psych 302 study guide part 2
psych 302 study guide part 2 Psych 302
Cal State Fullerton
Popular in Learning and Memory
Popular in Psychlogy
This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by jh1371 on Thursday April 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 302 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Dr. Wilson-Ozima in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Learning and Memory in Psychlogy at California State University - Fullerton.
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Date Created: 04/21/16
Chapter 7 cont. Encoding – initial storage into memory Storage/consolidation – maintaining stored memory Retrieval – reactivating the memory for further processing Encoding/currency studies Craik & Tulving – proposed that the more deeply you process info, the better its encoded - memorize list of words w/ different depths of processing - Pronounce: low level processing, images: high level processing, imaged words remembered better later Depth of processing effect Godden & Baddely study: same context group performed significantly better Transferappropriate processing – retrieval works best when conditions are similar to encoding conditions (study the way you’ll be tested) Cued recall – question + prompt free recall – question Ebbinghaus memory studies – exponential forgetting curve: large amount forgotten early, nothing later Forgetting curve Memory failures – multiple possible failure points / 4 common problems: forgetting, interference, misattribution, and false memory Interference – similar/overlapping info can interfere w/ memory, producing storage and retrieval errors Proactive interference – old info interferes w/ new info retroactive interference – new info interferes w/ old source amnesia – when info is correctly remembered but mistakenly associated w/ an incorrect source ex. John told me the party was here (when its actually here) cryptomnesia/Reagan/Harrison – mistakenly remembering someone else’s ideas as one’s own false memories Loftus & Palmer study memories can be modified and manipulated after encoding > false memory Source Misattribution: memory failure / source error Misinformation Acceptance: impairment in memory for past that arises after exposure to misleading info Implanted memories researchers make people believe that they remember an event that actually never happened Imagination inflation – finding that imagining an event which never happened can increase confidence that it actually occurred Overconfidence in memory – overestimate our knowledge and ability to predict Memory distortion effects – fabricated recollection of events Legal implications Repressed memories – memories that have been unconsciously blocked due to memory being associated w/ high levels of stress or trauma Types of amnesia – Functional: most likely due to psychological trauma Anterograde forward/retrograde – moving backward Ribot gradient – during incidents of retrograde amnesia, recent memories are more likely to be lost than more remote memories > time dependent process of memory reorganization Brain substrates/hippocampi Beth's story/semantic memory – ideas and concepts not drawn form personal experience Memory consolidation – strengthening the stability of stored information Reconsolidation – keep it permanently ECT Standard consolidation theory – Multiple Memory Trace Theory – memory consolidation model: each time some info is presented to a person, it is neurally encoded in a unique memory trace composed of a combo of its attributes Confabulation – memory disturbance, due to fabricated or misinterpreted memories about oneself or the world Korsakoff’s disease – chronic memory disorder caused by severe deficiency of vitamin b1 > most commonly caused by alcohol misuse Chapter 8 Skill memory – difficult to convey except by direct demonstration, may be acquired w/o awareness, require several repetitions, procedural learning Memory for events and facts – easily communicated in different formats, content is consciously accessible, can be acquired in singly exposure Types of skill memory/qualities – one can demonstrate an ability, one can learn something w/o awareness, may require several repetitions to learn Procedural memory/nondeclarative – observation and practice > operant conditioning: lever pressing ability improves w/ practice / can be long lasting Perceptual motor skills – dancing, playing instrument, typing on keyboard Cognitive skills – reasoning, solving calculus problems, working a puzzle Closed skills – learning a predefined sequence of movements > ex. Choreographed dances Open skills – responses based on predictions about changing demands in the environment ex. Dances that allow for varied movements – salsa, swing dancing Expert – perform skill better than most others gifted differences – master a skill w/ ease Twins and the rotary task – twins w/ same talent and practice effects except one becomes concert pianist and other doesn’t > due to effort alone b/c genetically identical Genetic and sex differences in learning – males found to score higher in math > interests, motivation Practice Power of Learning Law – states that learning occurs rapidly at first, then levels off Improving an acquired skill Implicit learning: learning w/o conscious effort explicit learning: learning w/ conscious effort Serial reaction time – present visual cue and subjects learn to press appropriate key > begin to anticipate sequence and become faster > no idea sequences repeated results: learned w/o realizing Skill decay – if you don’t use it, you lose it Transfer of training – generalization of a skill from one context to another > baseball player trying to play softball / baseball playing trying to play cricket Transfer specificity – skills don’t transfer well > concert pianist can be a lousy dancer Identical elements theory Motor programs Model of Skill Acquisition - cognitive stage: active thinking part required to encode a skill - associative stage: practicing the skill w/o having to think about every move or step - autonomous stage: skill and all of the components to perform it have become interconnected > well learned Brain substrates/basal ganglia – basal ganglia sends output signals to thalamus then to brainstem > coordinating physical movement between motor control circuits Cortical representations – regions of the cortex involved in performing a skill expand w/ practice, while regions not involved show fewer changes violin players vs. nonviolin players: showed more cortical activation in somatosensory cortex when using their playing fingers Nonhuman animals/cerebellum Timing Mirror tracing Apraxia – damage to cerebral cortex can cause poor coordination of purposeful, skilled movements Huntington’s disease – inherited; causes damage to the brain neurons (BG and cerebral cortex) Parkinson's disease disrupts normal functioning of the basal ganglia and progressive deterioration of motor control and skill learning abilities Deep brain stimulation
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