Geog 103, Midterm
Geog 103, Midterm Geography 103
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
Popular in Introduction Human Geography
Popular in Geography
This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Notetaker Notetaker on Thursday April 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Geography 103 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Dr. Cordoba in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Introduction Human Geography in Geography at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.
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Date Created: 04/21/16
North America Physical Geography Know the main climate types of the region and their geographic distriContinental/mid- latitude (extremes cold winter and hot summer) & arid/semi-arid and humid subtropical. What type of air masses do we haveU.S is warm most of the year due to the 3 oceans on 3 sides (Gulf of Mexico, interior Great Lakes, and mountains/plateaus). What is the difference between maritime and continental air maContinental is dry, and originates over land. Maritime is moist, and originates over water. What is the difference between tropical and polar air maTropical are warm, humid. Polar are cool, humid. How do air masses impact North America’s weather?The region is surrounded by oceans, gulfs, and bays with vast interior plans and high mountains on both the East and West. What are jet streams? a narrow, variable band of very strong, predominantly westerly air currents encircling the globe several miles above the earth. There are typically two or three jet streams in each of the northern and southern hemispheres. How the mid-latitude jet stream in North America varies between summer and winter? Describe the geographic pattern of precipitation in the UnitedEast and West coastal areas have have mild, wet weather. Interior North and South areas are arid because the mountains prevent moisture clouds. What is Tornado Alley? And where is it locateAn area of Great Plains (Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas) where tornadoes happen often Why this area encounters a high level of tornado actDry-live" a front separating moist Gulf of Mexico air from dry air from the Southwest. Is this the only area that encounters a high level of tornado activity? Describe the general physical patterns of the United Older eroded highlands bordered by an extensive coastal plain. Know the location of the following features: o Mountains: Appalachian Mountains, Rocky Mountains, Cascade Mountains, Sierra Nevada o Water bodies: the Great Lakes, Gulf of Mexico, Mississippi River , Ohio River, Missouri River, St. Louis River, Columbia River, Colorado River, Rio Grande Human Geography Define natural capital/natural endowmeNatural resources: soil, forests, mineral deposits, fossil fuels, water availability. Define social capitInstitutions: government, banking/finance, justice system, promote growth & stability. Define human capitalPopulation: educated, healthy to exploit, natural resources. Define accumulated capitaSavings, national investment, foreign investment, infrastructure, machinery. What role did immigration play in the economic development of North AmericImmigration helped settle the western frontier of the region, provided a source of cheap labor during the industrialization, and increased population size helping grow the domestic market. Know the three major waves of immigration into the United States st 1 wave Date1820-1870. Northwestern Europeans Major groupsmostly German and Irish (Potato Famine) nd 2 wave Date1870-1920. Major groups'New' immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe Factors leading to a decline of immigration during 1930’s? World War 2 and the Great Depression 3rdwave Date1970 – Present Major groupsLarge influx of Latin American and Asian migrants. The decline of industrialization (manufacturing) in north America: Why did it happen?Most recent wave of internal migration occurred as millions of U.S residents moved from the historic core of North American industrialization (Manufacturing belt to the Sun belt.) & 1973 Oil crisis When did it happen? Late 60s early 70s Where is the manufacturing beltNortheast and Midwest of the country. What does the term “rust belt” referaging factories and declining infrastructures. What states (U.S.) and provinces (Canada) experienced the biggest loss in manufacturing jobs? Northeast and midwest cities like Detroit, Boston, New York, and Buffalo. Where did many of these manufacturing jobs go? What is NAFTA? North American Free Trade Association What role did it play (and continues to play) in manufacturing in North America? demonstrated how free trade increases wealth and competitiveness, delivering real benefits to families, farmers, workers, manufacturers, and consumers. Understand the process of deindustrialization (make sure you understand the diAgram) relative decline in industrial employment in core economic areas. Happens when firms scale back their activities in response to decreasing profitability. How does deindustrialization impact other industries (i.e. service sector jobs, construction, real estate, etc.) population size, local governments (tax base), and infrastructure? Provide two examples of cities struggling with deindustrialization Oceania Physical Geography Where is Melanesia? (general location within the regThe Black Islands Western Pacific North East from australia Where is Micronesia? (general location within the reg“Small islands" At or north of equator Where is Polynesia ?(general location within the re"Many islands" Eastern pacific New Zealand and northern What are the two types of Pacific islands that we find in OcHigh Volcanic Islands and Low Coral Islands Describe the difference between the two types High Volcanic Islands -orographic precipitation Low Coral Islands -very low lying, susceptible to storms, tidal waves, climate changes What are hot spotsA location where the earths surface has experienced active volcanism for a long time What is an atollOnce volcanoes, it erupts and subsides How do atolls form? (know the phases in order) Volcanic island Fringing reef Barrier reef Low Lying Island The rich material which comes from the volcanic eruption is perfect for growth Over time island enveloped by reef What is the Great Barrier Reef? And where is it locWorlds largest coral reef system 1600 miles; Sitting off the east coast Know the name and location of Australia’s three main physiographic regEastern Highlands (Great dividing range SE) Interior Lowlands (ME) Western Plateau (Western Australia) Match the physical feature with its region: Eastern Highlands = Great Dividing Range Interior Lowlands = The Great Artesian Basin & Outback Western Plateau = Ayers Rock (Uluru) What is an aquiferUnderground layer of water-bearing permeable rock from which groundwater can be extracted using water well What is the “Outback”?The remote and drier inland areas of Australia Name the two main islands that make up New Zealand?The North and south islands, separated by the Cook Strait Compare and contrast the two islands in terms of their elevation, climate, and economic activityNorth island of New Zealand less mountainous but more volcanic activity Warmer climate, very productive for agriculture South Island of New Zealand Largest of islands, divided along length by southern alps Permanent snowfields and glaciers Southern portion of west coast penetrated by fjords East side of island used for agriculture Know the main types of Climate that we find in Australia and New ZeaMonsoon, Tropical savanna, Arid and semi arid, Humid subtropical, Marine coastal, Mediterranean, Highland What climate type dominates Australia? WhyArid and semi arid; Factors of wind currents Why do we only find different climates on the coastal areas of AusThere is more precipitation towards the coast because of monsoons What climate type dominates New Zealand? Why? Marine coastal; Factors of wind currents Why is the flora and fauna of Oceania very uniBecause of its isolation Define Marsupial and provide the name of the two most famous marsupials found in this region. Give birth to premature offspring Matures by nursing in the pouch (marsupium) of mother Koala and kangaroo Define mammal, and how does a monotreme differ from a typical mammalGives birth within body. Monotremes gives birth via laying eggs but still nurtures with their milk What is a platypus? Monotremes Define Exotics and provide an examplSpecies coming from elsewhere; Dingoes Define Feral and provide an examplDomesticated animals that end up in the wild; Feral camels What are dingoes?Similar to coyote, outcompeted and outhunted the marsupial predators Human Geography Explain the spatial distribution of Australia’s crops and climThe are concentrated along the coasts, because these areas receive rain; Western plateau receives very little rain Explain the spatial distribution of Australia’s mineral deposits and Indigeoverlapnds. indigenous land areas Import substitution: What is itDevelopment of domestic industries When did it take placTrade and economic policy started in 1920s Why did it occur? Substitute expensive imports with domestic products What were the goals of this policy? Create new jobs and diversify economy What role did the government play? Subsidies to manufacturing($$) What are Subsidies? High tariffs on imports What are Tariffs? Taxes on imports Economic reorientation When did it take plac1970s-1980s Why did it occurReduce government intervention (liberalization/deregulation/privatization) What were the goals of this shAsian investment begins to flow What role did the government plaEnd of preferential trade with Britain in 1973 What is deregulationTransition to free trade What are exclusive economic zonesremove trade tariffs Development of Tourism Where are the tourists coming from and why? International tourist destination because it’s beautiful Which part of Oceania is most dependent on tourism? Pacific islands What are some of the negative aspects related with the development of tourism? Negatives: vulnerable to economic recessions Erosions of local culture Uneven trickle down economic benefits Ethnic make-up of the region Who are the AboriginesAborigine: original inhabitant of Australia Who are the Maoris?Maoris: indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand Where did the population of European descent come from? Indigenous and European populations What is the White Australian PoliRestricted immigration to people from Northern Europe Who did the law ban?British & Scandinavians Later Southern Europeans Who did they allow later oRefugees from Eastern Europe How was this policy different in New ZealanNew Zealand also included Irish Catholics Migration What is the current policy for admitting immigraMigrants from pacific islands to: Australia and New Zealand, & Hawaii and California labor needs (remittances), lax migratory rules, climate changes What are the major migrations flows of the regiAustralia and NZ to: Europe and N America Young and retirees What are the economic and environmental factors associated with these migrations? labor needs (remittances), lax migratory rules, climate changes Demographic trends of Oceania Where do the majority of the people live? Australia How concentrated are these regions and where is the concentration taking place? The concentration is taking place in cities on the coast. Coastal vs continental? Compare the Urbanization rates among the region (i.e. Australia, New Zealand, and Pacific Islands) Australia-89% New Zealand-87% Pacific Island-12.5% What’s happening with the population growth of the region? Australia and New Zealand <2 Pacific Islands 2.1 to 3.5 How do the growth rates vary internally? Latin America Physical Define the core and fringe areas of Latin America Core: mexico & Brazil Fringe: Caribbean Fringe & SW united States Define the three main subdivisions of Latin America Central America, Caribbean, Mexico Define Middle America Volcanic axis along central coastline interior highlands coastal plains Define the subdivisions of the Caribbean Greater Antilles (Big Islands) Jamaica, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Haiti and Dominican Republic. Lesser Antilles (Small islands) Know the three main physiographic regions of South America Eastern Highlands brazilian highlands, guiana highlands, patagonia plateau Central Lowlands Llanos, Amazon Plain, Gran Chaco, Pampas Western Alpine SystemAndean Range, Central Valley, Altiplano Define llanos Spanish Plains Define Pantanal flooded grassland/marshland Flooded because of the point where Pantanal river merges with other rivers Define Altiplano Very elevated, Dry, so high that you get a rain shadow effect which is what makes it dry, Cold. What is a watershed? Network of a river. Area that has a river or lake and all the rivers or streams flow into it. Know the structure of a river/watershed (i.e. trunk, chief tributary, tributaries) trunk main river chief tributary second biggest river tributary anything else Know the three main physiographic regions of Central America Volcanic Axis, Interior highlands, Coastal Plains Know the three main physiographic regions of Mexico Sierra Madre occidental in west, oriental in east Central Plateau Yucatan Peninsula Know the difference between the inner arc and the outer arc of the volcanic islands in the Lesser Antilles Inner arc still active outer arc: gone dormant Explain the factors that modify the climate in Latin America (i.e. latitude, altitude, ocean currents, winds, and mountains) Temperature: latitude, altitude, ocean currents Precipitation: atmospheric pressure belts, prevailing winds, orographic effect What is altitudinal zonation? In mountainous regions describes the natural layering of ecosystems that occurs at distinct altitudes due to varying environmental conditions How does altitudinal zonation impact the vegetation and what kind of crops do we find in each zone? Changes in climate and vegetation depending on elevation. Tierra caliente (warm) sugarcane, bananas, maize. tierra templada( moderate) maize, coffee, dairy Tierra Fria (cold) Wheat, barely, potatoes Tierra Helada (Icy) Sheep llamas, alpaca In what zone do we find the majority of the export crops from Latin America? Tierra caliente most exports What is a “snow line”? elevation point where north of it there are no crops Explain the factors that create the dry conditions in the Atacama Desert on the Pacific coast of Peru and Chile Moisture being blocked by the Andes Mountains (causing rain shadow) and the cold water current brings very little moisture What is the Humboldt Current? Goes through temperature reversal (el Nino and La Nina) Explain the difference between El Niño and La Niña El Nino: cold water off Peru’s coast begins to warm up La Nina: warm water begins to cool What are the climatological effects of El Niño and La Niña? Where do they occur? High rainfall and flooding (Andes area) and droughts (northeast brazil, central America, and Australia) Know the type of natural disasters that Latin America is vulnerable to and why? Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and hurricanes How the people from the region increase their vulnerability to these disasters? Building codes and deforestation Why did the earthquake in Haiti claim so many lives? Building codes were bad which caused more destruction Why is there such a huge difference in the number of casualties between the Haiti earthquake and the Chile earthquake, when the latter was stronger than the former? In Chile the building were built stronger and better so there was less destruction, while in Haiti the building were badly built and made of weak materials Know the location of the following: Land features: Yucatan Peninsula, Greater Antilles, Lesser Antilles, Central American Isthmus, South American Continent Water features: Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Amazon River Mountain Range: Andes Human What is the Treaty of Tordesillasa treaty between Portugal and Spain in 1494 in which they agreed to divide up all the land in the Americas between the two of them, no matter who was already living there How did the Treaty of Tordesillas impact the European settlement of Latin America? June 7, 1494 Pope Alexander VI divided newly "discovered" lands along north/south line 1100 miles west of Cape Verde Island Besides the Iberian countries, what other European nations settled in Latin America and the Caribbean? British, Dutch, French, Spanish, Portuguese- brazil What were the main civilizations that existed prior to the arrival of Europeans? And where did they settle? 1. Native population: amazon lowlands, higher evaluations 2. African population: Caribbean islands 3. Europeans: mid-latitude south America Describe the three major forms of racial mixing that took place in Latin America and the Caribbean 1. Mestizo: native and European mix 2. Mulatto: African and European mix 3. zambo: native and African mix Describe and explain why certain regions in Latin America and the Caribbean remained relatively unmixed Higher elevations, not good for agriculture Explain the difference between formal, nominal, and folk Catholicism? 1. Formal: traditional, elite 2. Nominal: predominant 3. folk: syncretism, Indian and African forms (voodoo) What is religious syncretism? Is a union or attempted fusion of different religions, cultures, or philosophies. Name the two most popular forms of religious syncretism voodoo, Santeria. The Saint “San Lazaro” also known as “Babalu Aye”, is an example of? Santeria What is the fastest growing religion in Latin America? Protestant What is the Columbian Exchange? The interchange of crops, animals, people and diseases What is a primate city pattern? Is used to identify cities that dominate the urban pattern of their respected countries Describe the characteristics of a primate city Much larger than next largest city, dominatethe political and economic activity as well as services, usually capital city -In part due to the colonial heritage, and in part due to the inhospitable nature of the interior Why do Latin America and the Caribbean have a primate city pattern? "Coastal Orientation" In part due to colonial heritage In part due to the inhospitable nature of the interior Climate Explain the difference between true urbanization and false urbanization -True urbanization: concurrent expansion of non- agricultural activities -False Urbanization: the rapid growth of cities is faster than the cities can accommodate for What factors contribute to false urbanization in Latin America and the Caribbean? -People live in cities but do not really have fulfilling jobs -Slums and squatter settlements -Growth of the informal economy What is a favela? -Are informal shanty towns, mainly occupied by rural migrants. Varying in quality from jerry-rigged garbage to brick with electricity (often illegally tapped). Minimal access to drinking water or sewer. Shoddy construction makes these areas incredibly vulnerable to natural disasters What is the informal sector of the economy? -Small scale activities not organized into the "regular" economy Provide a list of five activities that are categorized under the informal sector -No fixed place of employment -Not taxed, no benefits, no regular salary -Street selling, shoe shining, street entertainment
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