Anthropology 7-Human Evolution
Anthropology 7-Human Evolution ANTHRO 7
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by email@example.com Notetaker on Thursday April 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTHRO 7 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Joseph Manson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 90 views. For similar materials see Human Evolution in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 04/21/16
Anthro 7 Spring 2016 Midterm Study Guide The midterm will take place on Tuesday Apr. 26 at our regular class time (11:00am12:15pm) in our regular class room (Fowler A103B). What to bring: (1) A pen (or better yet, two pens, in case one fails in the middle of the test), (2) a #2 pencil (for the Scantron form), and (3) a Scantron form 882E (this is the one with a total of 100 questions, 50 on each side). If you don’t bring a Scantron form, we’ll give you one, but we’ll deduct 3 points from your exam score. Don’t bring a bluebook. You won’t need a calculator. All phones and other electronic devices must be kept out of reach and out of your view during the exam. The exam will consist of (A) 3 short essay questions (these could include a multistep Mendelian genetics problem and/or population genetics problem); (B) 12 fillintheblank or very short answer (one word, phrase or sentence) questions; and (C) 18 multiple choice questions. What you should be prepared to do (with references to relevant lectures, readings and homework problems in the format Chapter #:Question #): (1) Distinguish, in a narrative account of a scientific research project, between theories, hypotheses, assumptions, data and inferences (Lecture: the scientific method). ex: After, an experiment was conducted with over 500 individuals and data regarding handiness and age was collected, it was inferred that the lefthanders didn’t live as long as righthanded individuals. Such inference acted as a theory: an idea intended to explain something. This theory led to the a hypothesis: proposed explaination, that being left handed leads to early death. In order for scientist to disprove such hypothesis they need to collect more data, or challenge its assumptions. In this observational study it was questioned, Is it true that left handers have not changed to become right handers? 1996 survey showed some left handed individuals attempted to shift to right handiness. (2) Describe each of Darwin’s postulates in a complete sentence. Describe why each postulate must hold for natural selection to occur (Lecture: natural selection; pp. 56). Natural Selection: Traits that are beneficial will survive and be passed down, while disadvantageous traits will eventually dissapear. Darwin’s 3 Postualtes 1. Struggle for Existence Since resources are limited there is competition among individuals. Due to such limitations individuals will not be able to survive and reproduce. 2. Variation Due to genotype/phenotype variation some individuals will have certain traits that will increase their chance of survival and reproduction. 3. Variation needs to be inherited: Offspring need to be able to inherit the advantageous genes. In order for the genes to be passed over generations. First and foremost, variation needs to be present in order for individuals with certain traits to survive the competition of resources and pass such genes for the following generations to increase in poulation. (3) Explain how the studies of changes in beak depth in medium ground finches (pp. 610) and toxin resistance in Daphnia (lecture: natural selection) illustrate Darwin’s postulates in action. First Postulate: Due to the drought the supply of food decreased, and most seeds left were large, hard, and difficult to process for smaller beak finches. Second Postulate: Varaition among beak depths existed. However, after the drought the deep beaks had the advantage over shallow deap beaks. As deep beak finches were able to easily process the large hardshell seeds, therefore they were able to survive and don’t die due to starvation. Third Postulate: Variation is Inherited: Deep beak finches were able to survive and pass down there genes to offspring. Offspring will inherit the advantageous deep beak gene therefore, be better adapted to their environment. Toxin Resistance: Due to Human interference water was contaminated with toxic cyanobacteria, DAphnia shrimplike organism faced competition, there was variation, and such variation allowed a certain groups to survive and adapt to the change in environment. (4) Recognize and correct any of the common misunderstandings of/confusions about evolution by natural selection (Lecture: natural selection; pp. 1020; Homework 1:3). One or more of these misunderstandings/confusions may be embedded in a quote that will appear in an exam question. Adaptations generally benefit individuals survival and reproduction, even at the expense of the species well being. Adaptation results from the competition among individuals, not between entire populations or species. Selection increases individuals reproduction, but decreases the average reproductive success of the overall population. What changes in evolution is the composition of the population, not the characteristics of the individual. Traits persist because they are beneficial, their design to help survival. Therefore, natural selection is not a random chance. Complex adaptations cannot be discontinuous (done in a single jump) they arise from small random variations done by natural selection (continuous). Ex: Evolution of the eye Natural Selection can cause evolutionary change at a rapid process eventhough many people think evolution/adaptations take along time to occur. Ex: Apelike animal to humans in 510 million years or Darwin’s Galapagos Finches Evolution doesn't necessarily mean "change toward greater complexity" and doesn't mean "progress" or global improvement, its a step by step processs. Ex eyes Natural Selection acts to prevent evolution, rather then cause it. Ex: Finches after draught and natural selection have occured, selection favored intermediate size beaks (stabilizing selection), no evolution taking place. (5) Solve a Mendelian genetics problem (Lecture: Mendelian genetics; pp. 2533). The problem might be like one of the study questions at the end of Chapter 2. But it might be a kind of problem you haven’t seen before, although of course it will still be solvable using what you’ve learned in this class. For example, you might have to figure out a case of mistaken paternity using individuals’ phenotypes for a trait controlled by one locus with two alleles. (6) Solve a population genetics problem (Lecture: population genetics; pp. 5360; Homework 3:1, 3:2). This might be like homework problems 3:13:2, and the cystic fibrosis example from the population genetics lecture. But it might be somewhat more difficult. For example, if natural selection occurs, it won’t necessarily be the case that one of the three genotypes has a survival rate of zero: the three genotypes might have different survival rates, but all greater than zero. Also, during the maturation phase of the life cycle, there might be a migration event (individuals of particular genotypes entering or leaving the population) or a genetic drift event (individuals of a particular genotype dying by chance), in addition to a selection event. (7) Explain why an organism’s genes are more like a recipe than a blueprint (Lecture: molecular genetics; pp. 3750). Organisms are more like a recipe than a blueprint, because the information flow from a blueprint to a building is easily reversable. Therefore, you can make a blueprint from an already existent building, or make a blueprint to design a future building. With the recipe analogy, the genes like a recipe act as a guide for multistep process, which is not reversable. You cannot go from a cake back to its individual ingredients., just like genes of DNA can only code for proteins, and proteins cannot lead to/code certain genes. There is also not a one to one matching between DNA and the body. (8) Know about molecular genetics to the level of detail specified on page 5 of this study guide (Lecture: molecular genetics; Chapter 2). DNA consist of genetic information, made of sugars, phosphates, and nucleic acids. Nucleic Acids such as T, A, C, and G. The DNA splits and replicate to create a copy mRNA. This mRNA with codons of DNA will take the “message” into the cytoplasm , to code for 1 amino acids (protein). mRNA will go sit in the ribosome, where tRNA will arrive to help form proteins. (9) Explain how population genetics explains (a) why phenotypic variation is often continuous, even though genes are discrete and (b) how natural selection can move populations far beyond their initial range of variation (Lecture: population genetics; pp. 6065). Phenotypic variation is often continuous, meaning intemediates exist because, phenotype is not only affected by genetype. There are other factors such as the environment or nutrition, that allows for phenotype to vary. For example, the same species in two different regions will vary in size since they are exposed to two different envirronment. Natural Selection can move a population far from its initial range by favoring a specific trait at a higher frequency. As seen in the chihuahua problem, in which chichuahuas most recent common ancestor is the wolf. Yet, they are way smaller in size, compared to wolves. Here Natural Selection has favored the small size, allowing variation to shift far beyond its initial size range. Also, there is artifical selection, in which humans can manipuate genetics to create such smaller species. (10) Be prepared to recognize which constraint on adaptation is operating in a real or hypothetical example provided in an exam question, and to justify your answer (pp. 6877). Contraints on adaptation : 1)Correlated Characteristics (Hidden Varaition): One gene can affect the function/appearance of more than 1 trait, making it difficult to seperate the two traits from each other. Ex: Beak Depth and beak width, if depth is high so will the width increase. In some situations such correlation may have a maladaptive direction, meaning it negatively impacts its ability to reproduce. 2) Disequilibrium Selection produces optimal adaptations only at equilibrium, so if the environment has recently changed, such adaptations/evolution will not take place, intil equilibriumis reached. 3)Genetic Drift: When population is small, genetic drift, random changes in gene frequency occur due to sampling variation. Population is soo small that the genetic variation will not vary large. However, genetic drift allows for isolated populations to become geneticall different from the the group of species they originated. 4) Natural Selction, may lead to an evolutionary equilibrium, in which the most common or ending phemotype, is not the best “optimal” phenotype. 5)Physical and chemical constraints exist: as species are also morphologically shaped under the laws of physics and chemistry. Ex: Deer needs to be heavy and strong to defend against predators, but also be light enough to avoid them. (11) Explain the significance of ring species for understanding (a) that species are not unchanging categories whose meaning lies in their definitions and (b) how allopatric speciation occurs (Lecture: species, speciation, systematics; pp. 8688). Discuss how population thinking differs from an essentialist view of species. Ring species, when two groups of species at the end of a ring, have met with each other and are unable to interbreed because they have genetically evolved so distint from each other. So does this categories each species as two different kind of species? Yes, they may have dereived from the same common ancestor, but such situaton have created another species, and this is why species are constant changing categories. Overall, it shows us how new species come into existence. Allopatric Speciation has occured when due to a physical barrier what was once one group of species, has diverged into genetically probably also phenotypically 2 different species. Such barrier has allowed for each species to adapt and evolve according to their environment, and once they meet they will be so genetecly different, they will not be able to interbreed. Ecological Species Concept,: natural selcetion plays an important roles in creating and maintaing species. Biologocal Species Concept: defines species as organism that can only interbreed with each other, no with other oragnism. (12) Describe the difference between evolutionary convergence/analogy and homology, and be prepared to discuss these concepts with reference to a specific example (Lecture: species, speciation, systematics; pp. 9397). Analagous means that two species have developed similar characteristics independently from each other, this is also known as convergence. One example of analogous structures is the wings of bats, flying insects, and birds. All three organisms use their wings to fly, but bats are actually mammals and not related to birds or flying insects Homology are the characteristics that species share because they share the charcteristic with a most recent common ancestor. An example of homology is the tailbone in humans with the tails of cats and dogs. While our coccyx or tailbone has become a vestigial structure, cats and dogs still have their tails intact. (13) Understand the logic of phylogenetic inference (Lecture: species, speciation, systematics; pp. 97103). To figure out how to form a phylogenetic tree, first you need to see what organisms are most closely related. However, do not base it only on traits that they share homologous/analogous, instead look at various characteristics such as gene differences. Using derived traits: traits found in a particular group and not present in the most recent common ancestor. These traits give more a more accurate phylogeny than, ancestral characters. (14) Compare and contrast cladistic taxonomy/systematics and evolutionary taxonomy/systematics (pp. 103105). Both cladistic and evolutionary taxonomy argue that in classifying organisms, descent should play an important role. However, evolutionary taxonomy also argues that it should also be based on the similarities that organisms display. (15) Explain why the study of nonhuman primates is part of the study of human evolution (Lecture: introduction to the nonhuman primates; pp. 109111) Reasoning by Homology: Humans and nonhumans primates like apes share various characteristics in morphology and behavior due to a common ancestor. Such similarities, will give us more insight into the behavior of our ancestors. Reasoning by Analogy:we are very similar to other primates in morphology,physiology, behavior, see how evolution works in animals like ourselves in response to different selective pressures. (16) Describe the trends that tend to characterize primates and distinguish them from other orders of mammals (Lecture: introduction to the nonhuman primates; pp. 111117) Primate Traits 1. Opposable Big Toe The horse only have one toe. 2. Grasping Hands (5 digits are more movable) the squirrel is unable to fully grasp or point at something because of “stiff” hand 3. Sensitive Finger Tips If you stick 2 needles primate will differentiate, but dof will think its only 1 needle. 4. Flat NailsUnlike bears, we do not have claws but flat nails usually not as sharp. 5. Feature of sensory organs: highly developed vision, eyes moved forward in head,stereoscopic vision, unspecialized olfactory sense we relly more on our visions than smelling, because we are able to see crearly during the day. While chickens can spot even if you are in the back. 6. Feature of life history: small litters, long pregnancy, long juvenile period, longmotherinfant bond, long life span 7. Large Brain and the fact that most primates live in groups (17) Know primate taxonomy to the level of detail specified on page 6 of this study guide (Lecture: introduction to the nonhuman primates; pp. 117125). (18) Describe the advantages and disadvantages of different food types for primates, taking into account differences between species in body size. Describe some of the dietary adaptations of folivores (Lecture: primate ecology; pp. 126130). Food Name Digestion Adv. Dis. Type Fruit Frugivore Easy High in carbs no protein Plant Folivore Difficult have some protein have defense mechanics Meat Carnivore Medium high in protein and You need to work for it my fat friend (19) Describe primates’ adaptations to cope with the threat of predation (Lecture: primate ecology; pp. 133136). Primates’ adaptations to cope with the threat of predation include having a largebody size, staying in familiar places, having aggressive defense, aggressive defense,vigilance, alarm calls, hiding, and staying in large groups that act as a defense shields against predators. (20) (a) Explain why reproductive success is a critical element of evolution by natural selection. When biologists use terms like cost and benefit, what currency are they trying to measure? (b) When evolutionary biologists talk about animals’ strategies, what are they referring to? (Lecture: evolutionary theory & social behavior; pp. 146147). a. Reproductive success by natural selection is crucial for evolution, since its necessary for the advantageous adaptations aquired to be passed down to future generations. Without reproduction, despite mutation all animals already present will dissapear, and those that are able to reproduce without any mutation, means all animals will stay the same forever and ever. When biologists use the term cost and benefit they are talking about reproductive success because that shows that the offspring had good enough genes to survive to adulthood and produces a baby. b. Biologists use the term strategy to describe the behavior of animals. For example, folivory is characterized as a foraging strategy, and monogamy is described as a mating strategy. Strategies that led to greater reproductive success in ancestral populations have been favored by natural selection and represent adaptations. (21) Define biological altruism, explain why it poses a problem for natural selection theory, and why group selection or species selection is not an adequate solution to this problem (Lecture: evolutionary theory & social behavior; pp. 173176; Homework 7:4). Biological altruism refers to behavior by an individual that increases the fitness of another individual while decreasing the fitness of the actor. For eample, grooming among monkeys it helps one keep clean and healthy, while it takes much time from the other monkey. If selection acts exclusively at the individual level, favoring some individual organisms over others,then it seems that altruism cannot evolve, for behaving altruistically is disadvantageous for the individual organism itself. However, group selection is not an important force in nature because usually there is not enough genetic variation among the group for selction to act on. ??? (22) Explain why genetic kinship produces the conditions under which biological altruism can evolve. Be prepared to solve a problem in which you must apply Hamilton’s Rule). Describe an example of kinbiased social behavior in primates (Lectures: evolutionary theory & social behavior; primate social behavior; pp. 176188). Genetic kin are more closely related to each other than any other individual within the same population. Threrefore, if one individual possess the gene for altruism its kin will most likely also possess such gene. such interaction among altruist Hamilton concluded could facilitate the evolution of altruism. In monkeyalarm callers for example, if all all siblings therefore, most will present the alarm calling gene, Thus, the caller raises the average fitness of callers relative to noncallers. (23) Describe the conditions necessary for reciprocal altruism to evolve. Describe an example of reciprocal altruism in primates (Lectures: evolutionary theory & social behavior; primate social behavior; pp. 188190). Reciprocal Altruism is the theory that altruistic behavior can evolve if such behavior is balanced between partners. Conditions necessary are: interaction is often, track support give and received, and help those that help you. An example, can be seen with monkeys grooming each other, if one monkey often groom another, he will one day return the favor by protection, (24) Explain the relationship between parental investment and sexual selection, and how this explains typical sex differences in (a) variation in reproductive success; (b) morphology and (c) behavior (Lecture: evolutionary theory & social behavior; pp. 147149). Unequal parental investment will be favored, when acquiring additional mates is easy and fitness of offspring will be high even if raised by only one parent. Therefore, males are more able to mate, therefore not limited on amount of reproductive succes.. However, in situations in which there are more males females will increase their offspring survival rate by creating doubt in male father, and have two males aid instead. Females`unlike males are forcefully committed to offspring investment due to the mammalian reproductive system. Also due to the slow development of brain tissue female preganancy take a long time. Overall, it is the male to female composition that influences different types of mating behavior, (25) Describe (a) what is meant by a dominance hierarchy, (b) why (in ultimate/functional terms) dominance hierarchies form in some species and (c) what kinds of advantages highranking primates usually experience (compared to lowrankers) (Lecture: primate social behavior; pp. 152156, pp. 163165). Dominance hierarchy, refers to the hiearchial ranking social groups create, to have more dominance over others and more resource, such as good quality food. These dominance hierarchies are formed in some species, because dominant individuals should experience greater reproductive success – males via greater access to females; females with greater access to food and otherresource. (26) Explain how and why male primate morphology varies with breeding system (Lecture: primate social behavior; pp. 159161). Due to intrasexual competition the males that are more likely to reproduce are the larger, stronger, and have other weapons to enhance it mating chances among competition. In pair bonded the males are not as morphological different from the female, yet they to mate guard and care for their offspring. (27) Describe sources of variation in female primate reproductive success (pp. 150156) Females are more likely to reproduce at a certain age, not too young or old beciuse she needs to have the sufficient strength and experience to produce a healthy offspring. If females survive longer they are able to reproduce more often, however this have many limitations. The high ranking of certain females allows them to have more resources available to them therefore, they have higher reproductive success. Another, factor that impacts their reproductive success is the strong bonding that they form. (28) Describe adaptations evolved by primates to avoid inbreeding (Lecture: primate social behavior). To avoid inbreeding primates have learned to characterize/ tell apart if other individuals are related by matching characteristics. Another, adaptation that primates have adapted is groupd dispersal. It’s usually the males that after a ceratin age they move to a neighboring group. Inbreeding is usually avoided by the females, because they do not want to deal with producing a weak offspring for being too closely related to the male. (29) Describe the logic of the sexual selection hypothesis for infanticide by male primates, and evaluate the evidence for it (Lecture: primate social behavior; pp. 166169; Homework 6:8). Infanticide occurs when a male primate chooses to kil another males offspring, to make the female resume her cycling and be able to impregnate her.Males usually do this because they do not have very much time before they get kicked out of a group. The predictions are that the infanticide will be linked to changes in male residence or status, males will kill unweaned infants,males won’t kill their own infants, infanticidal males will gain reproductive benefits (30) Describe the naturalistic fallacy, and explain why it’s a fallacy (page 169, Homework 6:10). ”It’s the tendency to assume that what we see in nature is something right, just, and inevitable. Critics are concerned that if we accept the idea that infanticide is an adaptive strategy...it will justify similar behavior in humans. (169)” What you need to know about molecular genetics 1. Chromosomes are long doublestrands of a molecule called DNA. They reside in the nucleus of cells. 2. Each strand consists of a linear string of nucleotides, each of which contains one of four bases. These bases are abbreviated A, G, C, and T. 3. DNA gets its information storing power from the fact that A can only bond to T, and C can only bond to G. 4. DNA replicates itself by “unzipping,” after which free nucleotides are attracted to their complementary bases on each strand, forming two identical “daughter” doublestrands. 5. By a similar process, DNA serves as the template for the production (transcription) of a similar, but singlestranded, molecule called mRNA. In RNA, the base U substitutes for the base T. 6. mRNA leaves the nucleus of the cell and migrates to the cytoplasm, or the part of the cell outside its nucleus. mRNA, in turn, serves as the template for the synthesis of proteins, which are the “working molecules” of cells, and of which there is a vast number of types. Proteins consist of long sequences of building blocks called amino acids. 7. Here’s how this works (translation): Each stretch of three nucleotides (a codon) codes for the addition of a particular amino acid (out of 20 types of amino acids) to a growing protein chain. For example, the mRNA codon UGG codes for the amino acid cysteine. The exact sequence of amino acids in a protein determines its shape, chemical properties and functionality. 8. Not all DNA codes for proteins. Introns are stretches of DNA that never get transcribed. The exons, or coding portions of DNA, can be spliced back together in different ways, so the same stretch of DNA can code for the production of more than one protein. Other forms of noncoding DNA exist, and their functions, if any, are not completely understood. 9. Whether a given stretch of DNA is transcribed into RNA sometimes depends on the chemical environment of the cell in which it resides. For example, the genes in E. coli that code for the production of enzymes that allow digestion of lactose are not expressed when a better food source, glucose, is present; and they are expressed at the highest rate only when lactose is present. This flexibility in gene expression explains how somatic cells are differentiated into many different types (e.g. nerve cells, muscle cells, liver cells) within the same individual, even though they all contain the same genes. What you need to know: Primate Taxonomy Suborder Infraorder Superfamily Family Subfamily Prosimians Lemurs Lorises Tarsiers Anthropoids Platyrrhines (New World monkeys) Cebids Callitrichids (marmosets and tamarins) Catarrhines Cercopithecoids (Old (Old World monkeys) World monkeys + apes) Cercopithecines Colobines Hominoids (Apes including humans) Hylobatids (Lesser apes) Pongids (Great apes) Hominids (Humans, living and fossil) Be prepared to describe which taxa fit into which higherorder taxa (e.g. you should know that a loris is a kind of prosimian, not a kind of Old World monkey); and be prepared to describe what traits distinguish any taxon from “neighboring” taxa of the same rank (e.g. which traits distiniguish callitrichids from cebids). Parts of How Humans Evolved that you don’t need to know: You don’t need to know about linkage, recombination, or crossing over: pages 3337(but you do need to understand Figure 2.10, which is on page 33, because this figure pertains to the text on preeding pages). You don’t need to know about molecular genetics (pp. 3750) in greater depth than what is described above (page 5) under “What you need to know about molecular genetics.” You don’t need to know page 76 (Box 3.2). You don’t need to know Table 5.2 (on page 115). The only thing you need to know about dental formulas is that catarrhines have 4 fewer premolars (i.e. one fewer in each quadrant of the mouth) than platyrrhines.
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