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by: Jiaoyang Li

Sociology 004

Jiaoyang Li
GPA 3.4
Intro to Sociology
Dr. Bell

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Intro to Sociology
Dr. Bell
Study Guide
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This 22 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jiaoyang Li on Sunday February 22, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 004 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Dr. Bell in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Sociology at University of Pittsburgh.


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Date Created: 02/22/15
Sociology Chapter 1 Saturday January it 2 15 358 PM What is sociology 0 The study of human behavior in society The way we behave in relation to others 0 Study of human society 0 Systematic observations 0 Social behavior and social change 0 Teaches us how society in uences our lives and the lives of ours 0 Explain the consequences of different social arrangements Sociological perspective 0 Seek social patterns that in uence individual and group life Sociological concepts 0 Social interaction behavior between two or more people that is given meaning People react and change depending on the actions and reactions of others 0 Social structure organized pattern of social relationships and social institutions that together constitute society 0 Social institutions established and organized systems of social behavior with a particular and recognized purpose ie Family religion marriage government economy 0 Social change alteration of society over time View society as stable but constantly changing 0 Limitations of myths 0 Look at behind the scenes pattern and processes that shape behavior 0 Question common sense 0 See from the outside quotAn outsider withinquot Georg Simmel 0 Sociological perspective requires a combination of nearness and distance 0 One must have enough critical distance to avoid being taken in by the group39s definition of the situation but be near enough to understand the group39s experience strangers in social groups The Sociological imagination 1959 C Wright Mills 0 Intersection of history and biography 0 quotNeither the life of an individual nor the history of a society can be understood without understanding bot quot 0 Personal troubles and social issues 0 Understand circumstances in our lives 0 Ability to see societal patterns that in uence individuals Structure and action The individual Structure Framework of rules Legal structure laws All relationships involve roles with rules attached Rules shape behavioral changes Social science 0 Theory 0 An abstract statement that explains why and how certain things happen or are as they are 0 Must have empirical observations 0 Make predictions and prohibition 0 Research Chapter 1 Page 1 O Extend theories Test theories Significance of diversity 0 Differences among groups treatment of groups are significant in any society Sociological theory In uenced by the enlightenment in the 18th and 19th century Europe 0 Enlightenment Age of Reason Characterized by faith in the ability of human reason to solve society39s problems 0 Auguste Comte 0 French philosopher who coined the term sociology O Believed sociology could discover the laws of human social behavior and thus help solve society39s problems 0 a system of thought in which scientific observation and description is considered the highest form of knowledge as opposed to religious dogma or poetic inspiration Through observation and using our senses 0 Social physics scientific explanation of sociology Alexis de Tocqueville 0 French citizen who thought that democratic values and the belief in human equality positively in uenced American social institutions and transformed personal relationships 0 Tyranny of kings had been replaced by the tyranny of the majority Harriet Martineau 0 British citizen English journalist and political economist O Believed that the US is awed due to inequality which shaped her work 0 Society in America How to Observe Morals and Manners Herbert Spencer the first great Englishspeaking sociologist 0 quotSurvival of the fittestquot 0 quotSocial Darwinismquot Before Darwin Giants of European tradition Classical thinkers ideas offered 150 years ago continue to in uence our understanding of society The enlightenment 0 Emile Durkheim Frenchman O Fascinated by how the public degradation of Jews by nonJews seemed to calm and unify a large segment of the divided French public 0 Public rituals have a special purpose in society creating social solidarity O Explored the question of what forces hold society together and make it stable 0 Social bonds exist in all types of societies mechanical and organic I Mechanical solidarity agrarian premodem societies Social bond based on shared beliefs and values Ex The Amish I Industrial Societies Organic solidarity Social bond based on labor that created interdependence and individual rights Ex Modern cities 0 People in society are glued together by belief system 0 Society is external to individuals yet its existence is internalized in people39s minds People come to believe what society expects them to believe 0 Most famous for his study of suicide I More firmly people are connected to others the less likely they are to commit suicide 0 Conceived of society as an integrated whole each part contributing to the overall stability of the system 0 Karl Marx German philosopher political activist 0 Explain how capitalism shaped society System of capitalism dictated people39s behavior I Capitalism is an economic system based on the pursuit of profit and the sanctity Chapter 1 Page 2 of private property I Capitalism cause class con ict and social inequality between bourgeoisie own the means of production money factories natural resources land and the proletariat workers 0 Economic organization of society was the most important in uence on what humans think and how they behave I quotIt is not the consciousness of men that determines their existence but on the contrary it is their social existence which determines their consciousness quot 0 Con ict theory 0 Max Weber 0 Saw economics as the basic organizing element of society 0 Rationalization the act of economic logic to society 0 Contemporary life is filled with disenchantment result of depersonalization through bureaucracy Society had three basic dimensions political economic and cultural Multidimensional analysis of society Marx one dimensional O Understand social behavior from the point of view of those engaged in it Sociology in the US 0 quotChicago schoolquot focused on empirical research Believed that behavior is shaped by social and physical environments 0 Charles Horton Cooley 0 George Herbert Mead O WI Thomas O WEB DeBois 0 Jane Addams 0 Organic metaphor society is a system of interrelated functions and parts that work together to create the whole Constantly evolving like an organism 0 Charles Darwin 0 quotSurvival of the fittestquot the driving force of social evolution 0 Society is an organism that evolved from simple to complex in a process to adapt to the environment 0 Robert Park University of Chicago 0 Interested in urban problems and how different racial groups interacted with each other Fascinated by the sociological design of cities 0 Boundaries are defined and maintained Streets divide neighborhoods 0 Jane Addams only sociologist to win the Nobel Peace Prize 0 Leader in the settlement house movement providing services and doing research to improve the lives of slum dwellers immigrants and other poor people 0 Ida B WellsBarnett born a slave O Brave campaign against the lynching of African American people and women39s rights 0 WEB DuBois prominent Black scholar 0 Received the first PhD ever awarded to a Black person in any field Harvard 0 O quotThe problem of the twentieth century is the problem of the color linequot 0 Focused on the social structure of Black communities I The Philadelphia Negro 0 quotDual or double consciousnessquot I African Americans always see themselves in the eyes of others 0 Microsociology small level 0 Local interactional context 0 Face to face encounters 0 Observation and interviews Chapter 1 Page 3 0 Macrosociology O 0 Large parts of society Usually statistical analysis Theoretical frameworks in sociology 0 Functionalism interprets each part of society in terms of how it contributes to the stability of the whole 0 0 When one part of the society is not working it affects all the other parts and creates social problems Emphasizes cohesion Within society Talcott Parsons all parts of a social system are interrelated with different parts of society having different basic functions Robert Merton further developed functionalism I Clarified manifest functionsintended and latent functions unintended functions Spencer 0 Con ict theory sees social con ict as the basis of society 0 O O O O Emphasizes strife and friction Emphasizes inequality and power Pictures society as fragmented into groups that compete for social and economic resources Social order not maintained by consensus but by domination by power in the hands of those with the greatest political economic and social resources Power struggles between con icting groups are the source of social change Materialist view focuses on resources available to people Focus on social change resulting from con ict 0 Symbolic interactionism O O O O emphasizes the meanings that humans give to their behavior Consider immediate social interaction to be the place where quotsocietyquot exists Emphasizes face to face interaction a form of microsociology People behave based on What they believe not just on What is objectively true Thomas39s dictum Help explain Why people might do things that otherwise seem contrary to what one might expect ie teens who smoke think they are cool Definition of the situation subjective interpretation of a situation Social constructions The idea that meanings are shared between people to make up a society Uniquely American contribution Three tenets of symbolic interactionism I Human beings act toward ideas concepts and values on the basis of the meaning that those things have for them I These meanings are the products of social interaction in human society I These meanings are modified and filtered through and interpretive process that each individual uses in dealing with outward signs 0 Feminist theory looks at gender inequalities in society and the way that gender structures the social world 0 Queer theory a paradigm that proposes that categories of sexual identity are social constructs and that no sexual category is fundamentally either deviant or normal 0 Postmodern theory a paradigm that suggests that social reality is diverse pluralistic and constantly in ux 0 Concerned with the various ways of interpreting a given phenomenon Chapter 1 Page 4 Three Elassilcal Ecliologlicai Frannewrlts Basic tastions Functitmaliism Eon ict Theory Symbolic lnteractinn math the retatship of Individnais occupy xed ilndiyidzualls are subordinated Individnais and society individuals to sisal social roles tn society are interdependent inequality is inevitable and functional tor society inequality results from n stnuggle oyer scarce resources inequality is demonstrated through the irnorthnce of symbols Hw is social order possiiits Social order stems from consensus on public yllues Social order is rnintained through power and coercion Eotial order is sustained through social interaction and adherence to sociai norrns is the snercest Society seeks equilirinrn Ilili39iange cornes through the Ehange engines from mange When there is social mobilization of people an eversevolying set disorganization struggling for resources at sociall relationships and the creation of meaning system s Majr Eriticisrns This is a conservative view of society that undelays power differences among and between groups Chapter 1 Page 5 The theory runclerstaates the degree of cohesion and stability in soeiety There is little analysis of inequality and it oyerstat the suhientiye asis of society Culture and the Media Thursday January 15 21115 1124 AM De ning culture 0 The complex system of meaning and behavior that defines the way of life for a given group or society 0 Includes beliefs values knowledge art morals laws customs habits language and dress among other things 0 Includes ways of thinking as well as patterns of behavior 0 What people think how they interact and the objects they use 0 Allows for adaptation 0 Helps hold society together giving people a sense of belonging instructing them on how to behave and telling them what to think in particular situations 0 Culture gives meaning to society Material objects created in society buildings art tools toys and tangible objects 0 Can be collected and analyzed for what they represent Nonmaterial norms customs values beliefs ideas Characteristics of culture shared learned formally and informally taken for granted symbolic variable 0 Mix of past and present Elements of culture eli ini ti en Examples Language 15 set ef symhels EJF39IICl iruies that eat tege ther lEhglish Seahish in a r11eahihgful way ai39leveieles a atheist hiei etjlyphics eer hrhehieatieh system Harms The speei iie culturai eaeeetatiehs fen haw te Elehaeier iheeieihg use at hehaae ih a giiaeh sitea tieh persehal sparse mahhei s Felltways Eeheral stahdai tlls ef hehaa ier adhei eti he he a Euiturai ferries ef dress gimp feed habits Mares Strict heirh39is that EDE I39lZl39Eil metal aht ll ethical Heliigieus deetrir1es hel Iaa ier fermal ia39lar iialuies Ahstraet standards ih a satiety er green that Liberty freeerh defihe itieal IMFlI lClDllES Beliefs Shared ieas aheut what is true hel Belief in a higher heihgi eelieetiaely h peeple within a sgieeh shiture 0 Language 0 O O O 0 System of symbols which allows us to communicate abstract thoughts Primary way people communicate with one another Perspective Universal and varying All cultures have it but people attach different meanings SapirWhorf Hypothesis I Language determines other aspects of culture I Language determines what people think because language forces people to perceive the world in certain terms I Speakers of different languages have different perceptions of reality I Thinking and perception shaped by language Language can reproduce the inequality that exist in society However changing the Chapter 2 Page 6 language that people use can alter social stereotypes and change the way people think 0 Norms Specific cultural expectations about how to act 0 Informal 0 Formal O Folkways norms that everyone follows No big deal if broken I General standards of behavior 0 Mores Strict norms that control moral and ethical behavior Essential to our core values Insist on conformity I Provide strict codes of behavior such as against killings others and committing adultery I Upheld through rules or laws to define right and wrong in society I Violators typically punished O Taboo Super mores Bring the most serious sanctions I Strongly engrained that the thought of violation has the ability to repulse us incest and cannibalism 0 Laws norm that is firmly activated by a political authority and backed by the power of the state 0 Social Control 0 Sanctions O Ethnomethodology theoretical approach based on the idea that you can discover the normal social order through disrupting it 0 Beliefs shared ideas held collectively by people within a given culture about what is true 0 Shared beliefs binds people together in society 0 Basis for many norms and values of a given culture 0 Values the abstract standards in a society or group that define ideal principles 0 What we consider important or unimportant good or bad 0 Guide most of our actions General outline for our behavior 0 Describe our moral goals in society Cultural diversity 0 Dominant culture culture of the most powerful group in society 0 Determined by the power of the group to determine the framework not based on the size 0 Receives the most support from major institutions and that constitutes the major belief system Subcultures cultures of groups whose values and norms of behavior differ to some degree from those of the dominant culture 0 Members of subcultures tend to interact frequently with one another and share a common worldview Countercultures subcultures created as a reaction against the values of the dominant culture 0 Reject the dominant cultural values often for political or moral reasons and develop cultural practices that explicitly defy the norms and values of the dominant group O Nonconformity to the dominant culture 0 the habitat of seeing things only from the point of view of one39s own group 0 Judging one culture by the standards of another culture 0 Prevents you from understanding the world as others experience it and lead to narrowminded conclusions about the worth of diverse cultures 0 O In order to understand cultural behavior you must view it in their cultural context 0 Global culture the diffusion of a single culture throughout the world The Mass Media and Popular Culture Mass media The channels of communication that are available to the population print film Chapter 2 Page 7 electronic media internet 0 Newspapers 0 Popularized and mass produced in 19th century 0 Chief of mass media for over 50 years 0 Film Decline in working hours Rise of unemployment late l920sl930s Soon owned by a few large American corporations Cultural imperialism 0 India has the largest film industry in the world 0 Music 0 Most dynamic O Lends itself to globalization transcends language 0 Television 0 Direct into the home 0 Demands less attention 0 Internet 0 Many to many communication communicate with multiple numbers of people 0 Peer to peer networks many to one 0 Social network media 0 Social media 0 New forms of relationships 0 Expands and enriches social networks 0 Virtual communities 0 Can isolate and split people up reducing facetoface interaction 0 Mediated culture media both re ect and create culture 0 Cultural hegemony the pervasive and excessive in uence of one culture throughout society 0 Those who control culture institutions can also control people39s political awareness 0 Cultural messages are largely homogenous 0 Media and popular culture 0 Popular culture the beliefs practices and objects that are part of everyday traditions I Massconsumed and has enormous significance in the formation of public attitudes and values I Mass consumption many objects associated with popular cultures are sold 0 Elite culture shared by few but is highly value 0 refer to persistence of inequality in people39s access to electronic information 0 Race gender and class in the media Theoretical Perspectives on Culture and the Media 0 Re ection hypothesis the mass media re ect the values of the general population 0 The media try to appeal to the most broadbroad based audience 0 Media have a significant impact on who we are and what we think 0 O O 0 Chapter 2 Page 8 According to Fun minimalism D fllicit Theory Symbolic Elrrte 39ra trim ew M tural Studies Mltlllr Mtegrateg people into SEWES the i39ltEEFE39iti of Create5 gron rjnau39iity ow 5 ememeral group powerful group di39ra39E39FEE m tun meaning tlripl ed ctam we Eli tourism fly rl naug Tug Provides roirerenre am EH a source of Grange 35 people lirajute is a ma ien39a ITEJHTlEE39E E tl W stability Era Ernie13 litit resistance new cultural mealt gs of a cousinmer m ried sucker Create5 norm end 5 increasingly controlled 5 EDDIE commuted 5 1355 urndera tuud by are 49 15131 irategrate leg economic rumours 155 tarough the atria itier of are yzmg 15 al39ti ianzta people i39u Eoriety some groups boom film39s and releu i m images 0 Culture and group solidarity O Functionalist theory emphasizes the in uences of values norms and beliefs on the whole society I Seeks to describe important social functions of media I In decline describes rather than explains treats audience as passive ignores negative effects 0 Robert Putnam examined the idea that norms and values create social bonds that attach people to society functionalist theorists I Bowling Alone there has been a decline in civic engagement participation in voluntary organizations religious activities and other forms of public life in recent years As people become less engaged in such activities there is a decline in shared values and norms which results in social disorder 0 Culture power and social con ict 0 Con ict theorists see culture as in uenced by economic interests and power relations in society I Focus on ownership and control I Mass media exclude voices that lack economic power I Mass media promote voices least likely to criticize prevailing wealth and power Ideological bias 0 Shared values and group solidarity drives one sociological analysis of culture con icting values drives another 0 Con ict theorists analyzed culture as a source of power in society I Con ict between different cultures shaped the course of world affairs 0 Cultural capital the cultural resources that are deemed worthy and that give advantages to groups possessing such capital I Developed by French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu II Members of the dominant class have distinctive lifestyles that mark their status in society 0 Symbolic interaction and the study of culture 0 Culture is socially constructed produced through social relationships and in social groups 0 People do not just passively submit to cultural norms they actively make interpret and respond to the culture around them 0 Cultural is not one dimensional represents creative dimension of human life Cultural change 0 Culture lag some parts of culture may change more rapidly than others 0 Culture shock the feeling of disorientation when one encounters a new or rapidly changed cultural situation 0 Sources of cultural change Chapter 2 Page 9 A change in the societal conditions I Economic changes population changes I Ie The high rate of immigration brought cultural changes to the US Cultural diffusion transmission of cultural elements from one society or cultural group to another I Rap is listened to by White as well as Black audiences Innovation Inventions and technological developments I Families can communicate from multiple sites The imposition of cultural change by an outside agency I Change can occur when a powerful group take over a society and impose a new culture Chapter 2 Page 10 Doing Sociological Research Sunday January 18 2 15 1142 PM The Research Process Participant observation a sociological research technique in which a researcher actually becomes simultaneously both participant in and observer of that which she or he studies 0 Mitch Duneier studied homeless people by living with them 0 Alice Goffman lived in secret with several people who were eeing from legal prosecution 0 Peter Moskos went through a police academy and spent two years as a beat policeman subjecting himself to both the rigid discipline of the police force as well as the dangers of the street in this role Sir Francis Bacon British philosopher 0 Defined and elaborated scientific method observation hypothesis testing analysis of data and drawing conclusions Deductive reasoning creates a specific research question about a focused point that is based on a more general or universal principle Inductive reasoning arrives at general conclusions from specific observations Developing research question 0 From past researches I Replication study research that is repeated exactly but on a different group of people or in a different time or place 0 From casual observation of human behavior Research design the overall logic and strategy underlying a research project Concept any abstract characteristic or attribute that can potentially be measured Indicators something that points to or re ects and abstract concept 0 A way of seeing a concept Hawthorne effect Subjects knew they were being studied which might cause people to change their behavior Serendipity something that emerges from a study that was not anticipated unexpected finding Generalization the ability to draw conclusions from specific data and to apply them to a broader population Everyday research Based on immediate surroundings Not systemic Based on assumptions Make conclusions with inadequate information Tend to make conclusions that protect our interests amp beliefs Errors of reasoning Overgeneralization Selective observation 0 Tend to notice things within our set of beliefs Inaccurate observation Illogical reasoning O Linking together two events that happen at the same time even though they are not really related 0 Causation vs correlation 39 Spurious relationship 0 Ice cream sales increase the rate of shark attacks increase Ice cream sales Chapter 3 Page 11 in uence shark attacks Ice cream go on sale during warm weather people swim causing shark attacks I Resistance to change Social scienti c research I Use systematic careful and controlled data collection process I Carefully interpret the data and draw conclusions I Detail the research process so other scientists can replicate their findings Good research I Valid reliable and generalizable The tools of sociological research I The survey polls questionnaires and interviews 0 Ask for data about the respondent such as income occupation or employment status 0 What people say and what they do are not always the same I Results not valid I Researchers much be persistent to get answers that are truthful Ask the same question in different ways I Participant Observation field research 0 Become part of the group researchers are studying 0 William Foote Whyte I Street Corner Society documents one of the first qualitative participant observation studies ever done I Studied the quotComerville Gangquot a group of Italian American men whose territory was a street corner in Boston in the late 1930s to early 1940s I Not Italian but learned to speak the language lived with an Italian family and infiltrated the gang by befriending the gang39s leader I Informant a person with whom the participant observer works closely to learn about the group I Covert participant observation the members of the group being studied do not know that they are being researched I Overt participant observation the group is told that they are being studied and that they are the research subjects 0 Disadvantage I Time consuming I Focus on fairly small groups posing problems of generalization I Pose physical danger to the researcher I Observers may lose their objectivity by becoming too much a part of what they study quotgoing nativequot I Controlled experiments highly focused ways of collecting data and are especially useful for determining a pattern of cause and effect 0 Advantage establish causation O Disadvantage artificial Tend to eliminate many reallife effects I Content analysis a way of measuring by examining the cultural artifacts of what people write say see and hear 0 Researchers can learn a lot about a society by analyzing cultural artifacts newspapers magazines TV programs or popular music 0 Researcher studies not people but the communications the people produce as a way of creating a picture of their society 0 Frequently used to measure cultural change and to study different aspects of culture 0 Indirect way to determine how social groups are perceived O Advantage I Unobtrusive or quotnonreactivequot the research can have no effect at all on the person being studied because the cultural artifact has already been produced Chapter 3 Page 12 I Reveal very little if any Hawthorne effect 0 Disadvantage I Limited in what it can study 0 Historical research examines sociological themes over time 0 O Commonly done in historical archives official records church records private diaries Capture long term social changes 0 Evaluation research assesses the effect of policies and programs on people in society 0 Policy research research intended to produce policy recommendations Research ethics is sociology value free 0 Debriefing reveal the true purpose of an experiment only after it is completed 0 Tuskegee Syphilis Study 0 0 One of the clearest ethical violations in all of history of science Conducted at the Tuskegee Institute in Macon County Alabama a historically Black college Experimental group 400 Black males who were infected with the sexually transmitted disease syphilis were allowed to go untreated medically for over forty years Control group 200 Black males who had not contracted syphilis Purpose of study examine the effect of quotuntreated syphilis in the male negroquot Professional code of ethics I Research subjects are not subjected to physical mental or legal harm I Research subjects must be informed the rights of responsibilities of both researcher and subject I Informed consent Inform subjects the purpose of the study in detail Chapter 3 Page 13 Socialization and the Life Course Friday January 23 2 15 6223 PM The Socialization Process the process through which people learn the expectations of society occurs when behaviors and assumptions are learned so thoroughly that people no longer question them but simply accept them as correct Roles expected behavior associated with a given status in society Personality a person39s relatively consistent pattern of behavior feelings predispositions and beliefs 0 The NatureNurture controversy 0 What a person becomes results more from social experiences than from innate traits although innate traits do have some in uence on culture 0 Nature genetics provides a certain state for what is possible but society provides the full drama of what we become 0 Values and social attitudes are not inbom emerge through social relations we have with others and our social position in society Socialization as Social Control 0 Peter Berger Not only do people live in society but society also lives in people I Socialization is a mode of social control 39 Social control the process by which groups and individuals within those groups are brought into conformity with dominant social expectations 0 Conformity and Individuality Socialization emphasizes the adaptations people make as they learn to live in society 0 The Consequences of Socialization Socialization affect how we behave toward others and what we think of ourselves I Socialization establishes self concepts how we think of ourselves as the result of the socialization experiences we have over a lifetime 2 Socialization creates the capacity for role taking a We create the ability to see ourselves through the perspective of another b Fundamentally re ective involves selfconscious human beings seeing and reacting to the expectations of others 3 Socialization creates the tendency for people to act in socially acceptable ways a Creates some predictability in human behavior and brings some order to social chaos 4 Socialization makes people bearers of culture a Socialization is the process by which people learn and internalize the attitudes beliefs and behaviors of their culture b A person is not only the recipient of culture but also is the creator of culture passing cultural expectations on to others Agents of socialization people or sources or structures that pass on social expectations 0 The family 0 The media 0 Peers important sources of social approval disapproval and support 0 Religion 0 Religious socialization in uences a large number of beliefs that guide adults in how they organize their lives including beliefs about moral development and behavior the roles of men and women and sexuality 0 Sports 0 Schools 0 Teachers and other students are the source of expectations that encourage children to think and behave in particular ways Chapter 4 Page 14 0 Con ict theory US schools re ect the needs of a capitalist society Theories of Socialization Encial Lea Hrng liilrnlttienal Enn lict Theplry Eymhpllil Theary Theavry lllnteratttiian Therary Herr eaeh tlheary 39aiews individual F eeple respenpl Peaple Individual l39lIEll iEhildren learn learning preress ta serial stimuli internalize the grasp thrapgh taking in their rule aspiratia as are the rule at errurirann re nt erpertatiarls shaped by the signi rarrt that are present appartpnities ethers in satiety available tn different grep ps Farmatrhr afseif Ielerrtitp is Internalizing the Eralap Ielerrtitp created thraugh values at eensriausrl ass is emerges as the the intera ctiarl satiety farmed in the treatise self at mental and reinferres serial eentert at a interacts with seeial werlels eensensus system at the serial inequality erpertatiarls af ethers I uE f e hf liming rhilel rerl Saeietp relies Racial rerltrnl Expertatiens at sariegr learn the uperl agrerrts exert ethers farm the prirrriples that erzurrfararityI ta pressure ta seeial centerrt shape the maintain carafe rm far learning external W ll l stability anal seeial rales seeial equilibrium 0 Psychoanalytic theory originates in the work of Sigmund Freud O Unconscious mind shapes human behavior internal 0 Developed the technique of psychoanalysis to help discover the causes of psychological problems in the recesses of troubled patients39 minds 0 Depicts the human psyche in three parts I The id is about impulses I The superego is about the standards of society and morality I The ego is about reason and common sense 0 The psychoanalytic perspective interprets human identity as relatively fixed at an early age in a process greatly in uenced by one39s family 0 Social learning theory 0 Considers the formation of identity to be a learned response to external social stimuli O Emphasizes the societal context of socialization 0 Identity is not the product of the unconscious but as the result of modeling oneself in response to the expectations of others 0 Behaviors and attitudes develop in response to reinforcement and encouragement from those around us 0 Positive reinforcement plus the presence of an admired role model makes the particular behavior highly likely I Functionalism O Socialization integrates people into society because it is the mechanism through Which they internalize social roles and the values of society 0 Reinforces social consensus encourages some degree of conformity 0 Con ict theory 0 Most interested in how group identity is shaped by patterns of inequality in society Chapter 4 Page 15 O Resisting the expectations of a dominant group can heighten one39s perceived self worth I Symbolic interaction theory 0 Important in developing an understanding of socialization 0 Meaning is constantly reconstructed as people act within their social environments 0 Charles Horton Cooley and George Herbert Mead I Saw the self developing in response to the expectations and judgments of others in their social environment I Postulated the lookingglass self to explain how our conception of self arises through considering our relationships to others I The development of the lookingglass emerges from 1 How we think of we appear to others 2 How we think others judge us 3 How the first two make us feel proud embarrassed I The lookingglass self involves perception and effect the perception of how others see us and the effect of others39 judgment on us Aging and the Life Course 0 Childhood O Socialization establishes one39s identity and values 0 Family is an extremely in uential source but experiences in school peer relationships sports religion and the media also have a profound effect 0 Adolescence 0 Erik Erikson I The central task of adolescence is the formation of consistent identity 0 Adulthood 0 Process of learning behaviors and attitudes appropriate to specific situations and roles O Anticipatory socialization the learning of expectations associated with a role a person expects to enter in the future I Foresee the expectations associated with a new role and to learn what is expected in that role in advance 0 Age and aging 0 Age prejudice a negative attitude about an age group that is generalized to all people in that group I The elderly are often thought as childlike and incapable of adult responsibility 0 Age discrimination different and unequal treatment of people based solely on their age behavior I Example people may quotbaby talkquot to the elderly 0 Ageism the institutionalized practice of age prejudice and discrimination I Regardless of laws that prohibit age discrimination a person39s age is a significant predictor of his or her life chances 0 Age stratification hierarchical ranking of different age groups in society 0 Age cohort an aggregate group of people born during the same period I People in same age cohort share same historical experiences war technological developments and economic uctuations Chapter 4 Page 16 Funrtiunal Theary Eerrflirt Theurg Eynmhulir lhterarrtiun ge ri i ereatiatiah Eahtrihutes t the Results frgrrn the rmrs in mast camn rah glass at different EEHFILMiE sacieties hut the satiety he ea use each status arlril gamer elf serial value placed arr graup has varying age caharts clliffererrt age graugs llevels if utility in varies arrass diverse satietyquot cuitu res ge grasps Are vahied awarding Eamgete Far Fire stemstyped ta their usefuin ass in resnurses in satiety asearelihg tn the satiety resultihg iri perceived vaiue if genera tiarlai different grau pas ineg uities arid thus patential CCIi39l lEt gestratr ratim Results tram the lrrterhririhes with PM mates ageisrri fu hetigrral va llue at different age can hurts irleg ualities af class race arid gender Ivhirh is institutiarralized prejudice and disrrimihatigh against alcll peple I Functionalists Adulthood is functional to society because adults are seen as the group contributing most fully to it Older people are less useful and granted lower status in society Elderly voluntarily withdraw from society by retiring and lessening their participation in social activities Disengagement theory predicts that as people age they gradually withdraw from participation in society and are simultaneously relieved of I I I I responsibilities I Con ict theory focuses on the competition over scarce resources between age groups I Explains why both youth and elderly are assigned lower status in society and are most likely to be poor Barring youth and the elderly from the labor market eliminates these groups from competition improving the prospects for middleaged El workers Removed from labor market both the young and old have very little power and like other minorities they are denied resources they need to change their situation I Symbolic interaction theory analyzes the different meanings attributed to social entities I Ask what meanings become attached to different age groups and to what extent these meanings explain how society ranks such groups I In some societies the elderly may be perceived as having higher status than in other societies 0 Rite of passage a ceremony or ritual that marks the transition of an individual from one role to another graduation wedding Resocialization the process by which existing social roles are radically altered or replaced 0 Especially likely when people enter institutional settings where the institution claims enormous control over the individual 0 Conversion religion 0 Brainwashing 0 Stockholm syndrome a process whereby a captured person identifies with the captor Chapter 4 Page 17 as a result of becoming inadvertently dependent upon the captor Chapter 4 Page 18 Social Structure and Social Interaction Sunday February 1 2 15 1234 AM Society a system of social interaction that includes both culture and social organization 0 Social interaction behavior between two or more people that is given meaning by them How people relate to each other and form a social bond 0 Emile Durkheim described society as sui generis Latin phrase meaning quota thing in itself of its own particular kindquot Society is more than just the sum of its parts 0 Saw society as an organism something comprising different parts that work together to create a unique whole 0 Patterned by humans and their interactions but it is something that endures and takes on shape and structure beyond the immediacy of any given group of people a sociological approach that takes the broadest view of society by studying large patterns of social interaction that are vast complex and highly differentiated Study of the whole society how it is organized and how it changes Focus on smallest most immediately visible parts of social life such as specific people interacting with each other Study patterns of social interactions that are relatively small less complex and less differentiated the microlevel of society 0 Social organization brings regularity and predictability to human behavior present at every level of interaction from the whole society to the smallest groups 0 Social institution an established and organized system of behavior with a recognized purpose 0 Family is an institution that provides for the care of the young and the transmission of culture 0 Religion is an institution that organizes sacred beliefs 0 Work and economy political institution health care mass media organized sports and the military 0 Exist to meet certain needs that are necessary for society to exist 0 Functionalists theorists have traditionally identified these needs functions as 1 The socialization of new members of the society Primarily accomplished by the family but involves other institutions as well such as education 2 The production and distribution of goods and services I Economy is generally the institution that performs this set of tasks but may also involve the family especially in societies where production takes place within households 3 Replacement of society39s members I Replace those that die move migrate away or leave the society Typically organized by families 4 The maintenance of stability and existence I Government police force and military contribute toward the stability and continuance of the society 5 Providing the members with an ultimate sense of purpose I Create national anthems and encourage patriotism in addition of providing basic values and moral codes through institutions such as religion the family and education 0 Con ict theory social institutions of society do not provide for all its members equally I Institutions affect people by granting more power to some social groups than to others 0 Social Structure organized pattern of social relationships and social institutions that together compose society Chapter 5 Page 19 O Confines people their motion and mobility are restricted their lives are shaped by social structure 0 Class shapes the access that different groups have to the resources of society and it shapes many interactions people have with each other What Holds Society Together Question first addressed by Emile Durkheim He argued that people in society had a collective consciousness the body of beliefs common to a community or society that give people a sense of belonging and a feeling of moral obligation to its demands and values gives group solidarity 0 Two types of solidarity Mechanical and organic solidarity 0 Mechanical solidarity arises when individual play similar roles within the society I Share same values and hold same things sacred I Weakened when a society becomes more complex 0 Organic or contractual solidarity occurs when people play a great variety of roles and unity is based on the differentiation not similarity I Roles not necessarily similar but they are necessarily interlinked I Division of labor the relatedness of different tasks that develop in complex societies Tasks become distinct from one another but they are still woven into a whole 0 Forms of solidarity Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft O Gemeinschaft community characterized by a sense of quotwequot feeling a very moderate division of labor strong personal ties strong family relationship and a sense of personal loyalty I Sense of solidarity arises from personal ties small relatively simple social institutions and a collective sense of loyalty to the whole society I Social cohesion comes from deeply shared values and beliefs often sacred values I Tends to be ethnically and racially very homogeneous often characterized by only one racial or ethnic group I Similarity and unity O Gesellschaft society secondary relationships less intimate and more instrumental relationships such as work roles instead of family or community roles I Less prominence of personal ties a somewhat diminished role of the nuclear family and a lessened sense of personal loyalty to the total society I Cohesion comes from an elaborated division of labor organic solidarity greater exibility in social roles I Social solidarity weaker than in gemeinschaft society I More likely than gemeinschaft to be torn by class con ict because class distinctions are less prominent I Racialethnic con icts more likely I Complexity and differentiation Types of Societies Chapter 5 Page 20 Espinaimic Ema Sundial rganizatipin Enaimpiles Preindustriall Sncieties Faraging satis es Ecnn emic sustenance dependent an hunting and feraging Ee nder is imperta nt hasis far sacial erganizatipn althpngh disisinn n f lahcn is ncrt rigid little accumulatipn pf wealth Pygmies pf Eentral Africa Pas feral snciaties Hemadic sncieties with su hstantial dependence an damesticated animals fpr ecannn39Iic prad uct ipn temples spcial system 1I39Irith an elite upper class and greater gender rple di39fferentiat ipn than in fa raging sacieties Bedpuins pf Africa and Middle East Hertfcultural satis es Enciety ma rlced lay relatively permanent settlement and prad uctipn pf demesticated craps Accumulatipn pf wealth and elaheratinn ef the disisian n39f lahnr with different pccnpatipnal riales farmers traders cra ftspenple and sci an Ancie nt Aztecs pf Meirice Inca Empire pf Fern dyrt39cuitural satis es Livelihde dependent cin elahprate and large scale patterns crf agriculture and in creased use n39f technplagy in agricultural praductipn Easte system develnps that differentiates the elite and agricultural laharers mayI include system at slavery American Sp ut h pre Ei39u39il War Industrial Sncieeties Ecnnemic system based en the develepment crf elaharate machinery and a factpry syste n1 ecpnnmy hased can cash and wages HighlyI differentiated lalacisr quotfarce with a cen39lples divisipn pf lahar and large fa rmal nrganizatipns Nineteenth and mast ef twe ntieth century United States and Western Enrepe Pasti nd ustriall Sncieties ln farmatien ha sed sncieties in which technplagy plays a 1rital rple in serial erga niaat ipn Educatipn increasingly im parta nt tn the disisian nrf laher Eente mperaryr United States la pan and cithe rs 0 Preindustrial society directly uses modifies andor tills the land as a major means of survival 0 Foraging huntinggathering societies the technology enables the hunting of animals and gathering of vegetation I No refrigeration or processing of food must search continuously for plants and game I Requires large amounts of land gt nomadic constantly travel as they deplete the plan supply or follow the migrations of animals I Central institution is the family Which distributes food train children and protect its members 0 Pastoral societies technology based on the domestication of animals I Tend to develop in desert areas that are too arid to provide rich vegetation I Nomadic I Surplus frees some individuals from the tasks of hunting and gathering and allows them to create crafts make pottery cut hair build tents and apply tattoos Surplus generates a more complex and differentiated social system 0 Horticultural societies hands tools are used to cultivate the land such as the hoe and digging stick I Practice ancestor worship and conceive of a deity or deities God or gods as a creator Chapter 5 Page 21 I Recultivate the land each year to establish relatively permanent settlements and villages I Role differentiation is extensive resulting in different and interdependent occupational roles such as farmer trader and crafts person 0 Agricultural society exemplified by the preCivil War American South a society of slavery I Have a large and complex economic system that is based on largescale farming I Rely on technologies such as the use of the wheel and use of metals I Farms tend to be considerably larger than cultivated land I Large and permanent settlements I Dramatic social inequalities I Caste system separates peasants or slaves from the controlling elite caste which is then freed form manual work allowing time for art literature and philosophy activities of which they can then claim the lower castes are incapable Industrial societies 0 Uses machines and other advanced technologies to produce and distribute goods and services 0 Rely on highly differentiated labor force and the intensive use of capital and technology 0 The task of holding society together falls more on the institutions that have a high division of labor such as the economy and work government politics and large bureaucracies 0 Gender inequality I Inequality in men39s and women39s wages 0 Highly productive economically with a large working class of industrial laborers Postindustrial societies 0 Depends economically on the production and distribution of services information and knowledge 0 Informationbased societies technology and education plays a vital role Chapter 5 Page 22


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