Unit 2 Study Guide
Unit 2 Study Guide PSY0160
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Matt Leonard on Sunday February 22, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY0160 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Dr. Lausberg in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 140 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Personality in Psychlogy at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 02/22/15
oA philosophi Unit 2 Study Guide Phenomenological Theory and Behaviorism Phenomenological Theory cal movement that describes the formal structure of the obiects of awareness and of awareness itself oThe study of the development of human consciousness and selfawareness 0 Major gure Carl R s ogers PersonCentered 19021987 Humanist Oak Park Illinois rural area Went to school for agriculture changed his studies to the Ministry oTheological Studies 0 Doctoral work in clinical and educational psych Child Guidance Clinic Rochester NY 1939 Clinical Treatment of the Problem Chid Ohio State University 1940 o Offered full professorship after release of his book 0 Insisted study of psychotherapy oAudio Tape Sessions unheard of w consent 0 Disagreed with much of the education system 1942 Counseling and Psychotherapy 1944 United Services Organization Counseling Center 1945 University of Chicago Counseling Center 1951 Client Centered Therapy 1957 University of Wisconsin 1963 Center for the Studies of the Person La Jolla CA Attempt to apply his work to political processes Opposite of many Freudian beliefs 0 Believes man is rational and controlled works toward goals Dies 1987 0 Received letter on day of death for Nobel Peace Prize Nomination PersonCentered Theory 0 Perception most important How we make sense of our environment sensory information Phenomenal Field The Field of Experience All that goes on in the moment that is potentially available to awareness 0lnternal and External 0Truly known only by the person Subjective selective and incomplete O 0 Can only pay attention to so much at a time 0 O 0 Self O O Psych Limitations only want to be aware of some things Choose to ignore certain aspects May or may not correspond to what is actually going on The more closely it aligns with reality the greater psychological health one has Importance of Authenticity Open accepting of full range of emotions SelfActualizing Tendency Primary motivating drive Involves all aspects of the individual Tendency to move toward completion or ful llment of potentials SelfActualization is the goal Ongoing process always striving to be the best version of yourself 0 Fully experience all emotions o Facilitates personal growth 0Physiological emotional conscious unconscious Conscious System process Stable yet changing The person one perceives himself to be 0 How we see ourselves Based on past experience present inputs and future expectancies May or may not be aligned with reality and what is going on Distinguish between yourself and everyone else Personal responsibility for one s actions Core true self at deep and intuitive level Also a nonintuitive self 0 Requires considerable thought 0 Actual Self the self we believe we are now 0 Ideal Self the self concept one would most like to possess potential future self What would you want to be like The closer the Actual Self is to the Ideal Self the healthier the person is can still progress but they move forward together Congruence and Incongruence 0 Match Harmony o Mismatch Anxiety 0 Congruence Accuracy between experience awareness and communication People seek consistency between sense of self how they view themselves and everyday experience what they feel Alignment of Real Self and Ideal Self o lncongruence Differences between awareness experience and communication 0 Experience what s really happening 0 Communication what we re expressing 0 Awareness what we perceive When Real Self and Ideal Self are not aligned Vulnerability increases with levels of lncongruence o More vulnerable when unaware of discrepancies 0 Anxiety and threat when person becomes aware of incongruence 0 Step toward psychological health Defensive Processes 0Denial 0 When an event occurs and is outside or below level of awareness outside conscious awareness 0 Event may never reach conscious awareness if inconsistent with self 0 Causes disequilibrium 0Distortion o Aware of experience but reshapeddistorted to t into existing selfconcept Symbolized Consciously and freely admitted into the self structure 0 Experiences are nonthreatening and consistent with the self Growth and Development 0Small children exhibit a high degree of congruence o Prevents accumulation of emotional baggage that many adolescents and adults carry oHow other people treat and think about you affects sense of self 0 Growth is possible throughout life Concerned with psychological environment provided by caregivers 0 Does it set the stage for optimal growth oSupport selfactualization 0 Does the individual experience congruence The more likely the child develops in a health way Individual must make contact with another person 0 Can be positive or negative 0 Provides experience for development as a person Positive Regard oA basic psychological need to be loved like or accepted by another person 0 Essential to develop own Positive SelfRegard Positive SelfRegard 0 Experience of prizing accepting or valuing oneseW 0 Positive Regard is prerequisite Unconditional Positive Regard o The other person loves like accepts you no matter what 0 Despite disappointment Conditions of Worth 0 Loved and accepted only if meet others expectations and approval conditional loveacceptance Become criterion by which we accept or reject ourexpe ences SelfActualizing o Tendency toward growth and reaching potential Simple complex organism Dependence l independence Rigid change and freedom Enhancing pleasure and satisfaction Can never nish selfactualizing Fully functioning person Indicates optimal development and maturity Openness and awareness to all experiences good or bad Live fully and richly Trust in own organism Feel free to make own choices act on own behalf Creative and constructive 0 00000000 00 Can be challenging face dif culties ClientCentered Therapy PersonCentered Therapy 0 Characteristics of the therapy environment Safe private comfortable place 0 Qualities of the therapist The presence and behavior are part of the therapy Unconditional Positive Regard Value client genuinely like and care for Nonjudgmental Empathic listening see things the way the other person sees them Re ective listening Transparency Genuineness Congruence Therapist needs a clear sense of self Presence fully present and attentive o Facilitate congruence and selfactualization of client 0 The client is the expert only heshe knows what truly goes on in their headenvironment 0Assessment of SelfSelfConcept o QSort Technique Stephenson 1953 o 100 Cards each contains speci c personality quality Organized high selfesteem outgoing etc Shuf ed given to person Look at card determine if very much not at all like me on scale 0Only a few amount can be extreme values to make apparent differences 0 Majority in middle Bell Shaped Curve Sort based on how you see yourself and your life today 0 RealActual Self Shuf ed then performed again for ldeal Self 0 Compare quantitatively Actual Self vs ldeal Self Can be used pre and post therapy to determine impact of therapy 0Have the Actual and ldeal Selves become more aHgned 0 Semantic Differential Osgood 1957 Developed to capture the meanings of words and individual interpretations Rogers modi ed and repurposed Subject rates quotmy selfquot or quotmy ideal selfquot on items presented on a polar adjective scale Differences in meaning in words 0Evaluation of Rogers 0 Database Valued data and went to great lengths to collect data Not much cultural diversity of samples 0 Systematic Not as systematic as other theories Information within theory is systematic and related oTestable Actual and ldeal Selves can be tested How to measure selfactualization or potential 0 Comprehensiveness Does not address biology evolution etc oApplication Positive review of therapy Applicable in many situations Abraham Maslow Human Potential Movement oHierarchy of Needs 0 De cit Needs in order of importance typically must be met to progress to next need Physiological Needs 0 Food water Safety Needs Belonging Needs 0 Motivated to feel connected to others Esteem Needs 0 Achievement satisfaction respect from others 0 Personal effort oBeing Needs I SelfActualization 0 Positive view of mankind Be yourself selfactualization 0 Driving force 0Peak experiences 0 lntense pleasurable rare lifechanging experiences are important in personality development 0 Lead towards development of selfactualization o Existentialism Uniqueness of the individual quotHuman Conditionquot Day to day life challenges Awareness of death Death anxiety gives meaning to life Find meaning in life Viktor Frankl Existentialism 0 Search for meaning freedom and responsibility Spent 3 years in Concentration Camps lost entire family Man 5 Search For Meaning Logotherapy 0 Help client nd meaning in life 0 D S M Despair Suffering Meaning Positive Psychology Movement Modern Movement Seligman and Peterson Classifying human strengths I Csikszentmihalyi o Wisdom courage love justice temperance transcendence quotFlowquot 0 Stateexperience that re ects a match of skillspersonal qualities and a challenge 0 High level of focused attention and immersion 0 Strong degree of investment in activity Temporary loss of selfconsciousness The more Flow can be incorporated into life the more psychologically healthy an individual can be o Behaviorism and Learning Approaches to Personality O Behaviorism People viewed as machinelike mechanisms Determined by environment Explore how mechanisms learn how does change occur in reaction to environment Determinism 0 An eventbehavior is caused determined by some prior event 0 Cause something able to be understood according to basic laws of science 0ln opposition to belief of quotfree willquot Behavior must be explained in terms of Causal In uence of the Environment lnsistence on controlled laboratory research Physical Laws 0 People are physical objects 0 Can be understood through scienti c analysis Thoughts and feelings Situat 0 Viewed as behaviors that are caused by the environment ional Speci city Environment cause of behavior Behavior expected to vary signi cantly in different environments Normalhealthy behavior is a result of environment that supports typical behavior Unhealthy behavior is a result of maladaptive environment Behaviorism s Science of Personality Focus on observable behaviors Manipulate environmental variables Carefully controlled laboratory settings Personality shaped by environment Research 0 Simple Systems Use of rats dogs cats birds Enough similarity to provide valuable information 0Ethics won t allow manipulation of humans Generalizable Complexity poses challenges 0 Real life environments are far more complicated than controlled lab experiments Practical and ethical issues Pavlov 18491936 Classical Conditioning Association learning Stimulus associated with Response Re exive processes Accidentally discovered conditioned responses while studying digestion in dogs Noticed eventual salivary re ex in dogs before being presented with food During Conditioning 0 Neutral Stimulus tonebell Unconditioned Stimulus food Unconditioned Response salivation After Conditioning 0 Conditioned Stimulus tonebell l Conditioned Response salivation Generalization o Generalize Stimulus react to similar stimuli that are not exactly what was conditioned Discrimination o Conditioned response only happens in reaction to particular stimulus o React to pitch of C but not quotDquot 0Extinction o Conditioned response will eventually die out if Unconditioned Stimulus is not paired with Conditioned Stimulus 0 Learning can quickly come back if trials are repeated 0Experimental Neuroses 0 Can develop anxiety if conditioning trials are too speci cdiscriminate oJohn Watson 18791958 Founder of Behaviorism Worked off of Pavlov s ndings quotLittle Albertquot 0 Conditioned baby to fear white furry animalsobjects Adultery scandal booted from academics moved to advertising from psychology quotFears are conditioned emotional responsesquot oJones Unconditioning Fear 0 Extinction 0Direct Conditioning 0 Pleasant stimulus feared object change in response 0 Generalization of Unconditioning 0 Eric Kandle 2000 I Noble Prize in Medicine for Classical Conditioning What happens in the brain when an organism acquires a new response to a stimulus o Alypsia sea slug with few nerve cells 0 Findings conditioning process at the neural level involves changes in the strength of connections among neurons as a result of conditioning o BF Skinner 19041990 Radical Behaviorism o Behaviorism is only necessary theory no need for personality theones Born in Susquehanna PA English Literature Major 0 Failed as a writer PhD in Psychology at Harvard 1931 I Worked at University of Minnesota Indiana University Eventually returned to Harvard Books 0 Behavior of Organisms 1938 Opera Walden Two 1948 Science and Human Behavior 1953 Beyond Freedom and Dignity 1971 nt Conditioning Deemphasized concepts involving psychological structures 0 Cannot be measured or observed Behavior seen as adaptation to situational forces environment is everything Observable behavior Key Structural Unit A Response 0 Can be Simple Complex Response represents an external observable piece of behavior that can be related to environmental events Some responses elicited by known stimuli Other responses are Operants 0 Responses that can t be associated with any stimuli o Emitted by the organism 0 Voluntary responses Learning association of responses to environmental events 0 ABC Model Antecedent Behavior Consequence Reinforcer o Follows a response and increase probability response will occur again in the future 0 Goal strengthen response 0 What counts as a reinforcer depends on the personanimal being reinforced Must be found pleasurable Positive Reinforcement Adding something pleasurable to reinforce behavior Reward child with candy when they do something good Negative Reinforcement Take something aversive away to reinforce behavior Car stops beeping when your put your seat belt on O O Punishment 0 Follows a response and decreases probability response will occur again in the future 0 Goal Weaken response 0 Positive Punishment Add something aversive like a smack on the hand to decrease behavior Negative Punishment 0 Take away something pleasurable to decrease behavior 0 Take away privileges put child in timeout when they do something bad 0 May be a short term solution but not as effective at changing behavior as Reinforcement 0 Must be applied immediately after behavior to create link between punishment and action I Skinner Box 0 Box with light lever food and water dispenser and electric grid on oor Skinner quotBaby Tenderquot o Raised own daughter for two years inside box Goal of Reinforcement is to strengthenincrease a behavior Goal of Punishment is to weakendecrease a behavior Continuous vs Partial Reinforcement o Fixed lnterval reinforced after a certain amount of time despite responses 0 When quizzes are schedules at xed intervals students study only when the quiz is to be administered 0 Least effective 0 Fixed Ratio always reinforced after a certain number of responses oYou are paid each time you complete a chore 0 Variable lnterval reinforced after a random amount of time despite responses oYou listen to the radio to hear your favorite song but do not know when you will hear it 0 Slow and steady response rate 0 Variable Ratio always reinforced but after a random number of responses oA slot machine pays off on average every few pulls but you never know which pull will pay 0 Most resistant to extinction I Hard to quit gambling shing etc Free Will 0 If the environment is the cause of our action then we ourselves cannot be the cause of our behavior 0 If we ourselves are not the cause of our behavior then we do not truly have freedom to act 0quotFree will is an illusionquot Shaping o Successive Approximations o Gradual stepbystep process 0 Reinforce increasingly complex behaviors Achieve nal behavior desired Growth and Development 0 As children develop they learn more and more responses as a result of naturallyoccurring reinforcements 0 Process no different than shaping in lab animals Causes of Behavioral DisordersPsychopathology 0 People never learned to behave properly improper response 0 Were taught improper behavior 0 Cannot control their behavior 0 quotWhatever the cause treatment must focus on learning correct behaviorsquot 0 Classical Conditioning Techniques Systematic Desensitization 0Technique CounterConditioning o Primarily used in treating fears Undo conditioning that led to fear 0 Progressive muscle relaxation 0 Construct feat hierarchy Treat fear of dogs 0 Picture of cartoon dog Picture of real dog I Picture of Person holding dog Exposure Treatments 0 Direct exposure to feared stimulus immediately 0 Client endures anxiety which gradually dissipates o Behavioral Assessment Behavior Modi cation Identify 0 Speci c behaviors target behaviors or responses 0 Environmental factors that elicit cue or reinforce the target behaviors 0 Environmental factors that can be manipulated to alter the behavior oABA Research Design A Measure behavior at one point in time B Introduce reinforcer and measure behavior again A Take away reinforcer and see if behavior returns to original level oBehaviorism Evaluation Positive Aspects 0 Database 0 Testable in lab settings Systematic Comprehensive Applications 0 Used in education animal training therapy etc Negative Aspects o Testable not very testable in real life
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