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psych 302 study guide part 2

by: jh1371

psych 302 study guide part 2 Psych 302

Cal State Fullerton

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study guide part 2 for learning and memory test 2 includes ch. 7 and ch. 8
Learning and Memory
Dr. Wilson-Ozima
Study Guide
learning, memory, wilson-ozima, psych302, CSUF, fullerton
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by jh1371 on Thursday April 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 302 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Dr. Wilson-Ozima in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Learning and Memory in Psychlogy at California State University - Fullerton.


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Date Created: 04/21/16
Chapter 7 cont. Encoding – initial storage into memory Storage/consolidation – maintaining stored memory Retrieval – reactivating the memory for further processing Encoding/currency studies  Craik & Tulving – proposed that the more deeply you process info, the better its encoded - memorize list of words w/ different depths of processing - Pronounce: low level processing, images: high level processing, imaged words  remembered better later Depth of processing effect Godden & Baddely study: same context group performed significantly better Transfer­appropriate processing – retrieval works best when conditions are similar to encoding  conditions (study the way you’ll be tested) Cued recall – question  + prompt free recall – question  Ebbinghaus memory studies – exponential forgetting curve: large amount forgotten early,  nothing later Forgetting curve Memory failures – multiple possible failure points / 4 common problems: forgetting,  interference, misattribution, and false memory Interference – similar/overlapping info can interfere w/ memory, producing storage and retrieval  errors Proactive interference – old info interferes w/ new info retroactive interference – new info interferes w/ old source amnesia – when info is correctly remembered but mistakenly associated w/ an incorrect  source ex. John told me the party was here (when its actually here) cryptomnesia/Reagan/Harrison – mistakenly remembering someone else’s ideas as one’s own false memories Loftus & Palmer study ­ memories can be modified and manipulated after encoding > false  memory Source Misattribution: memory failure / source error Misinformation Acceptance: impairment in memory for past that arises after exposure to  misleading info Implanted memories ­ researchers make people believe that they remember an event that actually never happened Imagination inflation – finding that imagining an event which never happened can increase  confidence that it actually occurred  Overconfidence in memory – overestimate our knowledge and ability to predict Memory distortion effects – fabricated recollection of events Legal implications Repressed memories – memories that have been unconsciously blocked due to memory being  associated w/ high levels of stress or trauma Types of amnesia –  ­ Functional: most likely due to psychological trauma Anterograde­ forward/retrograde – moving backward Ribot gradient – during incidents of retrograde amnesia, recent memories are more likely to be  lost than more remote memories > time dependent process of memory reorganization Brain substrates/hippocampi Beth's story/semantic memory – ideas and concepts not drawn form personal experience Memory consolidation – strengthening the stability of stored information Reconsolidation – keep it permanently ECT Standard consolidation theory –  Multiple Memory Trace Theory – memory consolidation model: each time some info is  presented to a person, it is neurally encoded in a unique memory trace composed of a combo of  its attributes Confabulation – memory disturbance, due to fabricated or misinterpreted memories about  oneself or the world Korsakoff’s disease – chronic memory disorder caused by severe deficiency of vitamin b­1 >  most commonly caused by alcohol misuse Chapter 8 Skill memory – difficult to convey except by direct demonstration, may be acquired w/o  awareness, require several repetitions, procedural learning Memory for events and facts – easily communicated in different formats, content is consciously  accessible, can be acquired in singly exposure Types of skill memory/qualities – one can demonstrate an ability, one can learn something w/o  awareness, may require several repetitions to learn Procedural memory/non­declarative – observation and practice > operant conditioning: lever  pressing ability improves w/ practice / can be long lasting Perceptual motor skills – dancing, playing instrument, typing on keyboard Cognitive skills – reasoning, solving calculus problems, working a puzzle Closed skills – learning a predefined sequence of movements >  ex. Choreographed dances Open skills – responses based on predictions about changing demands in the environment ex.  Dances that allow for varied movements – salsa, swing dancing Expert – perform skill better than most others gifted differences – master a skill w/ ease Twins and the rotary task – twins w/ same talent and practice effects except one becomes concert pianist and other doesn’t > due to effort alone b/c genetically identical Genetic and sex differences in learning – males found to score higher in math > interests,  motivation Practice Power of Learning Law – states that learning occurs rapidly at first, then levels off Improving an acquired skill Implicit learning: learning w/o conscious effort explicit learning: learning w/ conscious effort Serial reaction time – present visual cue and subjects learn to press appropriate key > begin to  anticipate sequence and become faster > no idea sequences repeated ­ results: learned w/o realizing Skill decay – if you don’t use it, you lose it Transfer of training – generalization of a skill from one context to another > baseball player  trying to play softball / baseball playing trying to play cricket Transfer specificity – skills don’t transfer well  > concert pianist can be a lousy dancer Identical elements theory Motor programs Model of Skill Acquisition - cognitive stage: active thinking part required to encode a skill - associative stage: practicing the skill w/o having to think about every move or step - autonomous stage: skill and all of the components to perform it have become  interconnected > well learned Brain substrates/basal ganglia – basal ganglia sends output signals to thalamus then to brainstem  > coordinating physical movement between motor control circuits Cortical representations – regions of the cortex involved in performing a skill expand w/  practice, while regions not involved show fewer changes ­ violin players vs. non­violin players: showed more cortical activation in somatosensory  cortex when using their playing fingers Non­human animals/cerebellum Timing Mirror tracing Apraxia – damage to cerebral cortex can cause poor coordination of purposeful, skilled  movements Huntington’s disease – inherited; causes damage to the brain neurons (BG and cerebral cortex) Parkinson's disease  ­ disrupts normal functioning of the basal ganglia and progressive  deterioration of motor control and skill learning abilities Deep brain stimulation


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