MID TERM STUDY GUIDE
MID TERM STUDY GUIDE HIST 2340W
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Date Created: 02/22/15
US diplomatic History Study Guide Midterm PART 1 Possible ESSAY Topics PART II Analysis of Primary Documents PART 1 Possible Essay topics 0 Comparison of Roosevelt Corollary vs Taft s Dollar Diplomacy different types of American Expansion I Roosevelt Corollary addition to the Monroe Doctrine o Stated the need for military intervention in countries that were not civilized or democratic 0 There is no purpose to build an army if they have no intentions of using them reinforces military intervention 0 Known for intervention in Cuba democratization process I Taft Dollar Diplomacy replace dollars for bullets Talk about the economic expansion and how USA should have financial advisors in south and central America Provided aids to indebted American countries Sought to integrate the world through economic means Intervention Nicaragua and Honduras banana wars I Similarities Both wanted to in uence the world with their ideals both in the west and in the rest of the world Both utilized the open dollar diplomacy to keep economic relations with China it was important to export their surplus in the economy 0 SpanishAmerican War I USA acquired Philippines and Hawaii I First real victory of USA against European powers apart from independence war I Basis of Cuba s virtue and Spain s Henry Cabot Lodge Freedom of religion freedom of the press advance Cuban ideas in the western hemisphere Out immediate peculiarly argument USA could transform and democratize Cuba A war for national honor o How Wilson Revolutionized American International Role I Pioneer in field of political science Wilson s speech 0 Place the Latin American countries have been exploited and it is the job of USA not to exploit them He ennobles them and argues for self determination I Wilson wants US to be as active as the circumstances permit in showing ourselves to be the champion of the sovereign rights of China I Ideas of selfdetermination I Freedom of the Seas 0 Comparison of Wilson and FDR peaceful policies I Wilson Was more idealistic Appealed to Congress for war Freedom of the seas exporting products Was more realistic adopted truthful and used more public rhetoric Used the radio Utilize public support to win war declaration in congress Concentrated in domestic affairs industrial expansion I Similarities Both preached peace Both were very popular among the population Both started as isolationists and due to extreme consequences resorted to engaging in war 0 WWI Zimmerman Telegram o WWII Attack in Pearl Harbor Both emphasized the values of democracy Both believed in international order 0 Open door policy I Asking European countries that are involved in China for several things Shipping and railway privileges General Chinese Tariff collected by Chinese government in all spheres of in uence Respect Chinese sovereignty I European powers agree to them verbally only I In general the open door notes were not very effective Proved that USA did not have much in uence in foreign relations in China due to the not seriousness of the European power in relation to their policy They were not enforceable I BUT USA gained China s trust I Expand American in uence without expanding a national empire This idea becomes an important component in America foreign policy PART II Recognition of primary resource 0 Useful tips I Recognize the subject and put into context I Try to recognize the language and the form of writing I Relate topics to each person s ideal characteristics For example Taft has an economic approach TR adopts a more Theodore Roosevelt O O O O Roosevelt s Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine Outlines duty to directly interfere in matters of countries that are not civilized and need the component of freedom USA should use their forces to intervene if there is no intention of providing and keeping the force necessary to back up a strong attitude then it is far better not to assume such an attitudequot Should first try to arbitrate but if the intervention Designates the American role as international policequot Give them right to interference glorifies military army and navy Roosevelt s speech to Charleston 0 USA has to participate in world s affairs in order to prevent competing powers to do so They can determine the political duty of the world USA has a moral obligation to become involved in international affairs and play an active role in shaping the course of history We cannot be isolationists obligation to be involved internationally different from other presidents Says that British imperialism is beneficial to the areas that were colonized Benefits the world as a whole part of a broader local cause9 spread of civilization throughout the world this was American s duty USA was unique and exceptional did not engage imperialism the same way Europeans did Inspired from England s footsteps admitted that USA was part of Global Agenda and taking away the White man s burdenquot it was their obligation in playing a role in the world s politics He was realistic did not emphasize all differences from the USA to Britain embraces admiration towards Britain s politics and should obtain their positive aspects of imperialism Concept of nation building unify the country to work towards one common goal Anti isolationism should expand American in uence overseas He wants to expand the industrial capabilities of USA William Taft He is proud of accomplishments in Cuba saved them from Spanish dominance Talking about American exceptionalism 9 setting the American example and that they can work anywhere Changes the bad connotation of imperialism if it is beneficial it should be persuaded Mentions Isthmian canal connect USA to China and implies stronger relations with Asia 0 Dollar Diplomacy Tremendous growth created a real factor in its economic growth Holds out the idea of duty that every American wants to embody towards the world substitutes dollars for bulletsquot9 USA will use its commercial power to increase world s in uence Will bring economic development and bring peace and stability to the world Like Roosevelt he wants to be a spreader of ideals through economic means Woodrow Wilson o The League of Nation Speech to congress O Idealistic uses a lot of metaphors Peace of world Women and children and basic human values should be protected Armed forces is a background in his program and that moral forces are the priority It s a definite guarantee of peace League will be a vehicle to lead to peace because will be an international order 14 points Open diplomacy Freedom of the seas and navigation Equality of trade Self determination of Serbian countries 0 No weapon accumulation 14th9 creation of the league of nations Lansing Intervention has a bad connotation to other nations especially Mexico 0 Hurt their honor and self determination It will imply USA greater responsabilities Note to Germany FD Calls them out for sinking USA ships with innocent people Says that the USA will take appropriate measures due to the sinking incident Hurt their neutral agreement and there should be consequences War Message to Congress The principals did not change but the USA will be entering a war to take responsibility to world peace Give the right of selfdetermination to all nations as long as there is democracy International Law should be respected and the USA had the right to emphasize it Peace without War Isolationism of the USA American should be open to trade with every nation Being neutral means expanding market capabilities Get rid of entangling alliances All countries have the right to determine their own government Achieve peace with cooperation everybody to live with concept of freedom of the seas 0 Message to the world We should choose peace because war is too costly Economic chaos and depression is obstacle to development Solution is to stop war and engage in a peace agreement World Economic Conference the world must establish free markets to increase revenue Disarmament Conference provide the greatest good for the greatest amount of people Eliminate of possession weapons of attacks defense will automatically will become less impregnable Ultimate goal is complete elimination of all these weapons No nation should increase its armament 0 He calls for the collaboration from all nations as a global effort 0 Arsenal of Democracy Speech December 1940 Emphasizes national security Talks about the formation of the axis power and how they intend to dominate Europe with their autocratic rule threat to democracy Calls for popular support in the war in order to protect American lands in the pacific and to prevent them from dominating Europe with their nondemocratic government States that it is better to care for the present and prevent a future with nonstop war Talks about the idea of the nazi to protect their territory from inferior racesquot and how Americans should be very concerned by it NO APPEASEMENT Duty to aid democracy in Europe and calls for rearmament Increase their industrial warfare capabilities implements defense to defend democratic faith we must be the great arsenal of democracyquot 0 FDR address to Chautauqua paper V Good neighbor policy example about unwarned weapons with Canada If there is a war anywhere it is dangerous to the USA USA is mostly in friendly terms with everybody Specify that they do not want to expand territorial or territorial expansion Spread Good Neighbor policy as the USA as an example No one policy will assure peace for everybody but peace was assured in everyday decisions 0 lnterAmerican Conference Can the West help Europe to prevent future disaster Every common citizen wants peace but governments choose war Other citizens of other nations and Americans should be the example Any war will influence the USA The best thing Americans must do is to prevent wars in the Americans through constitutional democracy 0 Protect individual freedoms and prevent causes of war through social and political freedoms Faith of Americans lies in spirit addresses Americans as families and sister democracies Emphasizes the importance of American as a continent and their democratic ways 0 Quantine speech Chicago Reference to the great depression the USA is doing very well and the violation of peace have been violating the pact World War breaks out the USA is not safe peaceful nations must be active Compares to the outbreak of a disease peaceful nations kind of need to act 0 Casual speech O 0 To the Embassy of France USA should provide a loan to Germany to pay war debts in order to save Germany from unwanted resentment to start a war But they should be careful to assure that the loans are not made to finance military build up Remove sources of disagreements and resentment in European nations Virtues of Foreign trade Hebert Hoover economy it is about economic integration Crush the enemy by preventing them from foreign trade Focus of the country of specialization Do not impose higher tariffs it will only damage the world economy States are delusional to think that if they increase tariffs they will develop their domestic USA changed from a debtor to a creditor nation USA have obligation to loan dollars to other nations and countries should not cease to stop 0 Disarm o Disarm will decrease competition of naval power 0 Everybody can benefit from peace 0 Germany Japan and USA will scrap their major naval power 0 Cease naval competition Lenin communism and complex language Denby 0 USA will expand their overproduction to Asia China because they had the needs and means to buy them while the Latin American countries were indebted American was overproducing Should have access to their own ports not necessary to pass through Britain imports Measure to increase both of their markets Says that the world has become smallerquot more attainable for global change Britain and Germany were USA greatest competitors of American in uence and they often quotmisledquot trade by filtering their direct trade with China by making them indirect The March of the ag by Beveridqe In the Philippines govern the people without their consentquot Possible to rule land over seas like England has done To establish national security and a navy power march of the agquot9 name of American expansionism Philippines produce what they consume and Viceversa Reciprocal trade Hawaii Control of Pacific Manila Control of Asia Olney Note 0 BritishGuiana asked for help but the USA denied it 0 Britain submitted con ict with Venezuela to arbitration but USA will not intervene Alfred Mahan 0 Wanted to build strong USA navy to compete with Britain 0 Called for acquisition of colonies said that USA should follow Britian s army capacity Monroe Doctrine o It was American duty to protect the whole American from European powers 0 They should never intervene in the inside government of such countriesquot 0 United states was a modeled country to be followed by the remaining American countries 0 Give quotindependencequot to Cuba and use American resources to modernize the region 0 Cuba s desire to be free from oppression resemble USA s independence from England 0 Free Cuba under the same constitution will be an advance in civilization 0 Advantages I Material interests agriculture I Location gulf of Mexico Bryan s speech Against imperialism and outlines the greed of men no need to buy Philippines from USA territory Theory of regression USA would be walking backwards by purchasing the Philippines without their consent States that the Philippines are perfectly capable of governing themselves If the USA go forward it would leave behind everything they ever worked for liberty and republic Manifest Destiny 0 The idea that USA had a duty to protect foreign countries from the oppression of liberties and monarchies 0 They were a nation of progress and obtained a principle worthy of admiration to the entire world since their basis was not formed based on cruelty or oppression 0 Against the power of monarchy and aristocracy Federalist 10 o The advantage of a republic over a democracy because in the republic the elected body is representing the interests of the people while in a democracy is most likely to be chaotic because each individual is representing their own interests 0 Two methods of curing the mischievous of factions 1 removing its causes 2 controlling its effects I There can t be one because otherwise there will be no property or liberty which was the basis of USA I 2 controlling its effects will cause a control in the parties elected they should prevail
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