job competence 3. Romantic relations (ones before were academic, social, sports, physical appearance) Identity Erikson was the first to say that development happens beyond adolescence. However, his theory is not so applicable to the younger stages. WE DO use his adolescent stage and we named it “identity versus role confusion” with the developmental task of identity achievement. Identity is pretty broad. It’s the coherent sense of self past, present, and future experience being integrated to a role in society, a sense of individuality, as well as commitment to ideals. A resolved “crisis” forms an identity. If left unresolved, one becomes shallow, unprepared for adulthood, directionless James Marsha and the ID Status showed two important parts to identity development: exploration/reflection(crisis) and commitment. There are four types of statuses: o Identity foreclosure is when one commits without exploring. Usually happens when a parent or religious leader simply imposes plans on child. Child does not internalize or own it. o Moratorium is when someone explores without commitment. This is still good. o Identity achievement is when someone has committed to an identity after going through the exploration stage o Identity diffusion is also role confusion; it happens when someone hasn’t even tried committing or exploring positions on different topics. Identity emerges in adolescence. Most work it out between 18-24 during emerging adulthood. Erikson had thought it would be worked out between 13-18. Just because you resolve your identity once doesn’t mean that you’ll never visit development again. 18 Moral Development Moral Behavior o Moral is philosophically defined (we use Kantian at UST) and behavior is described using the definition of moral. o Rest’s 4 Component Model shows four different psychological processes for observing moral behavior. Unless all four are shown, moral behavior would be unachieved. 1. Moral sensitivity assesses, notices, takes POV per situation 2. Moral judgment determines what should be done. Traditionally, how people reason through a moral dilemma 3. Moral motivation prioritizes and takes action on problems and values. moral identity: moral values are core 4. Moral implementation skills to carry out an action (leadership, affluent, confidence, etc) o The classic moral dilemma and Kholberg only looked for the reason behind yes or no, not the yes/no answer itself. Found that there are anti-stealing reasons for stages five and six, but never found a stage six response in all of his research either via questionnaires or interviews. o Kholberg’s Stages merged kant and piaget into a single theory, six stages and three levels. 1. Level One: Preconventional (egocentric theme) Stage one: punishment avoidance and need to obey Stage two: instrumental purpose (self centered around one POV) 2. Level two: Conventional stage three: “good boy good girl” has good motives and morality of interpersonal cooperation is important stage four: social order maintenance, pov expands and includes sense of duty. Focuses on what law is: “what if everyone like Hank stole?” 3. Level three: Postconventional (global pov) stage five: social contract, living implicates conduction laws for societal protection and to serve rights. stage six: universal ethical principle: challenges pov taking. Generates ethical principles that maintain consistency across all cultures. Moral reasoning development trends show that stage 2 is ending at the beginning of adolescence. Stage three then emerges and rapidly rises and falls until stage four rises above and takes average towards the end of adolescence. 19 Stage six is pretty rare and common in super virtuous people like Ghandi, Mother Theres, Dahli Llama, the Pope, etc. Influences on Moral Behavior o Parenting practices. To be better, listen and ask more questions. Present own reasoning one stage above child’s level, as part of vygotsky’s zone of proximal development theory o Peer interactions. Discussion with close friends in a healthy debate environment facilitates stance and influences positive development. o Education system is the most powerful. The more years of educational experience and requirement, the higher the stages of moral reasoning scores go. Peer Relations Cliques o Are a small group of friends, usually 3 to 7, that are extremely tight-knit. o Especially important for girls’ development of emotional infancy, less important to boys. o Early adolescence: four to eight members of the same sex. Much uniformity (same race, same neighborhood, etc) o Middle adolescence: boys and girls mingle at beginning (at the same events but don’t mix) and at the end begin group dating. o Late adolescence: don’t gather as much, couple oriented, more fluid. Crowds o Are large groups based on reputation and symbolical representation. Jocks, nerds, populars, partiers, are good examples. o Vary based on peer involvement and adult institutional involvement. For example, Jocks are high in both, nerds are high in institutional and low in peer, and partiers are low in institutional and high in peer. o 40-50% only associate with one crowd. 1/3 associate with 2 crowds. 20-30% associate with many different crowds. o Good source of identity exploration o Characteristics of crowds: 1. Caricatures means that they overstate good of own, minimize negative qualities of own, but maximize bad qualities in others. 2. Channels determines who you can associate with 20 3. Contexts different crowds encourage different types of interaction 21
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