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UH / Biology / BIOL 3332 / Where are microbes found?

Where are microbes found?

Where are microbes found?

Description

School: University of Houston
Department: Biology
Course: Elementary Microbiology
Professor: R. knapp
Term: Spring 2016
Tags:
Cost: 25
Name: Ch. 1, 3, 4
Description: Here are notes for the first 3 chapters that were covered in class.
Uploaded: 02/23/2015
4 Pages 42 Views 3 Unlocks
Reviews

Karolann Wiegand (Rating: )

Can you just teach this course please? lol :)



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li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_h5dfqw6qa53n-4}ul.lst-kix_p0kfrawkico3-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_p0kfrawkico3-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_p0kfrawkico3-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_p0kfrawkico3-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_p0kfrawkico3-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_5bv8k5ljpl1d-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_5bv8k5ljpl1d-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_5bv8k5ljpl1d-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_iqclmrdntu4l-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_5bv8k5ljpl1d-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_5bv8k5ljpl1d-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_5bv8k5ljpl1d-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_5bv8k5ljpl1d-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_5bv8k5ljpl1d-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_5bv8k5ljpl1d-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_lqwa4dsyjnwx-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_lqwa4dsyjnwx-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_lqwa4dsyjnwx-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_lqwa4dsyjnwx-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_lqwa4dsyjnwx-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_lqwa4dsyjnwx-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_lqwa4dsyjnwx-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_n1yg3ttoqfli-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_2h6o18lxrd1p-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_2h6o18lxrd1p-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_2h6o18lxrd1p-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_2h6o18lxrd1p-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_2h6o18lxrd1p-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_n1yg3ttoqfli-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_2h6o18lxrd1p-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_2h6o18lxrd1p-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_2h6o18lxrd1p-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_lqwa4dsyjnwx-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_2h6o18lxrd1p-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_lqwa4dsyjnwx-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_n1yg3ttoqfli-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_n1yg3ttoqfli-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_c3lfe9wa3ks6-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_n1yg3ttoqfli-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_c3lfe9wa3ks6-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_c3lfe9wa3ks6-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_n1yg3ttoqfli-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_c3lfe9wa3ks6-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_c3lfe9wa3ks6-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_c3lfe9wa3ks6-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_c3lfe9wa3ks6-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_n1yg3ttoqfli-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_c3lfe9wa3ks6-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_c3lfe9wa3ks6-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_n1yg3ttoqfli-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_h5dfqw6qa53n-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_h5dfqw6qa53n-8}.lst-kix_n1yg3ttoqfli-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_9eieb6al7o9p-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_jsdte5krie73-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_h5dfqw6qa53n-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_h5dfqw6qa53n-0 0}.lst-kix_hgadpxceggtz-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_kstvlchgnq4b-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_9eieb6al7o9p-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_hgadpxceggtz-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_nqop9itgmmt2-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_kstvlchgnq4b-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_uki4a8a79mmy-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_hgadpxceggtz-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_nqop9itgmmt2-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_jsdte5krie73-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_hgadpxceggtz-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_kstvlchgnq4b-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_5rxjp7d5he08-3 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_5rxjp7d5he08-3,decimal) ") "}.lst-kix_uki4a8a79mmy-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_9eieb6al7o9p-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_nqop9itgmmt2-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_5bv8k5ljpl1d-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_kstvlchgnq4b-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_5rxjp7d5he08-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_5rxjp7d5he08-1,lower-latin) ") "}ol.lst-kix_5rxjp7d5he08-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_5rxjp7d5he08-5 0}.lst-kix_uki4a8a79mmy-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_9eieb6al7o9p-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_7xcabsslzvdg-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_7xcabsslzvdg-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_5bv8k5ljpl1d-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_7xcabsslzvdg-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_7xcabsslzvdg-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_7xcabsslzvdg-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_7xcabsslzvdg-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_7xcabsslzvdg-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_y5oj73xzd0r0-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_7xcabsslzvdg-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_y5oj73xzd0r0-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_nqop9itgmmt2-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_7xcabsslzvdg-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_5bv8k5ljpl1d-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_5rxjp7d5he08-5 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_5rxjp7d5he08-5,lower-roman) ") "}ul.lst-kix_c9ifdfurmufn-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_c9ifdfurmufn-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_jsdte5krie73-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_c9ifdfurmufn-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_c9ifdfurmufn-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_5rxjp7d5he08-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_5rxjp7d5he08-4}ul.lst-kix_c9ifdfurmufn-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_5rxjp7d5he08-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_5rxjp7d5he08-7,lower-latin) ". "}ul.lst-kix_c9ifdfurmufn-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_uki4a8a79mmy-1 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_c9ifdfurmufn-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_5bv8k5ljpl1d-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_jsdte5krie73-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_jsdte5krie73-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_c9ifdfurmufn-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_c9ifdfurmufn-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_lf3cny4yxr3p-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_c9ifdfurmufn-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_h5dfqw6qa53n-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_h5dfqw6qa53n-0}.lst-kix_5rxjp7d5he08-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_5rxjp7d5he08-3}.lst-kix_puhhtujz9n1l-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_lf3cny4yxr3p-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_8umcbdpfdira-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_h5dfqw6qa53n-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_h5dfqw6qa53n-1}.lst-kix_puhhtujz9n1l-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_lf3cny4yxr3p-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_lf3cny4yxr3p-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_lh869bvn8qsa-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_n1yg3ttoqfli-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_n1yg3ttoqfli-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_n1yg3ttoqfli-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_h5dfqw6qa53n-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_h5dfqw6qa53n-7}ul.lst-kix_n1yg3ttoqfli-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_8umcbdpfdira-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_n1yg3ttoqfli-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_puhhtujz9n1l-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_lf3cny4yxr3p-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_n1yg3ttoqfli-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_n1yg3ttoqfli-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_n1yg3ttoqfli-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_lh869bvn8qsa-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_n1yg3ttoqfli-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_puhhtujz9n1l-2 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_5rxjp7d5he08-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_5rxjp7d5he08-3 0}.lst-kix_8umcbdpfdira-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_c9ifdfurmufn-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_8umcbdpfdira-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_lh869bvn8qsa-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_puhhtujz9n1l-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_c9ifdfurmufn-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_wuhozsvczu84-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wuhozsvczu84-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_c9ifdfurmufn-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_c9ifdfurmufn-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_wuhozsvczu84-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wuhozsvczu84-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wuhozsvczu84-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wuhozsvczu84-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wuhozsvczu84-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_lh869bvn8qsa-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_wuhozsvczu84-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wuhozsvczu84-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rxpiydu2ahdk-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rxpiydu2ahdk-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_2h6o18lxrd1p-8 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_rxpiydu2ahdk-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rxpiydu2ahdk-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_2h6o18lxrd1p-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_cromppmetqc0-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_rxpiydu2ahdk-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_iqclmrdntu4l-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_rxpiydu2ahdk-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_iqclmrdntu4l-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_rxpiydu2ahdk-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_iqclmrdntu4l-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_rxpiydu2ahdk-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rxpiydu2ahdk-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_cromppmetqc0-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_cromppmetqc0-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_jsdte5krie73-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_jsdte5krie73-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_cromppmetqc0-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_jsdte5krie73-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_jsdte5krie73-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_jsdte5krie73-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_jsdte5krie73-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_iqclmrdntu4l-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_iqclmrdntu4l-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_jsdte5krie73-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_jsdte5krie73-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_jsdte5krie73-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_2h6o18lxrd1p-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_2h6o18lxrd1p-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_5rxjp7d5he08-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_5rxjp7d5he08-1}.lst-kix_2h6o18lxrd1p-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_gep8w4upl21b-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_gep8w4upl21b-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_7xcabsslzvdg-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_9cubx282egl-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_7xcabsslzvdg-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_7xcabsslzvdg-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_9cubx282egl-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_9cubx282egl-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_9cubx282egl-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_8umcbdpfdira-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_shpawewoxn-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_nsurknxv23wu-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_8umcbdpfdira-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_gep8w4upl21b-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_nsurknxv23wu-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_8umcbdpfdira-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nsurknxv23wu-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nsurknxv23wu-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_7xcabsslzvdg-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_8umcbdpfdira-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_shpawewoxn-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_shpawewoxn-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_nsurknxv23wu-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_8umcbdpfdira-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nsurknxv23wu-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_8umcbdpfdira-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_d50i9gke6r58-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_nsurknxv23wu-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_8umcbdpfdira-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nsurknxv23wu-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_y5oj73xzd0r0-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nsurknxv23wu-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_y5oj73xzd0r0-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_gep8w4upl21b-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_gep8w4upl21b-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_y5oj73xzd0r0-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_y5oj73xzd0r0-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_y5oj73xzd0r0-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_d50i9gke6r58-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_y5oj73xzd0r0-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_y5oj73xzd0r0-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_9cubx282egl-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_4gcjy8sbxn49-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_d50i9gke6r58-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_4gcjy8sbxn49-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_caz07pldve74-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_4gcjy8sbxn49-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4gcjy8sbxn49-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4gcjy8sbxn49-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_5rxjp7d5he08-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_5rxjp7d5he08-8}ul.lst-kix_4gcjy8sbxn49-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_8umcbdpfdira-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4gcjy8sbxn49-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_8umcbdpfdira-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4gcjy8sbxn49-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4gcjy8sbxn49-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_d50i9gke6r58-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_caz07pldve74-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_caz07pldve74-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_caz07pldve74-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_caz07pldve74-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_5rxjp7d5he08-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_5rxjp7d5he08-6 0}.lst-kix_cromppmetqc0-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_kstvlchgnq4b-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_5rxjp7d5he08-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_5rxjp7d5he08-6}.lst-kix_9eieb6al7o9p-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_4gcjy8sbxn49-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_jsdte5krie73-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_nsurknxv23wu-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_nsurknxv23wu-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_kstvlchgnq4b-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_hgadpxceggtz-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_nqop9itgmmt2-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_uki4a8a79mmy-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_4gcjy8sbxn49-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_5rxjp7d5he08-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_5rxjp7d5he08-2,lower-roman) ") "}.lst-kix_uki4a8a79mmy-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_9eieb6al7o9p-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_5bv8k5ljpl1d-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_hgadpxceggtz-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_nqop9itgmmt2-4 > li:before{content:"○ 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li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_qkzk6haypalx-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_c3lfe9wa3ks6-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_c3lfe9wa3ks6-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_vi4i6vmkla3-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_qkzk6haypalx-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_c3lfe9wa3ks6-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_vi4i6vmkla3-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_vi4i6vmkla3-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_shpawewoxn-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_shpawewoxn-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_shpawewoxn-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_shpawewoxn-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_shpawewoxn-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_shpawewoxn-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_vi4i6vmkla3-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_vi4i6vmkla3-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_shpawewoxn-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_shpawewoxn-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_shpawewoxn-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_qkzk6haypalx-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_qkzk6haypalx-8 > 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li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_a4mugo52cijq-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_shpawewoxn-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_a4mugo52cijq-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_a4mugo52cijq-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_a4mugo52cijq-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_p0kfrawkico3-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_a4mugo52cijq-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_a4mugo52cijq-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_a4mugo52cijq-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_a4mugo52cijq-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_a4mugo52cijq-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_h5dfqw6qa53n-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_h5dfqw6qa53n-8,lower-roman) ". 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CHAPTER 1: MICROBIAL LIFE We also discuss several other topics like What arguments did political scientist make about the two party system in the united states?

  • Where are microbes found?

Ans: Ubiquitous: Found everywhere

  • What are microbes?

Ans: Micron (μm, 10⁻⁶ meters)Don't forget about the age old question of What is the difference between protest and movement?

  • What are microbes?

Ans: micron Don't forget about the age old question of How do you describe the structure of a government?

        Eukaryotic cells

        Prokaryotic cells We also discuss several other topics like When did slavery end?

        Nanometer - virusWe also discuss several other topics like Why do we need an operating system in the software?

        Macromolecules We also discuss several other topics like Do dinosaurs really exists?

  • Who are the microbes?

Ans: Microscopy: Enhanced resolutions; distinguish fine details

        Genomic DNA sequencing: Reveal how microbes are related and how they function

Ans: Linnaeus: Founder of categorizing and grouping life

Three Domains of Life

  • Comparison of DNA sequences for the ribosomes 165 RNA gene revealed a new prokaryotic group- the archaea
  • Archaea: Possess similarities to both bacteria and eukaryotes
  • Methanogens
  • Thermopiles (hyperthermophiles > 80C)
  • Halophiles 15-20% NaCL photosynthesis

Kingdoms: Protista, Fungi, Bacteria, Archae, Animal , Plant

  • Who are the microbes?
  • Prokaryotes: Lack of nucleus and organelles; asexual reproduction
  1. Bacteria: Cell Wall
  2. Archaea: “extremophiles”

  • Eukaryotes: Larger, possess a nucleus, organelles, reproduce sexualy/asexual; unicellular and simple multicellular types

  • Viruses: RNA - or DNA- containing acicular particles; requires a host cell to take over hosts metabolism to replicate

  • Who discovered microbes?

Ans: Robert Hooke, first to show life under the microscope

         Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek: Host to observe single- celled microbes

           The discovery of Microbes led us to the question of …. (Spontaneous Generation)

  • Refuting spontaneous generation : Maggot and meat

         Francesco Redi (1668): Disproving microbial spontaneous generation

         Spallanzani (1700’s) : Sealed flask of meat broth sterilized by boiling - no growth

                                             Counter argument: no air

        Louis Pastue (mod 1800)

  • John Tendall: Growth in Pasteur’s Flask - presence of spores
  • Repeated cycles of boiling/ resting to sterilize
  • Spore forming - vegetaive cells , endospore form

  • Where did microbes come from?

Ans: Earth = 5 billion year old

        Bacteria - Oldest known life form

        - oldest database geologic evidence: 3.8 bya

        - presence of cyanobacteria- like chains of cells in stromatolie fossils

Eukaryotic cells: arouse from divergent prokaryotic lines

  • Endosymbioses- mitochondria, chloroplasts
  • Unicellular types - simple multicellular- metazoams

Early Earth:

  • Anaerobic
  • Reduced atmosphere
  • Intense UV Radiation
  • Volcanic Activity  (H2M NH3 N2S)

  • What makes microbes so successful?

Ans: Bacteria/ Archaea:

  • genome
  • Transcriptome
  • Proteome

Prokaryotic genomes mosaics; mixture of after parts

E-coli F 12, 4.6 x 10⁶ base pairs DNA

Prokaryote morphological features

  • Small size, small chromosome, metabolic diversity, lack of nuclear membrane
  • Membrane transcription and translation is coupled
  • Higher mutation rate

Metagenome Analysis: taking environmental samples and extracting DNA, then sequence it  

                                      Unculturable microbes

Louis Pasteur: Begins the Golden Age of Microbiology (1857-1914)

  • Establishes the biochemical balls of microbial growth
  • Fermentation, Disproving abiogenesis, food preservation (pasteurization)
  • Germ Theory of fermentation, medical microbiology

His work leads to the question… -  Do some microbes cause disease

  • Why do some microbes cause disease?
  • Robert Koch (1870’s) : First to establish scientific Principles for…
  • Linking a specific microbe to a specific disease; in the process he established a chain of infection
  • Model: anthrax - bacillus anthracis
  • Relatively easy with this mode to establish ethology of the disease

  • Study of Tuberculosis (mycobacterium tuberculosis) - proved more difficult to establish emology
  • Required development asephe pure culture techniques
  • Solid growth media
  • Using solid growth media, Koch isolated pure culture of M. tuberculosis from deceased animals.

Koch’s Postulates: Allowed him to established a causative line between the isolate and tuberculosis

  1. The microbe is found in all cases if the disease but is absent from healthy individuals
  2. The microbe is isolated from the diseased host and grown in pure culture
  3. When the microbe is introduced into a healthy, susceptible host, the same disease occurs
  4. The same strain of microbes is obtained from the newly diseased host

  Can Koch’s postulates be applied in all cases?

   Ans: No. Not Virus or HIV; can remain dormant for years.

How can microbes be controlled?

Ans. Vaccination: Protect individual against disease by introduction with a less virulent form of the pathogen.

  • Smallpox vaccination: Lady Montague; Edward Jenner
  • Pasteur: employed attenuated vaccines to control fowl cholera and rabies

Principle of Immunoziation

Antiseptic/Disinfectants”

  • Ignaz Semmelwals (1847): Decline in puerperal fever linked to hygienic practices use of antiseptic
  • Joseph Lister (1865): Antiseptic agents (carbolic acid) to hear wounds and surgical instruments
  • Antiseptic - used on living tissue
  • Disinfectant- inanimate objects

Antibiotic: Produced naturally by many microbes

  • Discovery of Penicillin - Alexander Fleming (1429); from the mold penicillin
  • Inhibits cell wall synthesis (bacterial)
  • Microbes tight back: antibiotic resistance

How do microbes benefit life?

Ans: Ecology

        Microbial activity has a pivotal role in natural ecosystem

        Pure culture in a lab vs natural environments

        Metabolic capabilities of microbes in their natural environment recognize by WInogradsky

        Beijerinck (1880’s)

  • Employed enrichment culture to discover Lithotrophic bacteria

The work of Winogradsky, Beijerinck and other showed the importance of bacteria in geochemical cycling

The global interconversion of inorganic and organic fro NSPC and other minerals - essential to all ecosystems.

  • Nitrogen cycle: cycling of carbon
  • Decomposition: bacteria

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